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Rational Numbers and Properties

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REAL RATIONAL
NUMBERS
(as opposed to fake numbers?)
and Properties
Part 1 (introduction)
STANDARD: AF 1.3 Apply algebraic
order of operations and the commutative,
associative, and distributive properties to
evaluate expressions: and justify each step in
the process.
Student Objective:
• Students will apply order of operations to
solve problems with rational numbers and
apply their properties, by performing the
correct operations, using math facts
skills, writing reflective summaries, and
scoring 80% proficiency
Vocabulary
Set
Set Notation
Natural
numbers
Whole
Numbers
Integers
A collection of objects.
{ }
Counting numbers {1,2,3, …}
Natural numbers and 0.
{0,1,2,3, …}
Positive and negative natural
numbers and zero {… -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, …}
A real number that can be expressed
Rational
as a ratio of integers (fraction)
Number
Any real number that is not rational.
Irrational
пЂЁ 2 ,пЃ° пЂ©
Number
Real Numbers All numbers associated with
the number line.
Essential Questions:
• How do you know if a number is a
rational number?
• What are the properties used to
evaluate rational numbers?
Two Kinds of Real Numbers
• Rational Numbers
• Irrational Numbers
Rational Numbers
• A rational number is
a real number that
can be written as a
ratio of two
integers.
• A rational number
written in decimal
form is terminating
or repeating.
EXAMPLES OF
RATIONAL NUMBERS
•16
•1/2
•3.56
•-8
•1.3333…
•-3/4
Irrational Numbers
• An irrational
• Square roots of
number is a
non-perfect
number that
“squares”
cannot be written
as a ratio of two
17
integers.
• Irrational numbers
written as
• Pi- īī
decimals are nonterminating and
non-repeating.
Real Numbers
Rational numbers
Integers
Whole
numbers
Irrational numbers
Rational Numbers
Natural Numbers - Natural counting numbers.
1, 2, 3, 4 …
Whole Numbers - Natural counting numbers and zero.
0, 1, 2, 3 …
Integers - Whole numbers and their opposites.
… -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 …
Rational Numbers - Integers, fractions, and decimals.
Ex:
-0.76, -6/13, 0.08, 2/3
Making Connections
Biologists classify animals based on
shared characteristics. The horned
lizard is an animal, a reptile, a lizard,
and a gecko. Rational Numbers are
classified this way as well!
Animal
Reptile
Lizard
Gecko
Venn Diagram: Naturals, Wholes, Integers, Rational
Real Numbers
Rationals
6.7
5
пЂ­
9
пЂ­0.8
Integers
пЂ­11
Wholes
Naturals
1, 2, 3...
пЂ­5
0
3
2
7
Reminder
• Real numbers are
all the positive,
negative, fraction,
and decimal
numbers you
have heard of.
• They are also
called Rational
Numbers.
• IRRATIONAL
NUMBERS are
usually decimals
that do not
terminate or repeat.
They go on forever.
• Examples: π
2
3
Properties
A property is something that is true for all
situations.
Four Properties
1. Distributive
2. Commutative
3. Associative
4. Identity properties of one and
zero
Distributive Property
A(B + C) = AB + BC
4(3 + 5) = 4x3 + 4x5
Commutative Property
of addition and multiplication
Order doesn’t matter
Ax B= B xA
A+B = B +A
Associative Property of
multiplication and Addition
Associative Property пѓ (a В· b) В· c = a В· (b В· c)
Example: (6 В· 4) В· 3 = 6 В· (4 В· 3)
Associative Property пѓ (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
Example: (6 + 4) + 3 = 6 + (4 + 3)
Identity Properties
If you add 0 to any number, the number stays
the same.
A + 0 = A or 5 + 0 = 5
If you multiply any number times 1, the
number stays the same.
A x 1 = A or 5 x 1 = 5
Example 1: Identifying Properties of Addition and
Multiplication
Name the property that is illustrated in each
equation.
A. (–4)  9 = 9  (–4)
(–4)  9 = 9  (–4)
The order of the numbers changed.
Commutative Property of Multiplication
B.
The factors are grouped
differently.
Associative Property of Addition
Example 2: Using the Commutative and
Associate Properties
Simplify each expression. Justify each step.
29 + 37 + 1
29 + 37 + 1 = 29 + 1 + 37
Commutative Property
of Addition
= (29 + 1) + 37
Associative Property of
Addition
= 30 + 37
Add.
= 67
Exit Slip!
Name the property that is illustrated in each equation.
1. (–3 + 1) + 2 = –3 + (1 + 2)
2. 6
п‚·
y
п‚·
7=6
в—Џ
7
в—Џ
y
Associative Property of Add.
Commutative Property of Multiplication
Simplify the expression. Justify each step.
3.
22
Write each product using the Distributive Property.
Then simplify
4. 4(98) 392
5. 7(32) 224
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