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Ireland/Northern Ireland

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Ireland/Northern
Ireland
A Divided Island
Northern Ireland
/ The North of Ireland
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Population 1.7 million
45:52 Catholic : Protestant
Regional government since early 2007 based on
�Power Sharing’
Westminster (London) retains fiscal, military and
�security’ control
All Ireland government sections deal with
tourism, enterprise, food, waterways, EU
funding and language.
The Good Friday Agreement
Rep. of Ireland claimed constitutional owenership over
N.Ireland until 1997
пЃ® Catholics largely see themselves as Irish and Protestants
as British, very diverse and strongly felt views
 Legacy of 1921 – 1974 period and unequal treatment
of Catholics
пЃ® Legacy of the conflict
пЃ® Makes economic sense etc.
But  Agreement represented a big �trade off ’ for both sides
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Historical Context
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England has long fight to control Ireland, securing domination
in 1604 after 500 years.
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1600’s - Protestants moved from Britain (planted) into most
troublesome areas – the north of Ireland.
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Numerous uprisings and considerable oppression of native
population
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Famine 1846 - 1849 result of economic policies and land
ownership creates huge emigration situation
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Uprising in 1916 quelled – but the cost and the international
pressure leads to talks and establishment of 1921 �partition of
Ireland’ into Protestant �Unionist North’ and Catholic �Irish’
south. Exclusion of minorities in both parts.
1921 - 1974
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Economic �cold war’ between Ireland and Britain
No communication between Dublin and Belfast
Extreme levels of border and rural poverty
Majority rule in N.Ireland leads to a Protestant dominated civil service, police
force and a �cold house’ for Catholics, eg. poor housing and job allocation.
Voting entitlement based on per �household’ and property ownership,
wealthier Protestant population greater voting rights.
Leads to Catholic Civil Rights campaign 1968, British Army sent in, escalation
of violence
Protestants �fear’ Ireland government as being led by Catholic Church and
won’t engage in any discussion which involves Dublin.
1974, N.Ireland regional administration disbanded by Westminster London
and direct rule lasts until 2007.
The conflict runs from 1969 – 1994 by which time new levels of engagement
and finding of political solutions results in the Good Friday or Belfast
agreement.
Key Considerations
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Community and voluntary sector does huge job in addressing disadvantage and
�building bridges’
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Business community plays important all Ireland role and a powerful voice in N.Ireland
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Economic regeneration forms an essential pathway to peace
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Solutions based in acknowledging right of diverse political allegiance and celebrating
diversity
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EU provides a neutral forum on which to work across divisions
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Create space for dialogue
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US a big player in Ireland politics – the Irish Diaspora
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Solution is �innovative’ a new approach to government arrangements
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