Emotion, Choice, and Reasons Cognitive Neuroscience вЂў What can the brain tell us about decision making? вЂў Frontal Lobe damage вЂ“ Phineas Gage вЂ“ Planning problems вЂ“ Difficulty connecting emotions to objects Why does this matter? вЂў Emotions signal evaluations вЂ“ Somatic markers вЂў Emotions emerge from motivational system вЂ“ Motivational system drives action вЂ“ Evaluations will not affect action if they are disconnected Dual systems in reasoning вЂў Lots of two system theories (Sloman, 1996) вЂў Intuitive system вЂ“ Reasoning based on intuition вЂў What is intuition? вЂў Rule-based system вЂ“ Reasoning based on logic вЂ“ Reasoning based on other explicit rules вЂў Seems true of effects we have discussed вЂ“ Conjunction fallacy вЂў We still feel the appeal of the fallacy even after we know why it is wrong How do reasons affect choice? вЂў Reasons reflect rule-based system вЂў People may make choices because they have reasons вЂ“ Options that are easier to justify influence decisions вЂ“ Attraction effect gets stronger when people are asked to justify their decisions Reason-based choice вЂў People want to be able to justify their choices вЂ“ May make decisions that are easiest to justify. вЂ“ Shafir, Simonson, & Tversky Imagine you just finished a particularly difficult final exam, and you are walking home. You will not find out whether you passed the exam until tomorrow afternoon. A travel agent has a sign for an inexpensive trip to Acapulco. The offer expires that afternoon, but you can pay $5.00 to hold a reservation until tomorrow. Do you sign up to take the trip or pay the $5.00 fee? A majority of people given this scenario pay the $5.00. Two other groups are run One group told they passed the exam: Most choose to go One group told they failed the exam: Most choose to go People are paying for information that will not affect their choice... Reasons vs. Emotions вЂў Are reasons good or bad? вЂ“ Emotions may signal an overall evaluation вЂ“ May take into account many factors вЂ“ Reasons may be more unidimensional вЂў Wilson et al. вЂ“ Two types of posters вЂў Art reprints and cute posters with cats Emotion vs. Rationality вЂў Is there really an opposition between emotion and rationality? вЂ“ Can our emotions help us to be more rational decision makers?