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History of the English Language

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History of the English
Language
WS 2005/6
Topics
• Linguistic changes: grammar and lexicon
• Social and political events that influenced the
development of the English language
• English varieties
• Mechanisms of language change
Course script
Digitale Bibliothek ThГјringen
Search: Diessel – History of the English
Language
What you will learn:
• Why the English spelling is so odd
• Why English does not have case marking
• Why English developed a rigid word order
• Why there are regular and irregular verbs forms
• Why many English words are similar to words in German
• Why many English words are similar to words in French
• Why questions require the use of ‛do’
• Why English has become a world language
Requirements
Short exam for student who started last year.
1
5%
2
10%
3
5%
4
20%
5
60%
Readings
Barber, Charles. 2000. The English Language. A Historical
Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baugh, A.C. and T. Cable. 2002. A History of the English Language.
London: Routledge. [fifth edition]
Jucker, Andreas H. 2004. History of English and English Historical
Linguistics. Stuttgart: Klett.
Millward, C.M. 1996. A Biography of the English Language.
Boston: Heinle. [second edition]
The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V. 1992.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Readings
Aitchison, J. Language Change. Progress or Decay. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Trask, R.L. 1996. Historical Linguistics. London: Arnold.
McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. Understanding Language Change.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hock, H.H. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin:
Mouton de Gruyter.
Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language Change. An Evolutionary
Approach. Harlow: Longman.
Time periods
450-1100
Old English
1100-1500
Middle English
1500-1800
Early Modern English
1800-present
Present Day English
Germanic
Germanic
West Germanic
North Germanic
East Germanic
English
Swedish
Gothic
Frisian
Danish
Vandal
German
Norwegian
Burgundian
Yiddish
Icelandic
Dutch
Afrikaans
English
sun
house
cat
apple
father
hand
go
see
hear
run
dream
German
Sonne
Haus
Katze
Apfel
Vater
Hand
gehen
sehen
hören
rennen
träumen
Swedish
sol
hus
kat
Г¤pple
fader
hand
gar
sar
höra
rännar
drömar
English loan words in German
English
computer
email
internet
jeans
event
laptop
cool
mountain bike
absolutely
German
Computer
Email
Internet
Jeans
Event
Laptop
cool
Mountain Bike
absolut
Loan words in English
take
give
they
paper
story
force
wall
street
school
kindergarten
Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
French
French
French
Latin
Latin
Latin
German
English-German sound correspondences
English
time
tongue
ten
tame
tent
to
two
twins
German
Zeit
Zunge
zehn
zahm
Zelt
zu
zwei
Zwillinge
English-German sound correspondences
that
there
through
thirsty
think
das
da
durch
durstig
denken
English-German sound correspondences
pan
path
pole
pepper
pipe
plant
Pfanne
Pfad
Pfahl
Pfeffer
Pfeife
Pflanze
English-German sound correspondences
hate
eat
let
hassen
essen
lassen
grip
deep
sleep
greifen
tief
schafen
IE reconstructed word forms
*pe:s*ed*ghebh*aug*wed-
�foot’
�eat’
�give’
�increase’
�water’
English-German sound correspondences
cheese
child
chin
cheery
church
Käse
Kind
Kinn
Kirsche
Kirche
king
König
Loan words from French
crime
prison
letter
justice
contract
music
demand
pronounce
propose
responsible
crime
prison
lettre
justice
contrat
musique
demander
prononcer
proposer
responsable
Cognates: English-French
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
un, une
deux
trois
quatre
cinq
six
sept
huit
neuf
dix
Romance
French
Italian
Spain
Portuguese
Romanian
Catalan
Galician
Sardinian
Provencal
Rhomansh
Sound correspondences in Romance
Italian
Hundred TEnto
Telo
Sky
TErvo
Stag
Tera
Wax
Sardinian
kEntu
kElu
kErbu
kEra
Romansh
tsjEnt
tsil
tsErf
tsairaE
French
sa
sjEl
sER
siR
Spanish
Tjen
Tjelo
Tjerbo
Tera
Indo-European
Germanic
Romance
Slavic
Baltic
Celtic
Greek
Iranian
Indian
Albanian
Armenian
Balto-Slavic
Balto-Slavic
Baltic
Slavic
Latvian
Lithuanian
East Slavic
West Slavic
South Slavic
Russian
Polish
Serbo-Croatian
Russian
Czech
Slovene
Belarusian
Slovak
Bulgarian
Sorbian
Macedonian
Old Prussian
Cases in Indo-European
NOM
VOC
ACC
GEN
ABL
DAT
LOC
INST
IE
Sanskrit German English Lithuanian
*wlk+os
**wlk+e
**wlk+om
**wlk+osyo
**wlk+od
**wlk+oi
**wlk+ei
**wlk+o
vrkas
vrka
vrkam
vrkasya
vrkad
vrkaya
vrke
vrka
der
he
den
des
him
his
dem
vilkas
vilke
vilka
vilko
vilkui
vilke
vilku
Celtic
Celtic
Gaelic
Irish
Scottish
Welsh
Manx Cornish
Breton
Sanskrit
700
English
500
400
Armenian
Gothic
0
200
Latin
400
Classical Sanskrit
800
Greek
1000
Old Persian
1200
Hittite
1500
Vedic Sanskrit
3000
Proto Indo-European
Second Germanic sound shift
time
tongue
ten
Zeit
Zunge
zehn
that
there
through
das
da
durch
pan
path
pole
Pfanne
Pfad
Pfahl
hat
eat
let
grip
deep
sleep
hassen
essen
lassen
greifen
tief
schlafen
Numerals in Indo-European and non-IndoEuropean languages
English
Gothic
Latin
Greek
Sanskrit
Chinese
Japanese
one
ains
unus
heis
ekas
i
hitotsu
two
twai
duo
duo
dva
erh
futatsu
three
Trija
tres
treis
trayas
san
mittsu
four
fidwor
quattuor
tettares
catvaras
su
yottsu
five
fimf
quinque
pente
panca
wu
itsutsu
six
saihs
sex
heks
sat
liu
muttsu
seven
sibun
septem
hepta
sapta
ch’i
nanatsu
eight
ahtau
octo
okto
asta
pa
yattsu
nine
niun
novembe ennea
nava
chiu
kokonotsu
ten
taihun
decem
dasa
shih
to
deka
Sound correspondences in IE
English
Latin
Greek
Irish
fish
father
foot
for
piscis
pater
ped–
pro
ikhthys
pater
pod–
para
iasg
athair
troigh
do
six
seven
sweet
salt
sex
septem
suavis
sal
hexa
hepta
hedys
hal
se
seacht
millis
salann
new
night
nine
novus
noct–
novem
neos
nykt–
(en)nea
nua
(in)nocht
naoi
Sound correspondences across unrelated
languages
news
time
book
service
beggar
Arabic
Urdu
Turkish
Swahili
Malay
xabar
waqt
kitab
xidmat
faqir
xabar
vaqt
kitab
xidmatgari
faqir
haber
vakit
kitap
hizmet
fakir
habari
wkati
kitabu
huduma
fakiri
khabar
waktu
kitab
khidmat
fakir
Sir William Jones
Sound correspondences between Sanskrit,
Latin and Greek
Sanskrit
asmi
asi
asti
smas
stha
santi
Latin
sum
es
est
sumus
estis
sunt
Greek
eini
ei
esti
esmen
este
eisi
August Schleicher
Latin
Old English
Gothic
/p/ п‚® /f/
pedum
piscis
fot
fisc
fotus
fiskis
/t/ п‚® /Оё/
tres
tu
three [Tri]
thou [TaU]
thrir
thuU
/k/ п‚® /x/h/
cordem
centum
heart
hundred
hairto
hund
/b/ п‚® /p/
turba �crowd’
thorp �village’
/d/ п‚® /t/
edo
decem
eat
ten
itan
taihun
/g/ п‚® /k/
ager
genus
acre
kin
akrs
kuni
IE
Old English
Gothic
*bhero
*dhura
*ghostis
beran
duru
gasts
baГ­ra
daГєr
giest
/bh/ п‚® /b/
/dh/ п‚® /d/
/dh/ п‚® /d/
Grimm’s law
*p t k
п‚®
f T x/h
*b d g
п‚®
ptk
*bh dh gh
п‚®
bdg
Exceptions to Grimm’s law
[p t k]
[f T x]
Sanskrit
vГЎrtate
varГЎrta
vavrtimГЎ
vavrta:nГЎ
[b d g]
Old English
weorTan
wearT
wurdon
worden
Verner’s law
[p t k] п‚®
п‚®
[f T x] / [stressed syllable] __
[b d g] / [unstressed syllable] __
Neogrammarian Hypothesis
Every sound change takes place according to
laws that admit no exceptions.
[Karl Brugmann]
Evidence for the IE homeland
Common words for:
No common words for:
cold
ocean
winter
palm
snow
elephant
honey
camel
wolf
beech
pine
Amerind hypothesis
Eskimo
Na Dene
Amerind
Number of speakers
Mandarin
907
English
456
Hindi
383
Spanish
362
Russian
293
Arabic
208
Bengali
189
Portuguese
177
Indonesian
148
Japanese
126
French
123
German
119
Nostratic
Indo-European
Altaic
Uralic
Afro-Asiatic
Kartvelian
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