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Перевод в сфере семейного права

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
МОСКОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЮРИДИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ им. О.Е.КУТАФИНА (МГЮА)
КАФЕДРА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА №1
ПЕРЕВОД В СФЕРЕ СЕМЕЙНОГО ПРАВА
Учебное пособие
Москва 2013
Автор:
кандидат филологических наук, доцент О.Г. Прокофьева
Под редакцией :
заведующей кафедрой английского языка №1,
кандидата филологических наук доцента А.В.Дорошенко
Рецензент:
доцент Л.Д.Дегтярева
Рецензенты Методического совета:
доцент А.С.Влахова, доцент Т.Д.Витлинская
Учебное пособие утверждено
на заседании кафедры английского языка №1
25 декабря 2012 года, протокол № 5
2
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ ….…………………………………………………………………………….....4
Unit 1. International Family Law and Private International Family Law. Marriage.
Conclusion of Marriage (I) ………………………………………………………………....…........7
Unit 2. Conlusion of Marriage (II). Participation of Foreign Citizens in Family Relations.
Recognition of Overseas Marriages.
…………………………………………………………. 11
Unit 3. Divorce………………….
…………………………………………………………..... 17
Unit 4. Recognition of Overseas Divorces. Conflict of Law Rules……….……………………. . 24
Unit 5. Property on Divorce (I) ……………….…………………………………………………..31
Unit 6. Prenuptial Agreements. Property on Divorce (II) .……………………………………....37
Unit 7. Children on Divorce ..……………………………………………………………..………46
Unit 8. Adoption ..……………………………………………………………………………..….55
APPENDIX 1.………………………………………………………………………………….…...62
APPENDIX 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………77
ANSWER KEY …………………………………………………………………………………….83
БИБЛИОГРАФИЯ ……………………………………………………………………………..….88
3
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Назначение учебного пособия
Учебное пособие «Перевод в сфере семейного права» предназначено для студентовюристов старших курсов и является частью программы по подготовке юристов-переводчиков для
получения выпускниками Института международного права МГЮУ имени О.Е.Кутафина
(МГЮА) дополнительной квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной
коммуникации».
Данный курс является курсом по выбору и проводится параллельно с рядом других
элективных курсов перевода. Он расчитан на 40 аудиторных часов.
Курс перевода в сфере семейного права является продолжением «Практического курса
профессионально ориентированного перевода» (План учебного процесса, IV курс) и проводится
на V курсе ИМП МГЮУ имени О.Е.Кутафина (МГЮА) за счет часов дополнительного плана
учебного процесса, разработанного для присвоения квалификации «Переводчик в сфере профессиональной коммуникации». Для изучения данного курса студенты должны свободно владеть
русским и английским языками и иметь в достаточной степени сформированные умения и
навыки в переводческой деятельности. Именно поэтому целью данного учебного пособия не
является отработка тех или иных лексико-грамматических трудностей и особенностей перевода,
поскольку такая работу уже проводилась в ходе учебного процесса на предыдущем курсе.
Однако лексико-грамматические особенности текста выделены в некоторых упражнениях
пособия, без акцента на их конктретный характер. В связи с этим, целями обучения курсу
перевода в данной сфере являются:
- освоение студентами концептуальной и терминологической областей в пределах
элективного курса по переводу в сфере смейного права;
- сопоставление российского и британского семейного права, расширение словарного
запаса за счет терминов данной области;
- ознакомление со стилистическими особенностями законодательных текстов и
документов в области семейного права;
- закрепление и совершенствование умений и навыков письменного и устного перевода
( в качестве дополнительного упражнения).
Структура и содержание пособия
В пособие вошли восемь уроков, посвященных следующим темам:
1. Понятие брака. Заключение брака.
2. Семейные отношения с участием «иностранного элемента». Признание браков,
заключенных за рубежом.
3. Признание брака недействительным. Прекращение брака.
4. Раздел общего имущества супругов.
5. Договорный режим имущества супругов. Брачный договор в международном
семейном праве.
6. Интересы ребенка при разводе. Опека и попечительство над детьми.
7. Международное усыновление (удочерение).
В конце пособия помещены два приложения. Одно из них содержит отдельные части
Семейного Кодекса Российской Федерации на английском языке, второе - скрипты материалов,
используемых для аудирования. Также в пособии имеются ответы к некоторым упражнениям,
что позволяет использовать его для самостоятельной работы студентов.
Выбор тем пособия обусловлен общей логикой самого семейного права, и, учитывая
специфику обучения на ИМП МГЮУ имени О.Е. Кутафина (МГЮА), особое внимание
уделяется вопросам международного частно-правового урегулирования ситуаций с участием
4
«иностранного элемента». Данные проблемы раскрываются как на материале внутреннего и
международного частного права Российской Федерации, так и на материале английской (и
общеевропейской) правовой традиции. Например, изучению и переводу подлежат не только
нормоустанавливающие документы Российской Федерации, регулирующие присутствие
«иностранного элемента» в брачно-семейных отношениях, но и класссические нормы выбора
применимого права, характерные для британской традиции (Dicey and Morris). Материалы
данного пособия могут быть использованы и при преподавании курса перевода в сфере
семейного права для студентов Института правоведения МГЮУ имени О.Е.Кутафина, поскольку
данная область права несомененно изучается и студентами- правоведами.
Подбор текстов также подчинен именно данной специфике. Тексты уроков пособия
представлены разножанровыми и разными по стилю текстами, включают как тексты из
англоязычных монографий, посвященных вопросам семейного права, так и статьи из
англоязычных юридических журналов и интернет-изданий. Также в уроки включены части
некоторых международных конвенций, регулирующих отношения в сфере брачно-семейных
отношений.
Уроки пособия предусматривают перевод с английского языка на русский, и,
соответственно, включают задания, направленые на развитие и навыков перевода, и
сопутствующих видов деятельности, таких как работа со словарями и справочной литературой,
редактирование готовых переводов, и пр. К заданиям на развитие когнитивных способностей
относятся упражнения по составлению глоссария по аспектам семейного права, подбор
соответствующих русских эквивалентов, подбор дефиниций терминов на английском языке. Так,
при собственно письменном переводе студенты оттачивают свои умения, полученные на IV
курсе, связанные с выбором правильной стратегии перевода, с осуществлением переводческих
трансформаций, соотноснесением аббревиатур, условных сокращений и обозначений и пр. с
аналогами в языке перевода, правильным оформлением латинских и других иноязычных
фрагментов средствами языка перевода.
Для
совершенствования навыков компресии,
обобщения смысла при переводе – упражнения на краткое резюмирование иноязычных текстов
на русском языке. Кроме того, в ходе проверки домашних заданий, студенты учатся
редактировать собственные переводы, контролировать правильность своих переводческих
решений. В конце каждого урока студентам предлагается закрепить полученные лексические и
лексико-грамматические единицы посредством переводных упражнений с русского на
английский язык.
Практические рекомендации для преподавателей
Переводческая деятельность – сложный процесс, включающий этапы анализа, собственно
практику перевода и редактирование окончательного варианта перевода. Поэтому, при
подготовке домашнего задания (а письменный перевод текста осуществляется в основном в
рамках домашнего задания) преподавателю необходимо требовать от студентов соблюдения
следующих этапов:
- предпереводческий анализ текста: необходимо внимательно прочитать текст и
попытаться определить его стиль или жанр, информативность, наличие общеупотебительных и
специальных терминов, сокращений, грамматических конструкций и форм. При определении
трудностей содержательного характера обратиться к словарям, справочной литературе,
литературе по семейному праву на русском языке, помощи специалиста;
- собственно перевод: с учетом предшествующего анализа, создать тест, эквивалентный
оригинальному на английском языке. Перевод должен быть адекватным, полным и понятным;
- редактирование: например, при проверке переводов текстов на занятии студент, с
учетом комментариев преподавателя и вариантов перевода других участников группы,
исправляет свои возможные грамматические, смысловые и стилистические ошибки.
Для профессиональной деятельности переводчика также важны навыки текстовой
компрессии. Они помогают увидеть основную канву текста без второстепенной информации.
5
Для выработки таких навыков преподаватель предалагает реферативный перевод: внимательно
прочитав текст, выбрать наиболее часто встречающиеся лексические повторы, раскрывающие
основное содержание абзацев текста. Затем необходимо определить количество фактов в тексте
и кратко изложить их на русском (английском) языках.
При работе над терминологией особенно важна последовательность и систематичность
при выполнении домашних заданий. Для облегчения запоминания терминов необходимо
составить их дефиниции на английском и русском языках, затем выучить наизусть и выполнить
предлагаемые упражнения.
Наконец, для повышения мотивации и заинтересованности студентов в изучении
материалов курса рекомендуется использоовать аутентичные аудио- и видео-материалы,
например, интервью с юристами, ведущими практику в области семейного права, из U-Tube.
Такие материалы используются как основа для расширения понятийно-терминологической
базы в сфере семейного права, а также служат образцом профессиональной этики
практикующего юриста.
Также рекомендуется использовать возможные интерактивные методы обучения, к
которым в данном пособии можно отнести диалоги для двустороннего перевода.
***
Автор выражает свою глубокую признательность заведующей кафедры английского
языка № 1 МГЮУ имени О.Е.Кутафина (МГЮА) Анне Викторовне Дорошенко за
редактирование учебного пособия и за помощь в осуществлении этого проекта, а также
рецензенту Людмиле Демьяновне Дегтярёвой за ценные замечания, которые помогли сделать это
пособие лучше.
6
UNIT 1
International Family Law and Private Family Law.
Marriage. Conclusion of marriage (I).
VOCABULARY
civil marriage светская форма брака
religious marriage церковная форма брака
cohabitation сожительство
antenuptial domicile добрачный домициль
solemnise a marriage оформить брак, освятить брачный союз, сочетать браком
consummate marriage консуммировать брак (вступить в супружеские отношения)
registrar 1. чиновник-регистратор 2. регситрационное бюро 3. судебный помощник (в
канцлерском отделении Высокого суда правосудия в Англии)
marital property собственность супругов
lex fori закон места рассмотрения дела, закон суда
lex situs закон места нахождения недвижимости
prenuptial agreement брачный договор
nonmarriage невступление в брак
Task 1. Find the Russian counterparts for the following English words and combintions.
to publish banns
family privacy
maternal protection
reproductive rights
companionate marriage
affinity
interim gender
acquired gender
private legal person
be born out of wedlock
barrenness
Task 2. Read the text and interprete it paying attention to the words and grammar structures in
bold.
International FL vs. “Private” International FL
“Private “ international law historically referred to the rules regarding conflicts of law in disputes
between private legal persons, including individuals and corporations. Public international law, in
contrast, historically referred to the rules and norms governinng disputes among nation States. As
many commentators have observed, the distinction between public and private international law has
steadily eroded. States increasingly engage in the same kinds of commercial activities as private
entities. In addition, because of the growing influence of the intetrnational human rights, the individual
has increasingly become the subject of public international law.
Historically, IFL has been regarded primarily as the province of private international law, requiring
familiarity with conflicts of law principles in general and the conventions promulgated by the
Hague Conference of Private Law in particular. Public international law plays an increasingly
important role, however. Even as the Hague Conference studies the problem of transnational child
7
support, for example, States enter into growing numbers of bilateral treaties addressing the issue.
Such treaties are governed by public international law.
International human rights law, moreover, has become an increasingly pervasive factor in
international family law, from a refusal to recognize institutions such as polygamy as a violation of
human rights) to recognition of reproductive rights. International human rights law also recognizes
affirmative economic, social and cultural rights, such as the right to maternal protection before
and after the birth of a child, which are explicitely identified as rights owned to the family as such.
Finally, rights of individuals within the family, such as the child’s right to freedom of religion, raise
issues of State interference with family privacy. The State has the obligation to protect the child ’s
rights without violating the rights of the family union.
In sum, the erosion between public and private international law has been so thorough in the context
of international family law that the subject can no longer be understood merely as a part of private
international law.
Task 3. Listen to the teacher reading the text and interpret it in the pouses provided.
Marriage
Anthropologists agree that the institution of marriage began as a way to connect the families
of the bride and groom. It was usually arranged between the families and often accompanied by an
exchange of property (usually from the wife’s family to that of the husband, in the form of the “bride
price” or “dowry”) and the formation of alliancies. In partrirchal societies, a young woman or a girl
would leave her family and join that of her husband.
The modern notion of companionate marriage is very different. It also involves a long-term
commitment between a man and a woman, but it is a relationship which they enter into voluntarily.
Unlike traditional marriage, modern marriage resembles a partnership, a relationship of equals. Many
women in such marriages, for example, work outside the home. They are more likely to have some
degree of economic independence, accordingly, although they usually earn less that tneir husbands.
Both kinds of marriages may be found throughout the world. .... Modern marriages are most
common in the industrialized North, although more traditional groups within those societies may opt
for some form of traditional marriage. Among fundamentalist religious groups, such as Christian
Mormons in the United States or Orthodox Jews in Israel, for example, traditional marriage is often
favored.
A crucial function of both traditional and modern marriage is to establish a stable
framework in which children will be cared for and supported, emotionally as well as financially.
Marriage rates are falling in some regions, however, especially in northern Europe. This reflects, in
part, a growing number of couples who choose to live together without marrying. Increasing numbers
of children are born out of wedlock. In addition, a growing, but still small, number of couples opt for
“child free” marriages in the industrialized North. In the developing South, in contrast, barrenness is
often a ground for annulment or divorce.
Many States recognize multiple forms of marriage, including religious and civil marriages.
Traditional marriages usually involve a religious ceremony, while modern marriage is often entered
into through a secular, civil ceremony.
Task 4. Study the Russian Family Code Chapter 3, articles 10-15.
a) Make your own glossary of the legal terms in English (see the Appendix). Look up for their
Russian counterparts. Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b) Student A: Listen to the teacher’s questions. And translate them into English.
Student B: Translate the questions. Answer the questions in English.
8
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Каков порядок заключения брака на территории РФ?
Могут особые обстоятельства влиять на порядок заключения брака?
Каковы условия заключения брака? Существуют ли исключения?
Обязательно ли медицинское обследование лиц, вступающих в брак?
Какие обстоятельства препятствуют заключению брака?
Task 5. (A) Student A:Read the text and render it into Russian in written form, paying attention
to the words and grammar constructions in bold.
Student B: Listen to the Russian rendering and translate it into English without looking
into the text.
Marriage and Civil Partnership in the UK
Marriage is not a contract which can be created and terminated at the will of the parties. It is
an arrangement in which the State has an interest. For this reason, there are legal rules governing the
creation of a marriage, and rules governing its dissolution. The legal effect of marriage is to give the
parties various rights, obligations, privileges.To contract a valid marriage the parties must have the
capacity to marry and must comply with certain legal formalities relating to the creation of the
marriage, otherwise marriage may be void.
Section 11 Matrimonial Causes Act (MCA) 1973 provides that the parties have capacity to marry
if:
(a) they are not within the prohibited degrees of relationship;
(b)they are both over the age of 16;
c) neither of them is already married; and
(d) one of them is male and the other female.
Contracting a Valid Marriage – Preliminary Formalities
In addition to having the capacity to marry, the parties must satisfy certain preliminary
formalities before the marriage can take place. The purpose of these preliminaries establish that the
required consents have been given and that there are no lawful impediments to the marriage
taking place. The marriage ceremony itself must also comply with certain formalities, and the
marriage must be registered.
Two systems of preliminary formalities exist: (a) one for all marriages other than celebrated in
the Church of England; and (b) one for Church of England marriage.
Civil preliminaries for all marriages
All marriages, other than Church of England marriages, must be preceded by
preliminary formalities for which the superintendent registrar of the relevant district is
responsible under Registration Act 1953. A marriage can be solemnised in a register office
or in any venue that has been approved for the purpose of civil marriage but only after the
grant of: (i) a superintendent registrar's certificate; or (ii) a Registrar General's licence.
Void and voidable marriages – the law of nullity
The law of nullity is laid down in Part I of the Matrimonial Causes Act (MCA) 1973. Like
divorce, an annulment is granted in two stages: decree nisi followed by decree absolute. Only
on the grant of the decree absolute is the marriage annulled. A decree can be sought at any time there is no bar on seeking a decree during the first year of marriage , as there is for divorce. On or
after the grant of the decree, the court has jurisdiction to make finance and property orders
under Part II of the MCA 1973 .
Nullity petitions are relatively uncommon when compared with divorces. Only 406
petitions for nullity of marriage were filed in the courts in 2006.
9
A decree of nullity can be sought on the ground that the marriage is (a) void or (b)
voidable.
(B) Answer the question:
What are the differences between the preliminary and other fprmalities for conclusion of marriage in
the Russian Federation and the United Kingdom?
Task 6. Insert the prepositions. Translate the sentences into Russian in writing.
1. The common law definition of marriage is that stated … Lord Penzance in Hyde v. Hyde (1866) …
“The voluntary union … life .. one man and one woman, .. the exclusion … all others.’ This definition
has been applied and acted … … the courts ever since.
2. Concern about the institution … marriage being undermined is sometimes raised when law reform is
discussed, whether it be … the introduction … more liberal divorce laws, reform … cohabitants’
property rights, or reforms giving greater pre-eminence … pre-marital agreements.
3. Same-sex partners cannot enter … marriage, but they can enter … a civil partnerhip … the Civil
Partnership Act 2004 and thereby acquire rights and obligations which are virtually identical … those
… marriade couples.
4. … the civil ceremony , the parties must declare that there are no lawful impediments … the
marriage; it must be witnessed … … least two witnesses … the presence … the superintendant
registrar.
5. Any such marriage as is mentioned … subsection (4) .. this section shall nort be void … reason only
… affinity if both the parties … the marriage have attained the age … twenty-one … the time … the
marriage and the marriage is solemnised.
6. A clergyman shall not be liable …ecclsiastical censure … solemnising the marriage … a child … the
publication … banns without the consent … the parents or guardians .. the child unless he had notice ..
the dissent … any person who is entitled … give notice … dissent under the last foregoing subsection.
7. A marriage may be solemnised … any time … the hours … eight ,… forenoon and six … the
afternoon.
Task 7. Listen to the interview “Collaborative law: international aspects”, make notes on the
notional parts of the interview. Translate it into Russian sentence by sentence orally ( see the
Appendix for the Tapescript).
Task 8. Translate from Russian into English.
1. С правовой точки зрения брак – это добровольный союз мужчины и женщины, заключенный
с целью создания семьи, с соблюдением требования закона, об условиях и порядке
заключения брака и порождающий для супругов взаимные личные и имущественные права и
обязанности.
2. В области семейного права материально-правовые нормы государств разнообразны, поэтому
их унификация чрезвычайно затруднена.
3. В силу национальных традиций требования к брачному возрасту, основаниям для развода,
порядку и форме заключения брака ит.п.неодинаковы.
4. Осложненные “инсотранным элементом” семейные отношения регулируются посредством
выбора применимого национального права с помощью коллизионнной нормы.
5. В отсутсвие единых материально-правовых норм коллизионный метод является практически
единственным способом регулирования международных семейных отношений в РФ.
10
UNIT 2
Conlusion of Marriage( II).
Participation of Foreign Citizens in Family Relations.
Recognition of overseas marriages.
VOCABULARY
decree absolute решение суда, окончательно и безусловно вступившее в силу
decree nisi условное решение суда; предварительное решение суда (вступает в силу с
определенного времени, если до этого не будет оспорено или отменено)
decree of nullity судебное решение о признании ничтожности (брака)
voidable for impotence оспоримый с связи с неспособностью
commencement of proceedings возбуждение производства по делу
extra-judicial 1)внесудебный; совершенный во внесудебном порядке 2) выходящий за пределы
данного дела 3) не относящийся к юрисдикции данного суда
forum-shopping поиск «удобного» суда, манёвры с выбором судебного форума
pervasive 1. проникающий, распространяющийся повсюду 2. всеобъемлющий, глубокий
(о влиянии и т.п.)
Task 1. Match the terms on the left (1-7) with their definitions on the right (a-g). Translate
definitions into Russian.
1. void (marriage)
2. nullity
3. to promulgate
4. to intermarry
5. legitimate (adj)
6. pervasive
7. conception
a. born of parents who are legally
married to each other
b. the starting of a new life by the
union f a male and female
c. to become connected by marriage
with each other or someone else of
another group, family, etc.
d. to cause to be brought into effect by
official public declaration
e. having no legal force
f. the state of being null and void in
law
g. widespread
Task 2. a) Look up for the Russian equivalents or provide your own counterparts for the
following.
The Gender Recognition Act
The Mental Health Act
The Matrimonial Causes Act
The Marriage Act
The Legitimacy Act
b) Read the text and translate it paying attention to the words and grammar structures in
bold orally.
Grounds on which a marriage is void
11
A void marriage is one that is void ab initio (right from the beginning). A decree of nullity is
not technically necessary to dissolve a void marriage, but is useful because it gives the court
jurisdiction to make finance and property orders equivalent to those which can be made on divorce.
A third party may bring proceedings in respect of a void marriage. A void marriage is different from
a 'non-marriage'. A marriage is void on the following grounds:
Section 11 Matrimonial Causes Act 1973
'A marriage celebrated after 31st July 1971 shall be void on the following grounds only, that is
to say(a)
that it is not a valid marriage under the provisions of the Marriage Acts 1949 to 1986,
that is to say where (i) the parties are within the prohibited degrees of relationship;
(ii) either party is under the age of sixteen; or
(iii) the parties have intermarried in disregard of certain requirements as to the formation of
marriage;
(b)that at the time of the marriage either party was already lawfully married;
(c)that the parties are not respectively male and female;
(d) in the case of a polygamous marriage entered into outside England and Wales, that
either party was at the time of the marriage domiciled in England and Wales”.
There are no 'bars' (statutory defences) for void marriages as there are for voidable
marriages. As far as children are concerned, a child born after a void marriage is treated in law as
a legitimate child if at the time of conception (or at the time of the marriage c eremony, if later)
one party (or both parties) reasonably believed that the marriage was valid (s.l Legitimacy Act
1976, as amended).
Grounds on which a marriage may be voidable
A voidable marriage is a marriage which is a valid and subsisting marriage until annulment
by a decree of nullity (s.16 MCA 1973). A marriage is void on the following grounds:
Section 12 Matrimonial Causes Act 1973
'A marriage celebrated after 31st July 1971 shall be voidable on the following grounds only, that
is to say (a) that the marriage has not been consummated owing to the incapacity of either party to
consummate it;
(b) that the marriage has not been consummated owing to the wilful refusal of the respondent
to consummate it;
(c) that either party to the marriage did not validly consent to it, whether in consequence of
duress, mistake, unsoundness of mind or otherwise;
(d) that at the time of the marriage either party, though capable of giving a valid consent, was
suffering (whether continuously or intermittently) from mental disorder within the meaning of the
Mental Health Act 1983, of such a kind or to such an extent as to be unfitted for marriage;
(e) that at the time of the marriage the respondent was suffering from venereal disease in a
communicable form;
(f) that at the time of the marriage the respondent was pregnant by some person other than the
petitioner;
(g) that an interim gender recognition certificate under the Gender Recognition Act 2004 has,
after the time of marriage, been issued to either party to the marriage;
(h) that the respondent is a person whose gender at the time of the marriage had become the
acquired gender under the Gender Recognition Act 2004.'
Task 3. Listen to the teacher reading the text and translate it sentence by sentence.
12
Recognition of an Overseas Marriage
A marriage contracted overseas (in other words, out of the jurisdiction of the UK) may be
recognised as valid in England and Wales under the Family Law Act 1986, provided: each of the parties
has the capacity to marry according to his or her place of domicile; and the formalities required by the
law of the place where the marriage was celebrated were complied with. An overseas marriage
celebrated by local custom may be recognised, as it was in M.cCabe v. McCabe [1994] 1 FLR 410, where a
marriage which had taken place in Ghana (involving a bottle of whisky and a sum of money) was
upheld as valid, with the result that the petitioner was entitled to a divorce in the English courts.
Special rules apply in certain cases, for instance where a party is serving in HM Forces .
A same-sex marriage entered into legally overseas will not be recognised by the courts in England
and Wales as being a valid marriage in the UK - although it may be recognised as a valid civil
partnership. This is so, even though it is now possible for same-sex couples to enter into a civil
partnership in the UK .
Task 4. Study the Russian Family Code Section VII, articles 156-159:
a) make your own glossary of the legal terms in English. Look up for their Russian counterparts.
Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b) Student A: Translate the questions into English.
Student B: Answer the questions in English.
1. Законодательство какой страны определяет порядок и условия заключения брака при
участии в нем “иностранного элемента”?
2. Относится ли это к лицам, имеющим два и более гражданства? К лицам без
гражданства?
3. Как осуществляется заключение браков в дип.представительствах и консульских
учреждениях?
4. Каковы правила в отношении браков, заключенных за пределами РФ?
5. Может ли такой брак быть признан недействительным?
Task 5. Study the text of Chapter II of the ‘Convention on celebration and recognition of the
validity of marriages”. Translate it into Russian in written form paying attention to the grammar
constructions in bold.
CHAPTER II - RECOGNITION OF THE VALIDITY OF MARRIAGES
Article 7
This Chapter shall apply to the recognition in a Contracting State of the validity of marriages entered
into in other States.
Article 8
This Chapter shall not apply to (1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
marriages celebrated by military authorities;
marriages celebrated aboard ships or aircraft;
proxy marriages;
posthumous marriages;
informal marriages.
13
Article 9
A marriage validly entered into under the law of the State of celebration or which subsequently
becomes valid under that law shall be considered as such in all Contracting States, subject to the
provisions of this Chapter.
A marriage celebrated by a diplomatic agent or consular official in accordance with his law shall
similarly be considered valid in all Contracting States, provided that the celebration is not
prohibited by the State of celebration.
Article 10
Where a marriage certificate has been issued by a competent authority, the marriage shall be
presumed to be valid until the contrary is established.
Article 11
A Contracting State may refuse to recognize the validity of a marriage only where, at the time of the
marriage, under the law of that State (1)
one
of
the
spouses
was
already
married;
or
(2) the spouses were related to one another, by blood or by adoption, in the direct line or as brother
and
sister;
or
(3) one of the spouses had not attained the minimum age required for marriage, nor had obtained the
necessary
dispensation;
or
(4) one of the spouses did not have the mental capacity to consent; or
(5) one of the spouses did not freely consent to the marriage.
However, recognition may not be refused where, in the case mentioned in sub-paragraph 1 of the
preceding paragraph, the marriage has subsequently become valid by reason of the dissolution or
annulment of the prior marriage.
Article 12
The rules of this Chapter shall apply even where the recognition of the validity of a marriage is to be
dealt with as an incidental question in the context of another question.
However, these rules need not be applied where that other question, under the choice of law rules of
the forum, is governed by the law of a non-Contracting State.
Article 13
This Convention shall not prevent the application in a Contracting State of rules of law more
favourable to the recognition of foreign marriages.
Article 14
A Contracting State may refuse to recognize the validity of a marriage where such recognition is
manifestly incompatible with its public policy ("ordre public").
Article 15
14
This Chapter shall apply regardless of the date on which the marriage was celebrated.
However, a Contracting State may reserve the right not to apply this Chapter to a marriage celebrated
before the date on which, in relation to that State, the Convention enters into force.
Task 6. Student A: Insert the prepositions and translate the sentences into Russian. Student B:
Listen to the Russian sentences of student A and do a backward translation.
1. States often require some ceremony, registration or similar formality … distinguish marriage
… other relationships and … impress this distinction … the parties … well … their families
and their communities.
2. Consent requirements refer … the consent … the spouses’ families .. traditional marriages or
… consent … the spouses … a modern marriage.
3. Marital status has public consequences, such ... nationality or citizenship status, eligibility ...
insurance coverage, entitlement to social security., intestacy, and inheritance rules.
4. Marital status also has private, social consequences, such ... the recognition .. the community
... the couple ... a household unit.
5. One underlying purpose ... formalities is .. assure that the parties’ marital status is known ...
the community and ... the public ... large.
6. In the West, consent requirements are satisfied ... the parties’ sworn statements that they are
entering ... the marriage voluntarily, along ... the absence ... any obvious condition vitiating
such consent.
Task 7. Provide the English equivalents for the word combinations in Russian:
1. Concern about undermining the institution of marriage is raised when law reform or reform
giving more prominence to (брачные договоры) is discussed.
2. In addition to having a (способность вступать в брак), the parties must satisfy certain
(условия, необходимые для вступления в брак).
3. Like divorce, an annulment is granted in two stages: (условное решение суда ) followed by
( решение суда, окончательно и безусловно вступившее в силу ). Only on the grant of
decree absolute is the marriage annulled.
4. (Не имеющий юридической силы брак ) is one that is void ab initio. A decree of nullity is
not technically necessary( для расторжения недействительного брака ), but it is useful
because it gives the court jurisdiction to make finance and property orders.
5. As far as the children are concerned, a child born after a void marriage is treated in law as a
(рожденный в браке ) if at the time of conception one party reasonably believed that the
marriage was valid.
6. “A marriage celebrated after 31st July 1971 shall be voidable on the following grounds only,
a) that the marriage has not been (заключен) owing to the (неспособностью какой либо из
сторон) to consummate it; … .
Task 8. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Всякое нормальное международное сотрудничество предполагает признание государствами
браков, заключенных за рубежом, чтобы лица, заключившие брак в одной стране,
считались супругами всюду.
Российское законодательство устанавливает правила
признание браков, заключенных за рубежом .
2. Браки, заключенные за рубежом, в которых один из супругов или оба супруга являются
гражданами РФ, признаются
при наличии двух условий: a) если соблюдено
законодательство соответствующего иностранного государства;
б) отсутствуют
препятствия к вступлению в брак.
15
3. Подобно России, большинство зарубежных государств устанавливают самостоятельное
коллизионное
регулирование браков с участием иностранцев. Как правило,
национальные правопорядки форму брака подчиняют собственному закону, а условия
вступления в брак - закону гражданства (Италия, Германия и др.) или домициля
(Австралия, Англия).
4. Поэтому при вступлении российскими гражданами в брак за рубежом условия брака, в
том числе требования к возрасту, для них будут определяться по российскому праву (как
праву гражданства, или домициля), а форма и порядок - по законодательству
cоответствующего иностранного государства.
5. Вместе с тем, если в зарубежном государстве условия вступления в брак подчинены lex
loci celebratiоnis, то и для граждан России эти условия будут определяться правом этого
иностранного государства, а не российским.
6. В том, что касается формы, в большинстве стран признается лишь брак,
зарегистрированный в государственных органах. Напротив, в некоторых
государствах возможна лишь религиозная форма брака.
7. Существуют и такие страны, в которых возможна как церковная, так и светская форма
брака, а выбор остается за будущими супругами (например, Швеция). Наконец, в
некоторых штатах США (в 14 штатах и округе Колумбия) и в некоторых провинциях
Канады признаются браки по общему праву (common law marriage). При их
заключении не требуется соблюдения каких-либо формальностей, когда лица живут
вместе как муж и это очевидно для других.
8. Доктрина браков по общему праву (common law marriage), все еще действующая во
многих штатах США, часто используется для придания действительности браку,
который изначально являлся недействительным.. Такой подход действует не везде в
США, а лишь в штатах, которые признают действительность браков по общему праву.
(В.А.Канашевский. Международное частное право, с. 532-533)
16
UNIT 3
Divorce
VOCABULARY
ancillary 1) дополнительный; акцессорный; сопутствующий; вспомогательный;
подчинённый 2) судопроизводство по второстепенному вопросу в одной юрисдикции в
помощь судопроизводству по существу иска в другой юрисдикции
defended divorce развод при возражении против него со стороны ответчика
undefended divorce развод при согласии на него со стороны ответчика
reconciliation 1) согласование (счетов) 2) примирение, улаживание
desertion 1) оставление (напр. жены) 2) дезертирство; оставление поста
subsistence 1) существование 2) средства к существованию 3) пропитание
judicial separation постановление суда о раздельном жительстве супругов
limping marriage «хромающий брак», полудействительный брак (действительный в одном
месте и недействительный в другом)
acknowledgment of service (form) признание факта вручения судебного документа
constructive
юридически
подразумеваемый,
конструктивный,
неопровержимо
презюмируемый, существующий в силу неопровержимой презумпциитермина
Task 1. Read the text and interpret it paying attention to the words and grammar
constructions in bold:
The Current Law of Divorce in the UK
The law of divorce is laid down in the Matrimonial Causes Act (MCA) 1973, Part I of which
deals with obtaining a divorce (or an annulment or judicial separation), and Part II with finance and
property orders on divorce (annulment or judicial separation). Procedural rules governing divorce are
found in the Family Proceedings Rules 1991.
Divorce is obtained by means of what is essentially an administrative , paper exercise. It can be
granted in a matter of weeks without the need, in most cases, for either party to attend court. Sorting
out ancillary matters (property, finance and children), if the parties cannot reach agreement, takes much
longer. Obtaining a divorce is a two- stage process. A decree nisi of divorce must be obtained first,
followed by a decree absolute. Only on the grant of decree absolute is the marriage terminated. The
procedure for defended divorces is different, but divorces are rarely defended. The parties to a divorce are
called the 'petitioner' and the 'respondent’.
The jurisdictional rules for hearing a petition for divorce (or for nullity or judicial separation) in
the courts in England and Wales are laid down in s.5 Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1973
and Council Regulation (EC) (No. 2201/2003) Concerning Jurisdiction and the Recognition and
Enforcement of Judgments in Matrimonial Matters and in Matters of Parental Responsibility
(Brussels II Revised). The rules are complex , but in very general terms the courts in England and Wales
have jurisdiction to grant a divorce if either spouse is domiciled in England or Wales when the
proceedings are begun, or is habitually resident in England or Wales throughout the period of one year
ending with the date on which proceedings are begun.
Divorce proceedings cannot be commenced within the first year of marriage (s.3(1)
MCA 1973). This is an absolute bar - there is no discretion to waive it. Despite the one-year
bar, a petitioner can base the divorce petition on matters which happened during the first year of
marriage (s.3(2)). A decree of nullity or of judicial separation can, on the other hand, be sought
during the first year of marriage.
The Ground for Divorce and the Five Facts
17
Under Part I of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 there is only one ground for divorce,
which is that the marriage must have irretrievably broken down (s.l(l)). To establish
irretrievable breakdown, the petitioner must prove the existence of one or more of the
following five 'facts'. In common parlance, these are mistakenly referred to as the 'grounds '
for divorce:
The Five Facts for Divorce
Section 1(2) of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 requires the petitioner to prove to the
court " that:
'(a) the respondent has committed adultery and the petitioner finds it intolerable to live
with the respondent;
(b) the respondent has behaved in such a way that the petitioner cannot reasonably be
expected to live with the respondent;
(c) the respondent has deserted the petitioner for a continuous period of at least two years
immediately preceding the presentation of the petition;
(d) the parties to the marriage have lived apart for a continuous period of at least two years
immediately preceding the presentation of the petition ... and the respondent consents to a
decree being granted; or
e) the parties to the marriage have lived apart for a continuous period of at least five years
immediately preceding the presentation of the petition.'
If a 'fact' is proved, the court must grant a decree nisi of divorce unless it is satisfied that the
marriage has not irretrievably broken down . The court must be satisfied that the marriage
irretrievably broken down, and that at least one of the above five facts is proved.
Task 2. Translate the text in written form.
Adultary
Adultery involves an act of voluntary heterosexual intercourse between two people who are
not married to each other, but at least one of whom is married. For the purposes of a divorce,
adultery is usually proved by the respondent acknowledging adultery on the Acknowledgment of
Service form. Where there is no admission of adultery, proof of adultery is needed, for which
the degree of proof has been held to be slightly higher than on the balance of probabilities.
In addition to proving adultery, the petitioner must also prove that he or she finds it
intolerable to live with the respondent . This requirement was added to buttress the stability of
marriage (a policy aim of the law), so that an act of adultery would be insufficient on its own to
end a marriage. The Court of Appeal has held that, as adultery and intolerability are two separate and
unrelated facts, the tolerability need not relate to the adultery. The test of intolerability is a
subjective one, namely whether the particular petitioner finds it intolerable to live with the
respondent, not whether a reasonable petitioner would so finish it. In practice, the petitioner must
simply answer the question 'Do you find it intolerable to live with the respondent?'
Behaviour
The petitioner must prove that the respondent has behaved in such a way that the
petitioner cannot reasonably be expected to live with the respondent. Although this fact is
commonly referred to as 'unreasonable behaviour', this is a misnomer, because under s.l(2)(b) it is
the effect of the respondent's behaviour on the petitioner which is relevant, not whether the
respondent's behaviour is unreasonable. The test for establishing unreasonable behaviour is
objective, as the court must establish whether the petitioner can reasonably be expected to live with
the respondent, but it is also subjective in that the court must consider the effect of the respondent's
behaviour on the particular petitioner.
18
In Birch v. Birch [1992] the wife petitioned for divorce on the basis of her husbands
unreasonable behaviour claiming that his "attitude to her was dogmatic, nationalistic and
dictatorial”. She said that she was sensitive and had taken a passive role during their 20-year
marriage, and had put aside her own interests until the children had grown up. Her petition was
dismissed, but the Court of Appeal allowed her appeal and granted a decree because the judge
had used an objective test when the correct test was a subjective one.
Divorces are granted for a wide range of behaviour, including both acts and omissions. In
O'Neill v O'Neill, for example, the petitioner stated that her husband had a withdrawn
personality, had doubted the paternity of their children, and had spent two years “improving” the
matrimonial home, which included mixing cement on the living-room floor and leaving the
lavatory door off for about eight months. Financial irresponsibility can constitute unreasonable
behaviour, and so can violent or drunken behaviour.
What if the Behaviour is not the Respondent's Fault?
Sometimes the court will have to decide, whether to grant a divorce where the behaviour is
not the respondent's fault, for example, where the respondent is mentally or physically ill. Whether a
divorce will be granted depends on the circumstances of the case, and, although, the court will be
cognisant of the fact that marriage entails a commitment which includes caring for a sick spouse, it is
likely to be sympathetic to the plight of a petitioner and the fact that illness can place severe strains on
a marriage. A divorce may therefore be granted even though a respondent is not responsible for his or
her own 'behaviour'. Thus, in Katz v. Katz [1972] the wife succeeded in obtaining a decree where her
husband suffered from manic-depression. In Thurlow v. Thurlow [1976] the wife, an epileptic, suffered
from a severe neurological disorder. She was bed-ridden and bad-tempered, threw objects at her
husband and wandered the streets causing him distress. He worked full-time and found it difficult to
care for her, and the stress affected his health. Rees J granted a decree.
Desertion (s. (2)(c)) The respondent must have deserted the petitioner for a continuous period
of at least two years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition. Divorces based on desertion
are rare. To divorce on the basis of desertion, there must be: factual separation; an intention by the
respondent to desert; no consent by the petitioner to the desertion;and no just cause to desert.
Constructive desertion is possible, in other words where a spouse's behaviour is so bad that
the other spouse is forced to leave the home. Desertion is also possible even if the parties are living
under the same roof. To encourage reconciliation, a period of up to six months’ resumed cohabitation
does not prevent the desertion being continuous.
Task 3. Listen to the teacher and translate the text sentence by sentence.
Divorce Procedure
Divorce procedure differs according to whether a divorce is undefended or defended. In practice,
virtually all divorces are undefended - because of the expense and futility of defending a divorce. The
rules of procedure are laid down in the Family Proceedings Rules (FPR) 1991.
1) Undefended Divorce
An undefended divorce is obtained by way of what is essentially a paper exercise. There is
usually no need for the parties, or their legal representatives to attend court. The Divorce Petition is
the central document in proceedings, as it informs the respondent and the court of the basis on which
the petitioner is seeking a decree of divorce and of the orders that he or she will be seeking as part of
the divorce. To commence divorce proceedings , the petitioner (the, spouse seeking the divorce) must
present a divorce petition to a divorce county court alleging that the marriage has irretrievably broken
down and alleging at least one of the five facts. The petition cannot be presented to the court before one
year has expired from the date of the marriage This is a strict rule. However, anything that happened
during that one-year period (such as evidence of unreasonable behaviour or adultery) can be used as
evidence in the divorce proceedings.
19
The decree nisi of divorce does not terminate the marriage. It is terminated only on the grant of
the decree absolute, which is automatically granted on the application of the petitioner, who can apply
for it six weeks or more after decree nisi . A fee must be paid. If the petitioner fails to apply for the
decree absolute, the respondent may apply at any time after three months have elapsed from the
earliest date on which the petitioner could apply for it . However, the court cannot grant the respondent
a decree absolute without a hearing and adjudication by a judge or district judge, after giving at least
four-days' notice of the hearing to the petitioner . These rules are strict. If a decree absolute is obtained
in breach of the rules, the divorce is void .
2) Defended Divorce
Defended divorce proceedings begin in the same way as an undefended divorce, but the
respondent in the Acknowledgement of Service indicates an intention to defend. Notice of intention to
defend must be given within seven days from service of the petition inclusive of the day of service.
Such an indication does not of itself cause the proceedings to become defended, but must be followed by
the filing of an answer within 21 days after the expiry of the time-limit for giving notice of the intention to
defend (that is, within 28 days of service of the petition). There is then exchange of pleadings by counsel
and the hearing takes place in open court with oral evidence being given and cross-examination of both
parties.
Task 4. Provide the Russian (part A) and the English (part B) equivalents of the
following.
A. undefended divorce; ancillary matter; irretrievable breakdown;
unreasonable behavoiur; to be rescinded; be irreconcilable with .
to grant a decree;
B. принимать заявление о расторжении брака; находиться на рассмотрении, в
судопроизводстве; изменить супругу; укрепить брак; примирение; улаживание
семейных конфликтов; быть призанным судом безвестно отсутствующим; приказ
суда в отношении улаживания имущественных интересов супругов; реально
существующий, настоящий брак.
Task 5. Study the Russian Family Code Chapter 4, articles 16-26 and make your own
glossary of the legal terms in English (see the Appendix). Look up for their Russian
counterparts. Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete. Answer the
questions:
1. Are the grounds for divorce and the procedure for the Russian divorce the same or
different compared to the UK?
2. What are the most important differences?
Task 6. Provide the English counterparts for the Russian ones. Translate the sentences
into Russian.
1. An (развод при согласии на него стороны ответчика) is obtained by means of what is essentially an
administrative exercise.
2. It can be ( получен, удовлетворен) in a matter of weeks without the need, in most cases, for either party
to attend court.
3. Sorting out (второстепенные вопросы) (property, finance and children), if the parties cannot reach
agreement, takes much longer.
4. Obtaining a divorce is a two- stage process. A (условное решение суда) of divorce must be obtained
first, followed by a (решение суда, окончательно вступившее в силу) , on the grant of which is the
marriage terminated.
5. Under Part I of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 there is only one ground for divorce, which
is that the marriage must (не подлежать восстановлению) .
20
6. For the purposes of a divorce, (супружеская измена) is usually proved by the respondent
acknowledging adultery on the Acknowledgment of Service form.
7. To encourage (примирение восстановление брака) , a period of up to six months’ is
necessary.
8. In Birch v. Birch [1992] the wife petitioned for divorce on the basis of her husbands
(необоснованное, неразумное поведение).
Task 7. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions and translate from English into Russian.
1. Financial provision and property adjustment orders … favour the parties … the
marriage can take effect, and orders …. settlement or variation … a settlement can
take effect … respect … any child …. the family.
2. Divorce also has an effect … a will made …. either party …. the marriage; social
security and pension rights and taxation are affected, and both parties lose rights …..
certain matrimonial legislation, ….particular rights …. occupation …. the home
('home rights').
3. However, ….
far ….. children are concerned, each parent retains parental
responsibility …. divorce and there is an obligation …. provide the children ….
financial support.
4. Divorce proceedings cannot be commenced …. the first year … marriage; despite the one-year
bar, a petitioner can base the divorce petition … matters which happened during the first year …
marriage.
5. … the purposes … a divorce, adultery is usually proved …. the respondent
acknowledging adultery …. the Acknowledgment … Service form.
6. The marriage is terminated only … the grant … the decree absolute, which is
automatically granted … the application …. the petitioner, who can apply … it six
weeks or more after decree nisi.
Task 8. Match the terms on the left (1-6) with their definitions on the right (a-f). Translate
the terms into Russian.
1. acknowledgement of
service
2. adultery
3. grounds for divorce
a. in England and Wales the basic ground for
divorce is that the marriage has irretrievably
broken down. One or more of five ‘facts' must
be established to prove this breakdown. These
are:
adultery,
unreasonable
behaviour,
desertion, two years separation with consent
and five years separation without consent.
b. in England and Wales the respondent receives
this standard court form along with the divorce
petition. The
c. form must be completed by the respondent to
acknowledge receipt of the petition. The
respondent must declare on the form whether
they intend to defend the petition.
d. one of the five ‘facts' in England and Wales
that establish that the marriage has irretrievably
broken down and that there is therefore a
ground for divorce. One party alleges that the
other has behaved so unreasonably that they
cannot be expected to continue to live with
them.
21
4. judicial separation
5. reconciliation
6. unreasonable
behaviour
e. sexual intercourse between a spouse and an
individual to whom they are not married. This
is one of five ‘facts' which establish a ground
for divorce in the UK: the petitioner must have
discovered the adultery within the last 6
months.
f. an alternative to divorce in England and Wales.
Whilst not ending the marriage it allows the
court to look at the financial arrangements
(though not pensions) between the parties. It is
usually used when the parties have an
overriding reason for not wanting a divorce.
g. married people who have fallen out getting
back together.
Task 9. A) Student A: translate the questions into English.
Student B: translate the answers into Russian.
Каковы основания для расторжения брака на территории РФ?
The irretrievable breakdown of marriage is still the only formal ground for a divorce. Mutual
consent is not considered to be a separate ground for divorce. However, since in the Family
Code of 1995 the power of the state authorities to investigate the reasons for divorce has been
significantly limited in non-contested divorce proceedings, both administrative and judicial.
The competent authority is effectively no longer entitled to make any inquiry as to the grounds
for divorce. Therefore the marriage is presupposed to have irretrievably broken down if both
spouses have agreed to a divorce.
Как часто суды отказывают в рассмотрении заявлений о расторжении брака?
Under the 1995 Family Code never. Neither a judge in a judicial procedure, nor the public
official at the Department for Registration of Civil Acts in an administrative procedure, has the
discretional power
to refuse the dissolution of a marriage if at least one of the parties insists on a divorce.
Только ли суд может расторгнуть брак, или применяется и административная
процедура?
The current Russian Family Code provides for two types of divorce proceedings: an
administrative procedure before a public official of the Department for Registration of Civil
Acts; a court procedure.
The administrative procedure is normally applicable when two conditions are simultaneously
met:
1) the spouses do not jointly have minor children; 2) both spouses have mutually agreed to a
divorce.
С чего начинается процедура расторжения брака? Нужен ли в таком случае
адвокат?
The administrative divorce procedure available to spouses without minor children is initiated by
a joint petition by the spouses Normally the spouses have to appear before the Department for
Registration of Civil Acts in person. If one of the spouses is unable to attend the Department, he
or she can present a separate application for divorce in writing, which requires authentication
by a notary. The administrative divorce
22
procedure in exceptional cases, t, accompanied by an authorised copy of a court decision, under
which the other spouse is declared to have disappeared, to lack legal competence or to have
been sentenced to more than three years’ imprisonment.
А что Вы скажете о судебной процедуре?
The judicial procedure is initiated by a joint or sole petition on the part the spouse(s). The
parties can
represent themselves in both the administrative and judicial procedures. Legal representation is
therefore not obligatory. One or both spouses may be represented in court by an attorney if she
or he so wish(es). No legal aid is available for such representation.
Когда же происходит действительное расторжение брака?
In the case of administrative divorce the marriage is finally dissolved at the moment of the
registration of the divorce in the Civil Acts Register. In the case of judicial divorce, if the court
decision has been delivered after 1 May 1996 (the date when Article 25 Russian Family Code
entered into force16) the marriage is finally dissolved once the court decision has become final.
Имеет ли на момент расторжения брака значение продолжительность брака?
No. The only limitation in time concerning the instigation of the divorce procedure is to be found
in Article 17 Russian Family Code. According to this provision a husband is not allowed to apply
for divorce without the consent of his wife during her pregnancy and within one year after she has
given birth to a child.
This rule should be considered as a positive discrimination measure.
Нужно ли сторонам ждать, когда истечет период времени, необходимый для
примирения сторон в разваливающемся браке?
Only in the case of a contested divorce can the judge order reconciliation measures to be taken.
As Russia does not have a mediation system, this mostly means a reconciliation period(s) of up to
three months in total.
Есть ли период обдумывания, который дается сторонам до начала процедуры
прекращения брака?
An administrative divorce cannot not be granted before one month after filing the petition. A
judicial non-contested divorce cannot be granted before one month after filing the petition. No
reconciliation period can be ordered in such a case. Both the above-mentioned periods are
considered to be a kind of ‘cool off’ period in order to prevent ‘knee-jerk’ divorces immediately
following a quarrel. In the case of a contested divorce a judge may order a reconciliation period
of up to three months. More than one reconciliation periods may be ordered, provided that the
total duration of these periods does not exceed three months.
B) Role-play the interview in pairs.
23
UNIT 4
Recognition of Overseas Divorces. Conflict of law rules.
VOCABULARY
pending suit иск на рассмотрение суда
commencement of the proceedings возбуждение производства по делу
freezing order «замораживающий»,блокирующий (запрещающий какие либо дальнейшие
действия) судебный запрет
injunction pending appeal судебный запрет впредь до подачи аппеляции
voidable for impotence оспоримый в связи с неспособностью
extra-judicial 1) не относящийся к рассматриваемому делу; неофициальный; 2) сделанный
вне заседания суда (о заявлении сторон)
Task 1. Study the Russian Family Code Section VII , article 160
a. make your own glossary of the legal terms in English. Look up for their Russian counterparts.
Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b. Student A: Translate the questions into English.
Student B: Answer the questions in English.
1. Законодательство какой страны применяется при расторжении брака между гражданами
РФ и иностранными гражданами?
2. Как гражданин РФ, приживающий за ее пределами, может расторгнуть брак?
3. Признаются ли браки, расторгнутые за пределами РФ, на территории РФ?
4. Как обстоят дела с растожением браков между иностранными гражданами, совершенным
за пределами территории РФ?
Task 2. You are going to translate some rules from “Dicey and Morris on the Conflict of laws”.
A) First, read some quotations about the famous book and translate them into Rusian.
“… Dicey, Morris and Collins remains the essential reference book for every practitioner and academic
with an interest in the conflict of laws. … Dicey remains a formidable book and continues to provide an
essential step in any consideration of the conflict of laws” – British Yearbook of International Law.
“Dicey remains the repository of answers, admirably absorbing, accommodating and authoritatively
explaining the myriad legislative contributions to modern private international law.” - Lloyd, Maritime
and Commercial Law Quarterly.
"The 14th edition ensures that Dicey remains a truly great piece of legal scholarship whose scope and
detail is unsurpassed". - Lloyd, Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly.
"In terms of its status and reputation, it is difficult to think of any other text book which can be as
confidently cited in the English Courts. Dicey is referred to regularly by judges at all levels and in many
diverse fields". – British Yearbook of International Law.
B) Study Rules 81-86 of “Dicey and Morris on the Conflict of laws” and translate them paying
attention to the words and grammar constructions in bold.
Chapter 18
24
B. CHOICE OF LAW
Rule 81.—(1) In proceedings in England for divorce or judicial separation, the court will apply
English domestic law.
(2)
In proceedings in England for a decree of nullity of marriage, the question whether a
marriage is invalid for want of form will (in general) be determined by the law of the place of
celebration in accordance with Rule 70 and the question whether a marriage is invalid for want of
capacity or of consent of either party will be determined by the law of his or her antenuptial domicile
in accord¬ance with Rules 71 and 72.
(3)
In proceedings in England for a decree of nullity of marriage, where the marriage
complies with Rules 70 to 72 as regards form, capacity and consent, the question whether themarriage is voidable for impotence or wilful refusal to consummate will (semble) be determined by
English domestic law or (perhaps) by the law of the pet¬itioner's domicile at the time of the marriage.
C. RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN DECREES
(1) Decrees Granted in the British Isles
Rule 82.—(1) A divorce, annulment or judicial separation granted by a court of civil jurisdiction
in any part of the British Islands will, subject to Rule 85A, be recognised in England.
(2)
An extra-judicial divorce obtained in the British Islands before January 1, 1974, will
be recognised in England if it was recognised as valid under the law of the spouses' common
domicile.
(3)
Subject to clause (2) of this Rule, no divorce or annulment obtained in any part of the
British Islands other than in a court of civil jurisdiction will be recognised in England.
(2) Decrees Obtained Outside the British Isles
Rule 83.—(1) An overseas divorce or legal separation obtained in a country outside the British
Islands by means of judicial or other proceedings and effective under the law of that country will,
subject to Rule 85A, be recognised in England if at the date of the commencement of the proceedings
. (a) either party to the marriage was habitually resident in the country in which the divorce or
legal separation was obtained; or
(b)
either party to the marriage, was domiciled in that country; or
(c)
either party to the marriage was a national of that country; and not otherwise.
(2) For the purposes of this Rule, a party to a marriage is domiciled in a country if he is
domiciled in that country according to the law of that country in family matters or according to the law
of England.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Rule 84. – (1) An overseas divorce or legal separation obtained in a country outside the British
Islands otherwise than by means of judicial or other proceedings and effective under the law of that
country will, subject to Rule 85A, be recognised in England if on the date of which it was obtained
(a)
each party to the marriage was domiciled in that country or
(b)
either party to the marriage was domiciled in that country and the other party was
domiciled in a country under whose law the decree is recognised as valid and, in either case, neither
party to the marriage was habitual resident in the United Kingdom throughout the period of one year
immediately preceding that date.
(2) For the purposes of this Rule, a party to the mar¬riage is domiciled in a country if he is
domiciled in that country according to the law of that country in family matters or according to the law
of England.
25
................................................................................................................................................
Rule 85. —(1) An overseas annulment obtained in a country outside the British Islands by
means of judicial or other proceedings and effective under the law of that country will, subject to Rule
85A, be recognised in Eng¬land if
(a)
at the date of the commencement of the proceed¬ings either party to the marriage was
habitually resident in that country; or
(b)
at that date either party to the marriage was domi¬ciled in that country; or
(c)
at that date either party to the mariage was a national of that country; or
(d)
at the earlier date of the death of a party to the mariage, that party was habitually
resident or domiciled in, or a national of, that country,
(2) An overseas annulment obtained in a country out¬side the British Islands otherwise than by
means of judicial or other proceedings and effective under the law of that country will, subject to Rule
85A, be recog¬nised in England if
(a)
at the date on which it was obtained each party to the marriage was domiciled in that
country; or
(b)
at that date either party to the marriage was domi¬ciled in that country and the other
party was domiciled in a country under whose law the annulment is recognised; or
(c)
in cases where either party to the marriage died before that date, the domicile
requirements of paragraph (a) or (b) are satisfied in relation to that party to the marriage at the date
of death and in relation to a surviving party at the date on which the annulment was obtained,
and, in any case, neither party to the marriage was habitu¬ally resident in the United Kingdom
throughout the period of one year immediately preceding the date on which the annulment was
obtained or his earlier death.
(3) For the purposes of this Rule, a party to the mar¬riage is domiciled in a country if he is
domiciled in that country according to the law of that country in family matters or according to the law
of England.
D. EFFECT IN ENGLAND OF FOREIGN DECREES
Rule 86. (1) A foreign divorce which is recognised under Rule 82, 83 or 84 has the same
effect in England on the status of the parties as an English decree of divorce.
(2) A foreign divorce which is not recognised under Rule 82, 83 or 84 has no effect in England
on the status of the parties, but it may have other effects.
(3) A foreign decree of legal separation which is recognised under Rule 82, 83 or 84 has the
same effect in England as an English decree of judicial separation.
Task 3. Provide the English counterparts to the following Russian combinations.
решение суда о признании брака недействительным; добрачный домициль; намеренный,
умышленный отказ от вступления в брак; судебное решение о признании брака недействительным;
возбуждение производства по делу; постановление суда о раздельном жительстве супругов, судебное
разлучение; брак, признаваемый в одной стране и непризнаваемый в др.; в отношении ч-л ; вопросы
семейного права.
Task 4. Match the corresponding English combinations (A) with the Russian ones (B).
A. restore the parties to the status of unmarried persons; capacity to remarry; the decree absolute; a fresh
marriage; a penal restriction; ancillary order for maintenance; to entail the recognition of; re-open the
issues (the case); nullity decree;
B. решение суда., окончательно и безусловно вступившее в силу; влечь за собой признание ч-л;
второстепенный приказ суда в отношении содержания (ребенка); ограничение, наказуемое
штрафными санкциями; возврат сторон в прежнее правое положение (не состоящих в браке);
26
правоспособность вступать в другой брак; новый брак; решение суда о призвании брака
недействительным; возобновить дело.
Task 5. Read the first part of the article “Choosing a Forum” by Marilyn Stowe, Family Law
Journal, 20/04/2007, and translate it into Russian paying attention to the word combinations and
grammar structures in bold.
Choosing a Forum
Marilyn Stowe weighs up the key considerations when a client contacts you from an EU country
requesting
advice
on
a
divorce.
Professionally, you are in a race against time when initial contact has been made, and there is a choice
of
jurisdiction
for
the
issue
of
divorce
proceedings.
Failure to protect your client by proceeding immediately in the appropriate country can result in
disastrous financial consequences for your client, who may in turn sue you to recoup the loss. It is
therefore necessary to quickly determine the appropriate forum for the case.
Case study
Let’s consider this example: the husband is English, the wife Scottish. They married and lived in
England, have teenage children and 5 years ago the family moved to France, ostensibly to make the
most of the climate and the tax benefits available through Monaco and other places. The Inland
Revenue were notified of their new non-resident status, and they ceased to pay UK tax. The husband
retains some business links with the UK, including an apartment used by the couple for trips to the UK.
The family have their main home in France where they are resident for much of the year and from
where
the
husband
operates
his
businesses.
However in France, they are also registered as non-resident to avoid paying French tax, speak only
English, socialize within the British ex-pat community and continue to maintain social ties to England:
their medical and dental treatment takes place in England; the children study at English universities and
the wife stays with them as often as she can. The wife has no assets or income of her own. The marriage
falls apart and you are contacted by the wife, who thinks her husband is going to issue a divorce.
EC No 2201/2003 (Brussels II Bis)
Brussels II Bis governs relevant jurisdiction. It states that the first country where proceedings are
issued - in divorce, judicial separation or nullity - is automatically seized of the matter (Articles 16 and
19).
The
basis
for
jurisdiction
is
covered
under
Article
3.
A court can claim jurisdiction if the country is:
The spouses’ habitual residence;
The last habitual residence of both spouses when one is still resident there;
The respondent’s habitual residence;
Either spouse’s habitual residence if a joint application;
The applicant’s habitual residence (min 12 months)
The applicant’s habitual residence (6 months’ residence) and their nationality or domicile
is in the UK or Ireland; or
The nationality of both spouses or their domicile in the case of UK and Ireland
Notwithstanding membership of the EU, the family law of each member state remains unique
to that state. The law of each state has evolved from cultural, religious, social and political
developments and thus may be, and often is, wholly different to that of another member states.
Note also that the country seized of the matter, will define which law is applied in relation to
multi-jurisdictional divorces. There may, in some cases, be a choice of law open to the court, so it must
27
not be assumed that the law of the state seized will be applied. In England however, the rule of Lex Fori
(the law of the forum) applies. English law is always applied in England, no matter what the
nationality or residence of the parties. In other countries, it may be the law of the parties’ joint
nationality applied by a foreign court. Such an option could be daunting, even if it is English law, not
because
of
language
barriers
and
cost.
least
Divorce in one EU state, must be recognised under Brussels II Bis and will then have the effect
of dissolving the parties’ marital status in all EU jurisdictions, even where there have been two
marriage ceremonies in two EU jurisdictions. (see D v D 2006 2FLR 825). Two sets of divorce
proceedings
are
not
necessary.
In our case study, you need to swiftly consider whether it would be advantageous to the wife
if she were to proceed in either the English or the French courts. Usually as in this case, the answer
will be in the English courts. The English-speaking wife will be entitled to take advantage of all the
remedies available under ss22-24 MCA 1973. Contact should be made with a lawyer in the other
possible jurisdiction for comparison purposes but usually England will give your client spouse far more
protection, particularly in cases where ongoing maintenance is to be taken into account. In France
the wife in our case study would not do as well financially. It is in her interests to proceed in England,
but
in
her
husband’s
to
proceed
in
France.
Task 6. Read the second part of the article “Choosing a forum” and render it in Russian in
writing.
Jurisdictional Issues
All is not lost if the incorrect basis for jurisdiction is entered on the petition - see R v R (Divorce:
Jurisdiction: Domicile) [2006], where it was held that it would not be fatal to the proceedings.
Domicile
The retention of domicile as a basis to found jurisdiction, is unique to the UK and Ireland.
Domicile is interpreted as real and substantial ties to a country, at the root of which is a permanent
home.
Domicile can be either domicile of origin (ie the country of birth) or domicile of choice. Married
women have an independent domicile of their husband (Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act
1973) but there is a strong probability of both spouses having the same domicile if they are living
together.
In our case study England is the domicile of origin of the husband but not the wife. However it is clearly
the domicile of choice of the wife. When she married and moved to England she gave up her domicile
of origin in Scotland and created a life in England. She no longer retained ties to Scotland and had no
plans to live there again. Instead she built substantial links to England and spends time in France and
England but not in Scotland.
Assuming the parties were both domiciled in England before their move to France, have they
now lost their English domicile? It could be argued by the husband (opposing English jurisdiction) that,
having sold their English main home and moved to a family home in France, they have both abandoned
their
English
domicile
in
favour
of
a
French
domicile
of
choice.
The burden of proving loss of domicile, however, is heavy, and lies upon he who asserts it.
Rule 10 in Dicey and Morris on the Conflict of Laws (13th Edition) states that domicile of choice may
be acquired by a combination of residence and intention of permanent and indefinite residence but not
otherwise. In determining whether a person intends to reside permanently or indefinitely in a country,
Rule 12 states that the court must have regard to the reason why they have taken up residence there.
Rule 13 provides that, in order to lose a domicile of choice in a country the person must cease to reside
there and cease to intend to reside there permanently and indefinitely. C v FC (Brussels II: Freestanding application for parental responsibility) [2004] provided that a person could be non-resident in
a country yet still retain their domicile.
28
It is noteworthy that declarations as to intention by a person asserting domicile of choice must be
examined very carefully in the context of reasons why and the actions of the person concerned (see Ross
v Ross [1930]) Thus, a statement to the court, or a statement to HMRC of a change of domicile would
not necessarily be of importance.
Domicile is substantially more complex than mere habitual residence which in essence is part of
domicile. It is a matter of establishing ties to the country - socially, economically and culturally - and
determining intention and permanency.
The court will in practice look at the parties’ passports and driving licences; where the parties
pay tax; the languages spoken; social, medical, fiscal, financial and familial ties to a country and
integration
into
the
local
community.
Habitual Residence
The attraction of habitual residence to a practitioner is that it need only apply to the Petitioner.
There is no definition of this term in Brussels II Bis as each case is intended to be treated on the
ordinary meaning of the words and the facts. However, it has long been recognised that a person may
actually have two habitual residences (Ikimi v Ikimi [2001] and C v FC). The Court must consider the
community-wide definition of the expression, but it is to be determined by reference to the state in
which a person habitually resides and in which the habitual centre of that person’s interests are to be
found. (Swaddling v Adjudication Officer [1999])
“Habitual” does not simply mean quantifying the time spent in a country, or absences from it,
especially if there are good reasons for absence. The quality of the residence needs to be considered and
“an appreciable amount of time together with settled intention are required” (see Re J (A Minor)
Abduction
[1990)].
In the recent French Case of Moore v Moore [2005], before the Cour de Cassation (the highest court in
the French Judicial System) held that the wife had not transferred to France, “the usual and permanent
centre of her interests” in considering whether she was habitually resident.
In our case study, the wife could, perhaps surprisingly, assert habitual residence in England. This
demonstrates that, in a dispute as to jurisdiction, the possibility of asserting habitual residence should be
considered in some detail, although it may be more difficult to assert habitual residence than loss of
both
parties’
domicile.
Task 7 . Match the English and Russian counterparts.
A. a lifetime maintenance; a freezing order; acknowledgement of service; to abandon a domicile; an
interim provision; to award maintenance pending suit; an injunction pending appeal; legal fees;
an expedient hearing; to opt out; a lump sum; to dispose of assets; to be fact-dependent.
B. расписка по факту вручения судебного документа; возмещение судебных издержек;
отказываться от; назначить сумму денежного содержания (супруга или ребенка) на
время судебного рассмотрения дела; пожизненное содержание; отказаться от домициля;
промежуточное решение суда о временном содержании иждивенца (выносится в ходе
рассмотрения дела); единовременная выплата; в зависимости от фактов; ускоренное
слушание дела, сокращенное судопроизводство; распоряжаться имуществом; судебный
запрет в отношении каких-либо дальнейших действий; судебный запрет впредь до
подачи аппеляции.
Task 8. Translate into English.
29
1. Разводы граждан России, совершенные за рубежом в соответствии с
законодательством иностранного государства, признаются в России без какой-либо
регистрации акта расторжения брака в российских учреждениях.
2. В целом в иностранных государствах принята судебная форма развода. В некоторых
государствах развод делится на
две стадии - предварительный и окончательный.
Например, согласно
законам о предварительных судебных разводах, принятых в
некоторых штатах США, развод проходит два этапа.
3. На первом этапе суд выносит предварительное решение (decree nisi), которое
подтверждает право на развод, а в некоторых случаях сопровождается дополнительными постановлениями, касающимися
опеки над детьми, права на
материальное содержание и пр. Такое решение не является решением о разводе,
супруги не считаются разведенными и в течение установленного срока не вправе
вступать в новый брак.
4. На втором этапе, после истечения установленного законом срока, решение станет
окончательным (в большинстве случаев автоматически) и брак считается
расторгнутым.
5. Система предварительного развода преследует главным образом две цели:
1) предоставление сторонам дополнительного времени для примирения с целью
воспитания у сторон строгого отношения к браку как институту; 2)
предотвращение возможных споров, связанных с отцовством.
6. В Англии продолжает применяться так называемая система сепарации. В отличие от
развода, судебная сепарация была распространена в Англии до 1858 г. (тогда
сепарация именовалась «развод в отношении постели и стола» (from bed and board).
Смысл судебного решения о сепарации состоял в том, чтобы дать право истцу жить
отдельно от ответчика без расторжения их брака
и без предоставления супругам
права на вступление в другой брак.
7. В настоящее время сравнительно небольшое число прошений такого рода подается в
английские суды, главным образом лицами, которые имеют определенные религиозные препятствия для расторжения брака. Во всех таких случаях английские суды
применяют только английское право, даже если супруги домицилированы за рубежом.
8. Во многих странах разводы допускаются по строго ограниченному кругу основа-ний
(например, в Италии - осуждение супруга за тяжкое уголовное преступление,
неспособность к брачной жизни и т.п. ) или специальным органом, что подчеркивает
исключительный характер самой этой процедуры.
30
UNIT 5
Property on Divorce
VOCABULARY
matrimonial assets имущество, нажитое в браке
marital funds / property имущество, собственность супругов
joint assets совместная собственность
lump sum паушальная, общая сумма
maintenance зд. содержание, средства к существованию; алименты
maintenance order решение суда в отношении средств к существованию (одного из супругов
после развода)
money purchase plan/scheme - система установленных взносов в пенсионный фонд, согласно
которой сумма взносов служащего определяется его жалованием
annuity for maintenance аннуитет в обеспечение средств к существованию
exclusion order судебное решение о лишении прав
to entail
учреждать заповедное имущество (ограниченное в порядке наследования и
отчуждения)
retirement benefit пенсия, выходное пособие
Task 1. Find the Russian counterparts for the following English combinations.
reallocate property
financial order
cillary relief
deferred interest order
earmarking order
internal/external transfer of pension
entail liability
buy an annuity
offsetting
income earner/ a home-carer
clean break
high earner
equal footing
split of assets
Task 2. Read the text and render it into Russian.
Marital property in Russia. Property division
Basic principles
In a number of Western countries, entering a marriage implies the man and woman uniting their assets
and this becoming joint property. Russian divorce law, in contrast, stipulates that all money saved and
property or assets purchased prior to the marriage remain that individual's property in the event of a
divorce. This also applies to assets or monies received without payment: i.e. as a gift or inheritance; the
recipient of this gift or inheritance retains sole ownership of the property in the event of a divorce in
Russia. This is the case even if the car, flat or country house was used by all members of the family
during the marriage.
An important adjunct here in a Russian divorce though it that if in the course of the marriage an
investment into one of the spouse's (pre-marriage) properties at both parties' expense substantially
increases the market price of the asset then the second spouse has the right to claim for a proportionate
sum in that property. For example, in a divorce in Russia, if a country house was renovated from a
single story shack into a three-storey mansion then the second spouse would be able to claim for a
proportion of the final price equivalent to their proportion of investment.
31
Court jurisdiction
In a Russian divorce, it does not matter whether a property is located in Russia or abroad. However,
experience shows that it makes sense to divide a property in the country where the property is actually
located to avoid future problems with enforcement of the court decision. The reason is that a Russian
court's jurisdiction over a property abroad could be rejected locally and then proceedings would have to
begin all over again.
Russia has signed agreements on providing legal support in civil and family cases with Poland, Finland,
India, Egypt, Italy, Cyprus, Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary, the majority of former Soviet republics and
some other states. Such an agreement guarantees that a court decision in a Russian divorce would be
recognized in the other state and be enforceable if needed. It is important to note that Russia has
exclusive jurisdiction over cases related to real estate located on Russian territory.
Task 3. Study the Russian Family Code Chapter VII articles 38-39.
a) Make your own glossary of the legal terms in English (see the Appendix). Look up for their Russian
counterparts. Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b) Student A: Listen to the teacher’s questions and translate them into English.
Student B: Answer the questions in English.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Когда может быть произведен раздел общего имущества супругов?
Каков порядок разрешения споров при разделе имущества супругов?
Как определяется совместная собственность супругов?
Все ли имущество супругов подлежит разделу?
Каковы правила в определении долей при разделе имущества?
Task 4. Read the text and translate paying attention to the words and grammar structures in
bold orally.
Property on Divorce - the United Kingdom
Part I
On marriage breakdown it will usually be necessary for the divorcing couple to distribute and
reallocate their property and financial assets, whether it be the family home, a pension, the car,
investments or other assets. Most couples will sort out matters themselves, but some will end up taking
their case to court.
In England and Wales the courts regard the divorce as of primary importance and the question of
financial matters and matrimonial assets as being ancillary. However, usually the husband and wife will
agree that the marriage is over and that getting a divorce is the correct procedure, so this part of the process
is
quite
simple.
The arrangements for the children will often be resolved by agreement, however there can often be
disputes over the financial matters also including a members pension rights. In the case of pension
arrangements, this could take the form of an earmarking order or pension sharing order against retirement
benefits.
It is not unusual for ancillary relief proceedings to take longer than the divorce to resolve but
even so the whole process is typically measured in months rather than years. On divorce, even if the parties
agree to a financial order, it cannot be made final until the decree nisi is granted. For couples either on
divorce, judicial separation or nullity of marriage the court has the power to make a financial order
against the assets owned by the husband or wife in their own names or assets owned jointly.
In addition the court has the power to make a financial order that will apply to the sale or transfer
of property, a payment of a lump sum from the assets or a members pension rights or where there are
children and an income for a non-working spouse is required, maintenance payments. It is important to
32
realise that the court does not have the same jurisdiction where the couple is not married but living together.
Clean break
Under the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 (MCA 73) the courts are given direction for the
resolution of the financial matters for a couple on divorce and this includes having regard to a clean break.
This means that the matrimonial assets will be divided between the couple resulting in a complete
separation when the marriage ends, usually sometime after the court grants the decree absolute. However,
where there is an obligation to maintain children of the marriage it may not be possible to achieve a clean
break.
This could occur if there were limited assets of the marriage and one of the parties was a high
earner (usually the husband) whereas the other party looked after the children (usually the wife). On divorce
she would be unable to support herself and there may be a requirement for a maintenance order. Even so,
the courts will usually expect an order for maintenance for the spouse to be restricted by time so as to
achieve a clean break in the future. One assumption is that the wife will have existing skills from a
previous employment, can be re-trained and will eventually have a sufficient income to support herself.
Where there is a pension arrangement involved and an earmarking order against the member’s
pension rights at retirement age, a clean break will not be possible. This arrangement will mean the former
spouse will have to wait until the member chooses to retire before payment of a pension income or any tax
free lump sum. As most couples usually want a clean break of the financial matters on divorce, it is
understandable why earmarking is only occasionally used to settle the retirement benefits.
A clean break would result in an internal or external transfer of pension benefits and in many
cases the spouse is nearing retirement and requires a pension income. Where this is a money purchase
scheme, the spouse can use the pension fund to buy an annuity and has the option to use an open market
option to search for the highest pension annuity. Once you have purchased an annuity it cannot be
changed.
Task 5. Translate the text in writing.
Property on Divorce - the United Kingdom
Part II
Court
decisions
During divorce procedures the court will divide the matrimonial assets based on the rules as set out
in section 25 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 (MCA 73). These rules consider for each party the
matters of income, property, financial needs, obligations, standards of living, age of the parties and may
other factors.
However, there has been an increasing tendency for the courts to concentrate on and aim to satisfy
the needs of the parties when deciding on financial matters. This means that where the couple have young
children the court assume they will stay with the wife and that they will need a roof over their head. Usually
the wife will remain in the former matrimonial home and the property will be transferred to her name with
the husband receiving other assets, for example retaining the full value of his pension arrangements and this
process is known as offsetting.
Satisfying the parties, in particular the wife, on a needs basis has occurred in most cases even if the
parties are wealthy. The wife has received only enough for a house and an income to satisfy her needs and
this is often been only a fraction of the value of the total assets. With the case of White v White (2000) the
needs basis approach has been changed as the ruling by the House of Lords emphasised the starting point
should be on an equal split of assets, based on the equal contribution by the parties whether one is an
income-earner or a home-carer.
In the United Kingdom it is important to remember that the existence of a pre-nuptial agreement
33
specifying the ownership of assets as a result of a marriage breakdown is not binding in law. The court has
the jurisdiction over the division of assets and can look beyond any agreement when making a final order. If
the couple are not married and remain so, then the existence of such an agreement will be effective in UK
law.
Matrimonial
home
Where the married couple are joint legal owners of the matrimonial home, both have the right to
remain in the property unless the court makes an exclusion order. Various orders can be made to achieve
this:
- transfer to one party's sole ownership;
- deferred interest order granted by the court. There is the right for one of the parties to occupy the
matrimonial home up to an agreed point in time, such as the children are independent. It will be agreed who
will pay what bills;
- Mesher Order granted by the court. In this case usually the wife is allowed to remain in the
property rent free, and the sale of the matrimonial home is postponed until the children are 17 years of age;
- Martin Order granted by the court. The wife or husband remains in the property for the remainder
of their life or until a "trigger" event occurs such as remarriage or a voluntary decision to leave the property.
Comments:
1 A Merser Order: an order made in case the house is settled on trust for one or both of the spouses in
certain shares, but with sale postponed until a future event, such as until children have reached a particular
age or have finished full-time education, or until the death, remarriage or cohabitation of the other spouse.
2 A Martin order: this is an ordering giving one spouse a right to occupy the house until that party’s death,
remarriage or cohabitation, after which the proceeds of sale are divided in certain shares. A Martin order
effectively gives the party in occupation a life interest in the house, unless a specified event occurs.
Task 6. Translate the following expressions in brackets into English and complete the sentences.
1. The obligation to maintain children of the marriage can occur if one of the parties was (лицо,
имеющее высокий заработок) whereas the other party looked after the children.
2. (Окончательный разрыв отношений) will not be possible if there is a pension arrangement
involved and there is (приказ суда о временном переносе денежных сумм с одного счета
супруга на другой) against the members pension rights at retirement age.
3. Where there is a (система взносов в пенсионный фонд, сумма по которым определяется
жалованьем служащего), the spouse can use the pension fund to buy (ежегодную выплату,
установленную договором).
4. The right for one of the parties to occupy the matrimonial home up to an agreed point in time,
such as the children are independent, is called (судебное решение о пребывании по прежнему
месту жительства до наступления заранее оговоренного события).
5. The court will expect the parties to make offers to settle all or part of (имущества, нажитого в
браке) and for the recipient to give full consideration.
6. Rule 2.51B of the Family Proceedings Rules 1991 states that the (главная юридически
обоснованная цель) of the court must be to ensure that the parties are on an (в равном
положении) and deal with the case in ways that are proportionate to the amount of money
involved.
34
Task 7. Student A: Translate the questions into English. Student B: Translate the answers into
Russian. Role-play the dialogue in Englisg.
А: Что произойдет с собственностью, которой владел каждый из супругов до вступления в брак она станет их совместной собственностью после заключения ими брака?
В: The question of who owns what usually arises only if the couple is splitting up and trying to divide
their property, or if one person is writing a will and wants to leave property to a person other than the
spouse. Generally, property owned by each spouse prior to the marriage remains the separate personal
property of that person.
А: Кому из супругов принадлежат вещи, которые находятся в их совместном пользовании?
В: If the personal possessions are "commingled", they become marital property, i.e. assets that belong to
both parties.
А: А вещи, приобретенные супружеской парой после вступления в брак?
В: Things that the couple acquires after they are married (including wedding gifts) are considered joint
assets owned by both parties.
А: Как решается вопрос с недвижимостью?
В: Real estate is somewhat different. The ownership of a piece of real estate depends on whose name is
on the deed. If only one party's name is on the deed as the owner of the property, only that person is the
legal owner of the property.
However, even if only one spouse in named on a deed, the other spouse may have a right to share in the
property if it was obtained with marital funds or if it would otherwise be unfair to exclude him or her
from sharing in the value of the property. Such might be the case if they had lived together as a married
couple in the property for several years.
А: По каким принципам производится раздел имущества супругов при разводе?
В: If the couple has no prenuptial agreement, it depends on the laws of each state. Three basic systems
govern how property is divided in a divorce. They are:
• title;
• community property;
• equitable distribution.
The title system of distribution is not used any more because it is considered unfair. Under this system, each
asset was divided based on whose name it was held in. The unfairness of this system has led to its
replacement in most states by equitable distribution. Here, the basic idea is that the property acquired during
a marriage is jointly owned by both spouses. But equitable distribution does not necessarily mean equal
distribution, and ownership does not automatically split fifty-fifty between the two. At the time of the
divorce a judge must decide how the property should be distributed so that the distribution should be fair
and just (equitable). Forty-one states and the District of Columbia divide property in this manner.
While equitable distribution is the system used in the majority of states, there are nine community
property states. The idea of community property is that everything a husband and wife acquire once they
are married is owned equally (fifty-fifty) by both of them, regardless of who provided the money to purchase
the asset or whose name the asset is held in.
А: Как в случае развода решается проблема с собственностью, которой владел каждый из
супругов до вступления в брак ?
В: Under both equitable distribution and community property systems that property remains separate
and does not get split during the divorce. The same is true of any personal gifts or inheritances a spouse
35
receives during the marriage. However, if personal assets are not kept separate, they may be converted
into marital property and then the other spouse may be entitled to a share.
А: А как может быть разрешена ситуация с домом, в котором проживала супружеская пара, если
до их бракосочетания дом принадлежал лишь одному из супругов?
В: Things that the spouses owned prior to their marriage remain separate property. However, in an
equitable distribution state it may not be fair to exclude one spouse from sharing in the value of the
house, especially if he or she has helped pay the mortgage or has made improvements in the house.
Task 8. Translate into English paying attention to the word combinations in bold.
1. Имущественные отношения в семье более подвластны правовому регулированию,
чем личные неимущественные.
2. Имущественные правоотношения между супругами — это урегулированные нормами
семейного права общественные отношения, возникающие между супругами из
брака, по поводу их общей совместной собственности, а также их взаимного материального содержания.
3. Законом выделено два правовых режима имущества супругов - законный и
договорный. Законный режим имущества супругов действует, если брачным
договором не установлено иное.
4. Раздел общего имущества супругов может быть произведен как в период брака, так и
во время его расторжения или после расторжения брака. Раздел общей совместной
собственности возможен по взаимному согласию, а при его отсутствии — в судебном
порядке.
5. Суть раздела сводится к определению долей каждого из супругов в их общем
имуществе. Не все общее имущество супругов подлежит безусловному разделу.
6. В условиях становления и развития рыночной экономики особое значение имеет
договорный режим имущества супругов, предусмотренный в брачном договоре.
36
UNIT 6
Prenuptial agreements.
Property on Divorce (II)
VOCABULARY
antenuptial agreement ( pre-marital, pre-nuptial) брачный контракт, добрачный договор,
добрачное соглашение (об имущественных отношениях будущих супругов)
post-nuptial agreement имущественный договор, заключенный между супругами после
бракосочетания
windfall receipts случайные доходы (семьи)
heirloom фамильная собственность; фамильная ценность
settlement зд. 1) урегулирование(интересов сторон) 2) акт распоряжения имуществом
(в пользу кого-л.); акт установления доверительной собственности; акт учреждения
семейного имущества
undertaking 1) принятая обязанность; положение, постановление договора 2) предприятие
retention зд. удержание вещи; право удержания (применительно к вещи, определённой
родовыми признаками)
disposition 1) отчуждение (имущества) ; распоряжение (имуществом) 2) постановление,
положение (договора, закона) 3) разрешение дела; решение по делу
Task 1.
Provide the Russian counterparts for the following English words and
combinations.
non-disclosure
indissoluable union
to contract out of obligation
settlement culture
to conduct discretional exercise
judicial reluctance
asset
trustee
recital(s)
ancillary relief
non-compliance
to evict
Task 2. Study the Russian Family Code Chapter VIII , articles 40-44 and section VII, article
161 (see the Appendix).
a) Make your own glossary of the legal terms in English. Look up for their Russian
counterparts. Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b) Student A: Translate the questions into English.
Student B: Answer the questions.
1. Когда может быть заключен брачный договор? Каков срок его действия?
2. Могут ли супруги посредством брачного договора изменить режим совместной
собственности, установленный законом?
3. Какие типы собственности могут быть упомянуты в брачном договоре?
4. Какие требования предъявляются к составлению брачных договоров супругами –
гражданами Российской Федерации, а также при участии иностранного элемента?
5. Законодательство какого государства, при наличии иностранного элемента,
определяет имущественные права и обязанности супругов?
6. Какие обстоятельства могут привести к признанию договора не действительным?
7. Какие условия необходимы для расторжения брачного договора?
37
Task 3. a) Translate the text in writing paying attention to the words and grammar
constructions in bold.
Pre-Marital and Post-Marital Agreements in the UK
A pre-marital agreement is an agreement entered into by a man and woman on
contemplation of marriage which deals with the financial arrangements that they are to make
should their marriage end in divorce. People are increasingly making them, particularly
where substantial assets are involved. Post-marital agreements are similar to pre-marital
agreements except that they are made during marriage.
Although couples are free to make pre-marital (or post-marital) agreements governing the
distribution of property and finance should their marriage break down, they are not completely
free to do as they like. Thus, the terms of the agreement cannot limit or oust the divorce court's
powers to make property and finance orders, and either party to the agreement can still opt to apply
for property and finance orders on divorce.
At one time there was considerable judicial reluctance to uphold these agreements. They
were considered to be contrary to public policy as they undermined the institution of marriage. In
fact, only in 1995, Thorpe LJ had stated in F v. F (Ancillary Relief: Substantial Assets) [1995] that such
agreements were of 'very limited significance' in England and Wales. In recent years, however, there
has been a change of attitude, and the benefits of such agreements are recognised as an important
part of the settlement culture. However, they are not necessarily binding, as the court has the
ultimate say and will take the agreement into account when conducting its discretional exercise,
either as one of the circumstances of the case under s.25 or as conduct which it would be
inequitable to disregard under s.25(2)(g). Depending on the circumstances, however, the general
approach of the courts is that agreements freely negotiated between the parties to a marriage
should be upheld, unless they were unfairly entered into or they create injustice.
Edgar v. Edgar is still the leading case on private agreement, but in X v. X (Y and Z
Intervening) [2002] , where the wife was held to the agreement - because she had willingly entered
into it with the benefit of expert advice –Munby J usefully listed the propositions which apply to
such agreements:
- The court must apply the s.25 criteria and reach a just result, what Lord Mcholls in
White v. White called the 'fair' result; but the fact that the parties have entered into an agreement is a
very important factor in considering what is fair.
- The court will not lightly allow parties to depart from an agreement, and agreements
should as a matter of general policy be upheld by the courts, unless contrary to public
policy or subject to some vitiating feature, such as lack of legal advice, duress or change of
circumstances.
- The mere fact that one party might have done better by going to court is not of itself
generally a ground for permitting that party to resile from an agreement. The court must
nonetheless have regard to all the circumstances, including, in particular, the circumstances
surrounding the making of the agreement, the extent to which the parties attached importance to
it, and the extent to which the parries have acted upon it. The relevant circumstances are not
limited to the purely financial aspects of the agreement, but social, personal, religious and cultural
considerations can also be taken into account.
Options for Reform - Pre- and Post-Marital Agreements
As the law currently stands, couples are free to make pre-marital and post-marital
agreements about their matrimonial assets, but the court retains a supervisory jurisdiction and
has a discretion to decide whether or not the terms of the agreement should be binding in the
circumstances.
The question has arisen, however, as to whether there should be legislative reforms to
make them legally binding. There has been a reluctance to do this because it would be contrary to
38
public policy in that it would undermine the idea of marriage as a life-long indissoluble union. It
would also remove the courts' willing to uphold them, and family lawyers are increasingly
having to advise clients about them, particularly in 'big money' cases, then perhaps it is time to
introduce legislative reform.
As long ago as 1997 Wilson J in S v. S (Divorce: Staying Proceedings) [1997] said that,
like other jurisdictions, such as in the USA and the European Union, 'we should be cautious about
too categorically asserting to the contrary'. In 1998, the Government mooted the possibility of
legislative reform to make such agreements legally binding, except, for example, where there were
children, or there had been no independent legal advice, or non-disclosure, or duress. In November
2004, Resolution recommended that s.25 Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 be amended to give the
court a duty to treat pre-marital and post-marital agreements as legally binding, subject to the
overriding safeguard of significant injustice to either party or to any minor child of the family.
Task 4. Read the text and translate it in written form.
Advantages of Making Marital Agreements Legally Binding
- Creates greater certainty as the parties, not the courts, are responsible for regulating
financial and property matters.
- Reduces the need for costly, time-consuming and, sometimes, traumatic litigation.
Brings the law into line with the law in most of the rest of Europe.
- Brings the law into line with the law governing cohabitants, as they can enter into
private agreements.
- Gives the parties autonomy to choose how to regulate their own affairs.
- Brings the law into line with the increasing emphasis on settlement and agreement on
divorce.
Disadvantages
- There may be problems drafting agreements, and lawyers risk having negligence claims
brought against them for failing to draft them appropriately. A party may be unwilling to seek
legal advice.
- There may be problems of non-disclosure, duress, mistake and inequality of bargaining
power.
- It is difficult for agreements to make provision for future contingencies, for example the
birth ot children, ill-health of either party, loss of a job, or receipt of a windfall, such as an
inheritance or a lottery winning.
- The birth of children may cause particular problems, because, although it may be
appropriate for a spouse to contract out of any financial obligation to the other spouse, the parental
obligation to support and maintain children cannot be terminated by agreement.
- Although greater use of agreements will reduce lawyers' and court time spent in respect
of ancillary relief, cases are likely to be brought attacking such agreements on various grounds
(such as duress, non-disclosure, incapacity and hardship). It may be difficult to draft legislation to
protect against injustice and unfairness, and any legislation may lead to complexity.
-Negligence claims against lawyers may increase because of problems drafting such
agreements.
Although reform making these agreements binding would not be a universal panacea for
solving all the problems inherent in the current discretionary system of ancillary relief, there is
sound argument for reforming the law in order to encourage greater use of agreements. However,
any reforms will have to make provision for agreements to terminate on the birth of a child and
39
other triggering events (such as illness and unemployment), in order to avoid unfairness and
injustice.
Although there are currently no proposals to reform the law, the decision of the House of
Lords in Miller v. Miller has arguably made the case for making pre-nuptial agreements binding
even stronger. People may wish to safeguard their assets on entering into marriage, particularly
where those assets are significant. Furthermore, the Law Commission's proposals for reforms of
the law governing property and finance for cohabitants make provision for cohabitation contracts,
which makes the case for allowing married couples to make binding agreements even more
persuasive. It would seem somewhat discriminatory to allow cohabitants to enter into binding
contracts, but not married couples. Permitting pre-nuptial agreements to be binding (subject to
certain safeguards) would also fit well with the settlement culture that pervades the family justice
system. As Morley ([2006] Fam Law 772) says, the issue is fundamentally 'one of paternalism
versus individual responsibility'. Referring to the case of Hyman v. Hyman [1929] (which held
that pre-nuptial agreements contravened public policy), Morley states that 'society has changed
dramatically since 1929', and that '[j]ust because the courts are supposed to have an almost
unfettered discretion does not prevent them from enforcing prenuptial agreements that comply
with whatever rules the courts deem fit'.
In July 2007 the Pre-Nuptial Agreement Bill was introduced into the House of Commons
by Quentin Davies MP as a private member’s bill to provide for the enforceability of pre-nuptial
agreements but this was not taken forward by the Government.
Task 5. Render the following text in Russian paying attention to the words and grammar
constructions in bold.
Ancillary Relief Cases with a Foreign Twist
Choice of Law
Once an English court has accepted jurisdiction in an application for ancillary relief under the
Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 [after an English divorce] or the Matrimonial and Family Proceedings
Act 1984 [after a foreign divorce], the court will apply English law to the dispute, regardless of the
nationality of the parties or other connection with another jurisdiction. This contrasts with the position
in many other jurisdictions where an ancillary relief application involving UK nationals would be
judged pursuant to English law as a result of which expert evidence as to English law is frequently
relied upon. The European Commission is currently implementing Rome III which will come into
force on 1st March 2008 and will harmonize the applicable law in ancillary relief cases such that it
might be the local law, a law of the parties' choice, or the law of closest connection to the parties or the
marriage. However, the UK together with Ireland and Malta has decided not to opt into these
provisions. Is there though a way of getting foreign law in through the back door? This might be
particularly relevant in a case where the parties had entered a pre-nuptial settlement abroad; for example
in Spain parties can opt upon marriage for a particular property regime which might effectively exclude
from consideration assets brought into the marriage. Two earlier Court of Appeal decisions
suggesting that foreign law has no place in English ancillary relief proceedings might not now be
considered as good law – Dart v Dart [1996] , no consideration given to USA divorce law in Michigan
and Thyssen-Bornemisza v Thyssen-Bornemisza [1985] – no consideration to Swiss divorce law.
Given the current state of the law, is a party now justified in calling expert evidence in
relation to foreign law, for example in relation to the enforceability of a pre-nuptial agreement?
Can a party claim the costs of doing so? These issues remain unresolved.
Foreign Property
One of the most common situations is the foreign holiday home. At common law all courts have
40
exclusive jurisdiction in relation to land situated within that country - see Dicey 14th Edition
Rules 121 and 122. However, this rather blunt rule is subject to various exceptions, some of
which are relevant to ancillary relief.
It is vital to bear in mind when drafting ancillary relief orders that orders in relation to
foreign property are to be avoided at all costs as they cannot be enforced against the property
itself. The only remedy in relation to enforcement is against a party. Thought should therefore
be given to providing for a fallback position in the case of non-compliance.
Essentially there are three possible ways of dealing with foreign property:
(i) SALE – there may be a tax liability both in UK and in foreign country if proceeds are brought
back into UK. Expert advice will be needed from a local lawyer as to practical requirements of
sale – will the parties need to be present or can they provide powers of attorney, how can this be
regulated,
who
will
accept
the
proceeds
of
sale
etc?
(ii) TRANSFER OF TITLE. There is a possibility of UK CGT even in relation to the principal
residence if the transfer is more than 3 years after separation or in the tax year following
separation/divorce. Clearly if the property is a second home, UK CGT is likely. Many
jurisdictions impose a gift tax on transfers between spouses so it may be more appropriate to deal
with
the
issue
as
a
sale
to
avoid
local
tax.
(iii) RETENTION – expert advice should be taken for the parties continuing to own property in
joint names when they are no longer married. If the intention is for the parties to hold property on
trust for themselves jointly, concepts of trust may not be recognised locally and so other
documentation may be needed. Forced heirship and taxation on death need to be considered, as
in civil jurisdictions including Spain, the remaining ex spouse can find themselves evicted upon
the death of the other.
(from Ancillary Relief Cases with a Foreign Twist: Practical Considerations by Sarah L
ucy
Cooper, Thomas More Chambers, Internet )
Task 6. Read the text and insert the missing prepositions. Translate into Russian in written
form.
Applications for Ancillary Relief after a Foreign Divorce
1. Under Part III of the Matrimonial and Family Proceedings Act 1984 a person who has
divorced outside England and Wales can apply ... ancillary relief in the courts in England
and Wales, but only if the court grants leave to apply, which it can do if there is a
substantial ground ...... making the application (s.13).
2. Under s.16 the court must consider whether England and Wales is the appropriate venue
..... the application and must have regard ....... a number of specified matters , such as: the
connection that the parties have with England and Wales, the country where they were
divorced and any other country; and any financial benefit the applicant or child ....... the
41
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
family has received or is likely to receive ......... agreement or ..... operation of law in
another country.
Consideration of these matters in s.16 acts ....... a threshold to prevent unmeritorious
applications and to avoid the abuse ... the purpose of the provision . Once leave has been
granted, ss.17 and 18 provide that the court can exercise its ancillary relief powers under
Part II of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 having regard .... the s.25 factors .
The overriding principle ..... fairness laid down in White v. White and endorsed in Miller
v. Miller will also apply. Because .... the need ...... finality ...... litigation and the
principle ...... comity between nations, leave to apply ...... ancillary relief ..... the courts in
the UK is only likely to be granted ...... exceptional cases.
As the purpose of the 1984 Act is 'to remit hardships which have been experienced .......
the past in the presence of a failure ...... a foreign jurisdiction ....... afford appropriate
financial relief (Purchas LJ in Holmes v. Holmes [1989]), the courts have used their leave
powers sparingly.
In Hewitson v. Hewitson [1995] the Court ...... Appeal refused ...... grant leave ..... the
wife, because a court ....... competent jurisdiction in California had made the consent order,
which had been negotiated by lawyers, and was designed to be comprehensive and final.
She was not therefore entitled to ' two bites of the cherry’.
In M v. M [1994] an application .... a wife ...... ancillary relief in England after a French
divorce was refused. However, in A v. S [2002], where the court in Texas, USA, had
awarded the wife practically nothing ...... the basis .......the doctrine ..... community of
property, Bodey J took a generous approach, and, while recognising the need ....... caution
when an overseas court had already ruled ........ the matter, nonetheless granted leave .........
order to do justice .................... the parties.
An application ........... leave to apply ........... ancillary relief in England and Wales is
unlikely ....... succeed where the application is made solely ........ the purpose .........
enforcing a foreign order (see Jordan v, Jordan [1999], where the application was ..........
essence an application to enforce a Californian court order). However, if the foreign
enforcement procedures and reciprocal enforcement procedures have been exhausted, or
are manifestly inadequate, leave may be granted (see Lamagni v. Lamagni [1995] where
the wife was granted leave because ...... her fruitless attempts .......enforce Belgian court
orders ......... financial relief ...... Belgium).
Task 7. Match the terms with their definitions and translate from English into Russian.
1. ancillary relief
2. consent order
3. maintenance
4. maintenance
pending suit
5. marital property
a. an order by a court in England and Wales that an
individual pays some of their pension, on retirement, to
their spouse. Such orders are relatively infrequently
made, having been somewhat superseded by pension
sharing orders
b. an order by a court in England and Wales that adjusts the
ownership of property. Such an order can transfer
property (e.g. a house) from one spouse to another or it
can transfer it from joint names into the name of just one.
c. property and debt that a couple acquire during their
marriage
d. a property inhabited by a married couple
e. regular payments by one party of a marriage to another in
the UK (known as ‘alimony' in the US). Such payments
can be by court order or by agreement and can be either
42
6. matrimonial home
7. pension
ear
marking order
8. pension
order
sharing
9. property
adjustment order
to provide for the other party, or for the children, or for
both.
f. a temporary order by a court in England and Wales for
maintenance to be paid until ancillary relief proceedings
are concluded
g. in England and Wales a financial claim brought by a
spouse through the courts when petitioning for divorce,
nullity or judicial separation. An application for it can
be for a capital sum, maintenance payments, a property
adjustment or a combination thereof.
h. an order by a court in England and Wales that gives a
proportion of one spouse's pension rights to the other.
The order is carried out directly rather than on
retirement (in contrast to a pension ear-marking order).
i. in England and Wales, an agreement (often financial)
between parties which has been made legally binding
and enforceable by a court
Task 8. Student A: You are a journalist. Translate the questions into English.
Student B: You are a British lawyer. Translate the answers into Russian . Summarise the
most significant issues mentioned in the dialogue in writing.
A: Как известно, добрачное соглашение – это контракт между людьми, заключенный до
момента вступления пары в брачные отношения. В нем указывается урегулирование
финансовых и других вопросов, возникающих в случае развода. Что еще можно сказать о нем?
В: Generally speaking, prenuptial agreements are recognized as valid agreements amongst people if the
terms of the agreement are valid and, moreover, if everything involving the agreement takes place. And
those kinds of things generally that are required is that you have to have a full and complete
understanding and disclosure of the assets, there needs to be independent counsel, and there needs not to
be any duress or any undue influence.
And we interpret that to mean a lot of times that you don't want an agreement that the parties are signing
right when they're getting ready to walk down the aisle and the guests have been invited.
А: Что может быть включено в брачный договор? Какие условия брачного договора можно
назвать юридически обоснованными, а какие нет?
В: Well, something that would be detrimental to the society. I mean, it could be that there'll be no child
support being paid, and if somebody's going to be on public welfare or assistance, certainly that would
create difficulties for the state. But generally the kinds of terms that are included are terms having to do
with assets and/or liabilities that people bring into the marriage. And yes, lots of times, I think early on
probably the wealthy were those that used them the most .
A: Только известные актеры и другие знаменитости?
В: Yes, absolutely. But it's becoming really more and more commonplace.
43
A: Даже во время кризиса (recession)? Оказывает ли кризис какое-то влияние на эти договоры?
В : Well, what's happened as a result of the recession are the assets that people are protecting are worth
less. But they're still being protected. And people are thinking about their assets going into a marriage,
thinking about, you know, 'Well, I do want to hold on to what little I do have now in comparison to
what I had before the recession.'
A: Кто составляет окончательный вариант соглашения - юрист или сами люди, вступающие в
брак? Можно ли составить свой собственный договор?
В: It's a contract, and so depending on contract law, people are free to contract, typically. But the
question is, one of the elements oftentimes is that people have independent counsel or have the ability to
have retained independent counsel, so that the [agreement] that has been reached can be scrutinized.
An example of a prenuptial agreement that wouldn't be upheld would be one that would leave
somebody out penniless and a public charge. And the court then would say 'We cannot enforce this
prenuptial agreement because it's not equitable.
А: Можно задать Вам личный вопрос? У Вас есть брачный договор?
В: I am married. It'll be thirty-seven years in June. When my husband and I entered in our marriage, we
were just really sort of building from the beginning. And that's one of those examples when you're not
coming in with much and you build yourselves. So there really wasn't a need for us to have a prenuptial
agreement when we married."
A: А можно ли заключить брачный договор после бракосочетания?
В: No, but people do do that. And we've not had a need to do that, but that is another contract between
people. And in that instance it would be between married people. And there has to be consideration,
there has to be a bargain in exchange for entering into the agreement. It's not just keeping the marriage
together in some instances. There has to be a real reason to have a postnuptial agreement. But people are
finding those very useful as well.
(from “ Prenup: The Legal Language of Love for Couples About to Marry”, interview with Marlene
Moses, 03 February 2009, Internet)
Task 9. Render the text into English.
УСЛОВИЯ БРАЧНОГО ДОГОВОРА
Согласно брачному договору, супруги могут установить режим совместной, долевой или
раздельной собственности на все имущество, на его отдельные виды или на имущество каждого
из супругов, причем брачный договор может быть заключен в отношении как имеющегося, так и
будущего
имущества.
Брачный договор не ограничивает правоспособность или дееспособность супругов, а
также их право на обращение в суд за защитой своих интересов. Брачный договор не может
регулировать личные неимущественные отношения между супругами, права и обязанности
супругов в отношении детей, поскольку все эти вопросы решаются законом - семейным
кодексом РФ. Брачный договор не предусматривает положений, ограничивающих право
нетрудоспособного, нуждающегося супруга на получение содержания, и не оговаривает другие
44
условия, которые ставят одного из супругов в крайне неблагоприятное положение или
противоречат основным началам семейного законодательства Российской Федерации.
Например, в брачный договор, заключенный в России, супруги хотели включить следующее
условие: все имущество перейдет к жене, если муж будет пить. Однако нотариус отказался
сделать это, посчитав кабальным для мужа. В то же время он не возражал против включения в
другой брачный договор условия, что все доходы мужа, нынешние и будущие, будут
принадлежать только ему. Муж, крупный бизнесмен, мотивировал свое желание включить такой
пункт в договор так: “Обеспечить жену во время семейной жизни я смогу “выше крыши”, но при
разводе
отдавать
ей
половину
не
собираюсь”.
Хотя жена и подписала этот договор в присутствии нотариуса, я полагаю, что суд при
возникновении спора признает его недействительным на основании Статьи 169 Гражданского
кодекса Российской Федерации, рассматривающей это условие, как сделку, противоречащую
основам
правопорядка
и
нравственности.
ДЕЙСТВИТЕЛЬНЫ ЛИ РОССИЙСКИЕ БРАЧНЫЕ КОНТРАКТЫ В АМЕРИКЕ
Если брак и брачный договор были заключены в России, а дело о разводе и разделе
имущества рассматривается в Америке, американский суд будет считаться с условиями брачного
контракта только при условии, что он: а) был заключен в полном соответствии с законами
Российской Федерации; б) условия контракта не противоречат public policy of USA, т. е. основам
американского
правопорядка.
Так, например, супруги Татьяна и Сергей К. зарегистрировали брак в Москве,
предварительно заключив брачный договор, которым было предусмотрено, что в случае покупки
недвижимости она будет принадлежать только мужу. Супруги после заключения брака
приобрели дом в Подмосковье, который был зарегистрирован только на имя Сергея. После этого
они переехали в Америку, где купили дом. Как это принято в Америке, он был зарегистрирован
на имя обоих супругов. При разводе американский суд отказал Сергею в передаче американского
дома в его исключительную собственность, признав соответствующий пункт брачного договора,
заключенного в России, недействительным, противоречащим американскому правопорядку.
Кроме того, суд указал, что, согласно принципам международного частного права, в том числе и
России, споры по разделу недвижимого имущества рассматриваются по законам
местонаxождения этого имущества. По законам штата, где был куплен и находится дом, он
принадлежит супругам как общая собственность, так как был приобретен на имя обоих супругов.
Что касается дома в Подмосковье, судьба его будет решена российским судом по
местонаxождению этого дома. Либо в другом суде - по правилам подсудности, существующем в
России.
Разумеется, вышеприведенными примерами не исчерпываются все случаи применения брачного
договора - абсолютно нового явления в законодательстве России. Однако со временем появится
и постановление Верxовного суда России, и судебная практика, разьясняющая применение этого
полезного нововведения в российском семейном праве.
( from. «Русский Базар», №3(665), 15 - 21 января, 2009), электронная версия П.С.
Рабинович. Раздел имущества супругов в Росси и Америке.
Договорный режим имущества супругов)
45
UNIT 7
Children on Family Breakdown.
VOCABULARY
custody of children опека над несовершеннолетними детьми (в случае развода получаемая
одним из родителей)
alternating custody/ split custody /divided custody разделение опеки над ребёнком между
разведёнными родителями (в этой ситуации ребенок, подобно теннисному мячику,
переходит от одного родителя к другому через определенные промежутки времени)
interim custody временная опека
joint custody совместная опека разведенных супругов над несовершеннолетними детьми
parental custody родительское попечение
family settlement соглашение об установлении режима семейной собственности
shared residence order решение суда, по которому ребенок должен проживать в разных
местах по месту жительства лиц, осуществляющих опеку (передача ребенка от одного лица
другому, со сменой места жительства)
periodical payment order решение суда об алиментных или др.платежах, осуществляемых
регулярно через равные промежутки времени
settlement property order приказ о распоряжении имуществом
legal redress правовая помощь
Task 1. Provide the Russian counterparts for these words and expressions.
primary-carer
residence dispute
statement of arrangements
transfer of property order
foster-parent
contact dispute
welfare report
ward of court
step-parent
privately fostered child
2. Study the Russian Family Code Section V, Chapter 13, articles 80- 86 and section VII,
article 161 (see the Appendix).
a) Make your own glossary of the legal terms in English. Look up for their Russian
counterparts. Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b) Student A:Translate the questions into English.
Student B: Answer the questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Каковы обязанности родителей по отношению к своим несовершеннолетним детям?
Как определяется размер алиментов?
Каковы особенности взыскания элементов?
Каков порядок участия родителей в несении дополнительных расходов на детей?
Законодательство какого государства определяет права и обязанности родителей в
смешанных браках?
Task 3. Listen to the teacher reading the text and translate it orally.
Child custody in Russia
When parents take a decision to separate, the question arises on who their child(ren)
should remain with. This is always a difficult moment for a parent. If the spouses are of different
nationalities this can lead to a situation where one of the parents and the child live in different
46
countries. The best option to resolve the issue is for the mother and father to maintain a cordial
relationship and work out an agreement. The main goal of every parent should be to avoid
psychological trauma to the child and not allow a situation where a child becomes a pawn in
their conflict. Parents sometimes put their own needs/arguments above the child's and this is
where the situation becomes difficult.
As a result, one of the main roles of a family lawyer in a divorce case is to operate as an
intermediary in negotiations (as well as providing legal assistance) between the two sides, to
understand the psychology of the conflict and seek to forge a compromise that satisfies all parties
and protects the children. If parents consider an oral agreement insufficient, Russian Family Law
allows for a written agreement to be concluded on custody and visitation issues. Having said that,
even a written agreement certified by a notary does not have the legal status required to trigger
enforcement . To give an agreement legal status, clients should come to such an agreement within
the framework of the court process, which in turn will give it legally enforceable status.
In the worst case scenario, the parties are unable to agree and a decision on who the child
lives with and what the visitation rights will be for the second parent comes down to a judge. The
Russian legal system typically views the best option for a child as remaining with their mother,
especially for an underage child who is unable to express their opinion on the matter before a
court. That aside, the key factors determining a court's decision on the child's place of residence
are: age, need for close care, each parent's ability to provide such care, living conditions, the
ability to provide accommodation, the existing order of the child's upbringing and, in the end,
the child's affection towards each parent. From the age of 10 a child's opinion must be taken into
account when the issue of custody is being decided and, as a rule, is a key factor in a judge's final
decision.
Illness, handicap and anti-social or aggressive behavior that could negatively impact the
physical or psychological development of a child are potential grounds for a court to reject a
custody request by a parent.
Different citizenships of parents has no bearing on a custody case. Russian law provides
for children emigrating or living in a foreign country if it is believed to be in the
child's best interests.
In contrast to many countries, in Russia a court rarely gives joint custody over a child
(i.e. the child dividing their time equally between both parents). In general, custody is given to
the mother. The second parent retains the right to visit the child, take them on weekends and
vacation together; a court sets the exact schedule for visitations. In doing so, the judge takes into
account the parents' work schedules, the child's schooling and/or other commitments, the child's
health and any doctors' recommendations.
Task 4. Translate the text in writing paying attention to the words and grammar
constructions in bold.
Children on Family Breakdown: the UK
Part I
The Duty to Children in Divorce Proceedings
An important policy objective of the law of divorce is to protect the best interests of
children. In furtherance of this objective, the petitioner must file with the divorce court a
Statement of Arrangements for Children setting out required information about any child of the
family under the age of 16 or over that age if he or she is still receiving education or training
.The court's duty must be exercised in respect of any child of the family age under 16,
unless it directs otherwise. A 'child of the family' includes not just parents' own child but a nonmarital child of one or both parties and any other children adopted by the parries as a child of the
family (but excluding a local authority foster-child) . Thus, the district judge must consider
arrangements for natural and adopted children, privately fostered children and step-children.
47
Having looked at the Statement of Arrangements the district judge will usually be
satisfied that there is no need for the court to exercise any of its powers under the Children Act, and
will certify to that effect. If not satisfied, he can direct that further evidence be filed, or order a
welfare report, or order that one or both parents attend court. In practice, however, the district
judge usually accepts the statements on the form and makes no further enquiries before granting
the final divorce decree. Even if there is a disputed issue the court will usually take the view
that any disputed matter can be dealt with at a subsequent hearing, and it will not delay the
divorce.
Residence Disputes
An unresolvable dispute about residence arrangements for a child on family breakdown
can be decided by applying for a residence order, which the High Court, county courts and
magistrates' family proceedings courts have jurisdiction to make under s.8 Children Act 1989.
Residence disputes often go hand in hand with contact disputes, as the non-resident
parent will usually wish to have contact with the child. Other parental disputes (for example
about education, medical treatment, taking a child out of the UK and changing the child's name)
can be decided by making an application for a prohibited steps or specific issue order which the
courts can also make under s.8 Children Act 1989. Some parents enter into disputes about financial
provision for their children on family breakdown, in particular child support.
Residence Orders
A residence order is an order 'settling the arrangements to be made as to the person with
whom a child is to live' (s.8(l) Children Act 1989).
Before the Children Act 1989 came into force in October 1991 parental disputes about
children on family breakdown were resolved in custody proceedings, where a sole or joint
custody order would usually be granted with care and control to one parent (usually the mother)
and access to the other (usually the father). However, in discussions leading up to the Children Act
the Law Commission had criticised the term 'custody' (and 'care and control' and 'access'), because
'custody' created a parental claim right and had the potential to increase hostility and bitterness
between parents which was detrimental for' their children.
Under s.ll(4) Children Act 1989 the court can make a 'shared' residence order, which is a
residence order 'made in favour of two or more persons who do not all live together', and which
'specifies the periods during which the child is to live in the different households concerned'
(s.ll(4)). When considering whether or not to make the order, the court must apply the welfare
test and the other welfare provisions in s.l Children Act 1989.
Over the years, however, judges have become more willing to make shared residence
orders, and in the following case the Court of Appeal relaxed its earlier restrictions on making
them, and held that it was no longer necessary to show exceptional circumstances in order to
obtain an order. For example, in D v. D (Shared Residence Order) [2001] a pattern had been
established on marriage breakdown whereby the three children spent substantial periods of time
with each parent, but where the arrangements were subject to a high degree of animosity
between the parents and frequent legal proceedings had been brought to sort out the details. The
father applied for a shared residence order, which was granted at first instance. The mother
appealed. The Court of Appeal dismissed her appeal, and held that, contrary to earlier case-law, it
was not necessary to show that exceptional circumstances existed before a shared order could
be granted, and neither was it probably necessary to show a positive benefit to the child. What
must be shown is that the order is in the child's best interests in accordance with the welfare
principle in s.l Children Act 1989. Here, on the facts, it was necessary to make the shared order to
lessen the animosity between the parties.
(from Kate Standly “Family Law” 2008, pp. 294-295,
334-339, abridged)
48
Task 5. Read the text and render it into Russian.
Children on Family Breakdown: the UK
Part II
Finance and Property Orders for Children from the Courts
In addition to maintenance for children, which is available from the courts in a residual
category of cases, the court can make lump sum orders and property orders to or for the benefit of
a child. These powers can be exercised in divorce (nullity and judicial separation) proceedings,
and in proceedings for the dissolution (annulment or separation) of a civil partnership.
Orders for Children on Divorce and Dissolution of a Civil Partnership
Under Part II of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973 the divorce court can make periodical
payments orders (maintenance) and lump sum orders for a child in proceedings for divorce (or
annulment or judicial separation). A 'child of the family' includes the parents' own child, any stepchild and a privately fostered child (but not a child in authority care). The divorce court can also
make the following property orders to or for the benefit of a child of the family: a transfer of
property order; a settlement property order; an order varying an ante-nuptial agreement; a postnuptial settlement for the benefit of the child; and an order for the sale of property.
The above orders can be made to or for the benefit of (s.29): a child under 18; and a child
over 18 who is, will be, or would be (if an order were made), receiving instruction at an
educational establishment or undergoing training for a trade, profession or vocation, of where
special circumstances justify an order being made.
When exercising its discretion to decide whether to make an order and, if so, in what
manner, the court must consider all the circumstances of the case, including in particular: the
child's financial needs, income, earning capacity (if any), property and other financial resources;
any physical or mental disability of the child; and the manner in which the child is expected to be
educated or trained. It must also take into account such factors as the spouses resources and
financial needs, the standard of living enjoyed by the family befog marriage breakdown and any
disability of either spouse.
Where the court is exercising its powers against a spouse in favour of a child of the family
who is not a child of that party (such as a step-child) the court must also have regard to: whether
that party assumed any responsibility for child maintenance and, if so, the extent to which, and the
basis upon which, that party assumed responsibility and the length of time for which that party
discharged such responsibility , etc.
Finance and Property Orders for Children Under the Children Act 1989
On an application by a parent, guardian or special guardian of a child, or by any person in
whose favour a residence order is in force with respect to a child, the court may make any of the
following orders against either or both parents to a child (including a stepparent):
- a periodical payments order (secured or unsecured);
- a lump sum order, provided that such an order may be made to enable expenses in
connection with the birth or maintenance of the child, which were reasonably incurred before the
making of the order, to be met ;
- a settlement of property order;
- a transfer of property order.
These orders can be made in favour of the applicant for the benefit of the child, or in
favour of the child - except for a settlement of property order which can only be made for
the benefit of the child. The High Court and the county court can make any of these orders, but the
powers of the magistrates in the family proceedings court are limited. Periodical payments
(unsecured and secured) can be varied and discharged. The court can make further periodical
49
payments orders (unsecured or secured) and lump sum orders with respect to a child who has not
reached the age of 18, but it cannot make more than one settlement of property order and more
than one transfer of property order.
The court may make periodical payments orders and lump sum orders for a child aged
over 18 against one or both parents (but not against a step-parent or foster-parent). The court can
make these orders on the application of a child aged over 18 who is, will be, or (if an order were
made) would be, receiving instruction at an educational establishment or undergoing training for a
trade, profession or vocation. The court can also make an order where special circumstances exist.
Task 6. Match the terms with their definitions and translate from English into Russian.
a. previously the term in the UK for the
parent who had chief rights over the
children. This term is still used in the US
b. an order by a court in England and Wales
that means that all decisions regarding a
child's upbringing must be approved by
the court
c. regular payments by one party of a
marriage to another in the US (known as
‘maintenance' in the UK)
d. the right of a parent of child in the US to visit each
1. alimony
2. child of the family
3. custody
4. guardian (children’s guardian)
other when the child resides with the other parent
e. a court order in England and Wales stating
with whom a child will live
f. a standard court form in England and
Wales that must be completed to indicate
arrangements for the children. The form
must be submitted with the petition
g. regular payments by one party of a
marriage to another in the UK (known as
‘alimony' in the US). Such payments can
be by court order or by agreement and can
be either to provide for the other party, or
for the children, or for both
h. the rights and responsibilities of a parent
over his / her child (e.g. decisions about
education). In England and Wales adults
who are not a biological parent can have
parental responsibility and an adult can
apply to a court for parental responsibility
i. an individual appointed to represent the interests of
5. maintenance
6. parental responsibility
7. residence order
8. statement of arrangements
9. visitation
a child in England and Wales
j. in England and Wales this is a child who
has been treated by a married couple as a
child of the family. Step children can be
children of the family
10. ward of
court
Task 7. Translate the text in written form.
50
From “Dicey and Morris on the Conflict of Rules”, Chapter 19 , part B, “Effect of
Foreign Guardianship and Custody Orders”, pp.184-190.
Rule 97. (1) Subject to clause (2) of this Rule and to the provisions of international
conventions given effect by the Child Abduction and Custody Act 1985, a custody order made by
a foreign court does not prevent an English court from making such custody orders in England in
respect of the child as, having regard to his welfare, it thinks fit.
(2) A custody order made by a court in any other part of the United Kingdom and in
force with respect to a child who has not attained the age of sixteen will be recognised in England
as if it had been made by the appropriate English court and as if that court had had jurisdiction to
make
it.
(3) A custody order recognised under clause (2) of this Rule and registered in the
appropriate court in England will be enforced in England.
................................................................................................................................................
....
International conventions. The Child Abduction and Custody Act 1985 gives the force of
law in the United Kingdom to two international conventions concluded in 1980. Each convention
seeks to protect existing rights of custody and to discourage the international abduction of
children in breach of those rights; read together with the provisions of the 1985 Act they establish
practical mechanisms to achieve these ends.13 In consequence, where a child so abducted is to be
found in England and one of the conventions applies the powers of the English courts to review
the merits and to form their own judgment as to what best serves the welfare of the child are
largely eliminated.
(a) The European Convention. A European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement
of Decisions concerning Custody of Children and on the Restoration of Custody of Children was
prepared under the auspices of the Council of Europe and signed on May 20, 1980. The 1985 Act
gives effect to the provisions of Convention dealing .with the recognition and enforcement of
decisions, but not those dealing with abduction where the provisions of the later Hague Convention are preferred. If applications are made to the English court under both conventions, that
under the Hague Convention is to be dealt with first.
For the purposes of the European Convention, a decision relating to custody is a
decision of a judicial or administrative authority in so far as it relates to the care of the person of a
child, including the right to decide on the place of his residence, or to the right of access to him;
and a child means any person under 16 years of age who has not the right to decide on his own
place of residence under the law of his habitual residence, the law of his nationality or the internal
law of the State addressed. A decision relating to custody given in a Contracting State is to be
recognised, and where it is enforceable in the State of origin made enforceable, in the United
Kingdom.
A foreign decision within these provisions is recognised in England as if made by an
English court having jurisdiction to make it.
b) Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
..............................................................................................................................................
Choice of law. Whenever the court has jurisdiction to make a maintenance order under
the Guardianship of Minors Act 1971, or the Children act 1989 which is to replace [....] it will
apply English law, even if the parties are domiciled abroad. In English law, the duty of a parent to
maintain a child generally ceases when the child reaches the age of majority, but under some
foreign systems the duty may last longer, or there may be a duty on the child to maintain his
51
parents. The direct enforcement of such duties in England would appear to be impossible
because the court would have no jurisdiction to entertain the proceedings. But a question of
indirect enforcement might arise (and has indeed arisen) if, for example, some person or
authority outside England maintained an adult child domiciled abroad and then claimed to
recover the amount from the child's parent in England. In such circumstances the law of the
parent's domicile appears to govern with the result that, if he is domiciled in England, the claim
fails. Even if the parent is domiciled abroad, the enforcement of a duty to maintain an adult child
might be regarded as contrary to public policy.
Task 8. Fill in the gaps with prepositions. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Where the court is exercising its powers … the spouse … favour .. a child .. the family
who is not a child … that party (such as a step-child) the court must also have regard … :
whether that party assumed any responsibility … child maintenance, and, if so, the extent
… which that party assumed such responsibility and the length .. time … which that party
discharged that responsibility.
2. Either spouse can apply … the county court …. reasonable maintenance …. the ground
that the other spouse has a) failed …. provide reasonable maintenance …. the applicant b)
has failed …. provide , or …. make proper contributions towards, reasonable maintenance
…. any child …. the family.
3. Periodical payments orders can be varied or discharged ….. the application … any person
…. or ….whom payments were required to be made. The court must have regard …. all the
circumstances … the case, including any change …any … the matters …. which the court
was … have regard when making the order.
4. …. respect …. the home, the court will usually make a settlement …. property order
settling the home …. the primary-carer …. the benefit …. the child, so that ownership will
revert back …. the owner …. the end ….. the child’s dependency or full-time education.
5. The court will guard ….. claims disguised as being …. the benefit …. a child when they
are really …. the benefit …. the parent who is caring… the child.
6. Parenting plans contain information , guidance and ideas …. issues that parents need ….
consider …. their children …. family breakdown, and include sections that parents can
complete if they wish … record their decisions …. arrangements …. the children.
7. … private law cases the Children and Family Reporter provides the court …. advice and
recommendations …. the matters relating …the welfare … the child; they also perform an
important conciliatory role … trying …. help parents reach agreements ….. arrangements
… children.
8. … determining whether the interference … family life was necessary … a democratic
society, consideration … what lies … the best interests … the child is …. crucial
importance.
Task 9. (A) Student A: You are a journalist. Translate the questions into English.
Student B: You are a Russian lawyer. Translate the answers into Russian .
(B) Summarise the lawyer’s opinion in writing.
А: Согласно российскому законодательству, на кого возлагаются родительские права, если
родители состоят в браке на момент рождения ребенка?
В: According to Russian law parental responsibility is coupled to the legal filial link between the
child and the parent, not the marriage between the parents.
52
If parents are married at the time of birth of a child, they both acquire parental responsibility by
virtue of a presumption of paternity of the husband of the mother of the child .
А: А если родители ребенка не состояли в браке, а заключили его после рождения ребенка?
В: Subsequent marriage of the parents has no influence on their parental responsibility. Russian
law bears no trace of legitimation by subsequent marriage. If the father of the child has recognised
the child or his paternity has been established by a court order, he acquires full parental
responsibility and shares joint parental responsibility with mother. These acts can take place before
or after the marriage of the parents. If those acts did not take place, the marriage of the parents can
not substitute them.
А: Влияет ли развод на осуществление родительских прав?
В: Divorce has no formal affect on parental responsibility. Parents always retain joint
responsibility after divorce. Their parental rights and duties remain formally equal. However, the
Russian experience of almost eighty years teaches that when joint parental responsibility is always
the case , the post-divorce problems shift from the issue of attribution of parental responsibility to
the that of determination of the child’s residence and the participation of the non-residential parent
in the upbringing of the child.
А: При каких обстоятельствах уполномоченные органы разрешают изменение места
жительства ребенка ( в пределах одной страны или с вывозом за рубеж) без согласия лица,
осуществляющего родительские права?
В: The law does not contain any definition of the child’s residence; legal literature interprets the
term ‘residence’ as living together with one of the parents whenever she or he decides to set up
home.80 If the child’s residence is determined by a court order, the term residence is understood in
this sense. This interpretation gives a parent the possibility to move with the child not only within
one city or area but all over the country without consent of the other parent and without asking for
alteration of a court order. The other parent can always ask the court to transfer the child’s
residence to him or her, but in order to make this claim successful he or she needs to provide
evidence that the transfer of residence would be more beneficial to the child than remaining with
the other parent. The non-residential parent cannot prohibit the residential parent from moving the
child’s residence within the
country.
А: А если место проживания ребенка согласовано между родителями?
В: If the residence of the child has been determined by an agreement between the parents , the
parents are free to stipulate in their agreement that the child should reside with one of them in a
certain place and that the residence cannot be changed without the consent of the nonresidential
parent. However, the enforceability of this will always depend on judicial scrutiny.
А: С учетом определения, данного Советом Европы, объясните понятие «контакты с
родителем».
В: The concept of contact encompasses the mutual rights of the child, and the parent who is living
apart from the child and the other relatives of the child to maintain personal relationships with
each other.
53
А: Могут ли родители устанавливать свой собственный режим контакта с ребенком?
Если да, то могут ли уполномоченные органы вмешиваться в эти договоренности?
В: Parents are free to make a contact agreement. The agreement must be in writing. The
arrangements are not subject to scrutiny by a competent authority. The law does not explicitly state
what happens if one of the parents violates a contact agreement. According to an influential
opinion, such agreements are not legally enforceable, their violation ‘cause no legal
consequences,’ and the agreement is no more than ‘a piece of evidence’.
А: Могут ли уполномоченные органы запрещать, ограничивать или иным способом влиять
на осуществление такого рода контактов родителей с детьми?
В: There is no specific legal provision empowering a competent authority to exclude or limit the
exercise of contact, or to subject it to certain conditions. However, the law gives the parent who
lives with the child the ability to refuse another parent contact with the child if ‘such contact
causes physical or psychological harm to the child or is detrimental to child’s moral development’.
The parent living apart from the child who does not agree with the refusal of contact upon this
ground can bring the case to the court. The court is then entitled to scrutinise whether the
invocation of the aforementioned provision has been justified. If the court finds that the contact
can indeed constitute a danger for physical or psychological health of the child, or to its moral
development, it can exclude or limit the contact, or subject the contact to certain conditions.
Task 10. Translate into English.
1. Алиментное обязательство — это урегулированное нормами семейного права
имущественное правоотношение, возникающее на основе соглашения сторон или
решения суда, в силу которого одни члены семьи обязаны предоставить содержание
другим ее членам, а последние вправе его требовать.
2. Одной из основных обязанностей родителей является предоставление содержания
своим несовершеннолетним детям, а также нетрудоспособным, нуждающимся
совершеннолетним детям. Как правило, эта обязанность исполняется без всякого
принуждения. При этом родители сами определяют размер, вид и порядок
предоставления содержания.
3. Если родители не предоставляют добровольно средства на содержание своих детей,
возникают алиментные обязательства, исполнение которых возможно на
основании соглашения об уплате алиментов, либо по решению суда.
4. При уплате алиментов по соглашению условия их взыскания и размер устанавливают
стороны. Соглашение заключается в письменной форме и подлежит нотариальному
удостоверению.
5. При отсутствии соглашения об уплате алиментов алименты взыскиваются в судебном
порядке. На содержание несовершеннолетних детей суд устанавливает ежемесячный
размер алиментов в долях по отношению к доходу родителя, обязанного уплачивать
алименты.
6. На содержание совершеннолетних нетрудоспособных, нуждающихся детей алименты
взыскиваются ежемесячно в твердой денежной сумме .
7. Алименты на детей, оставшихся без попечения родителей, оплачиваются опекунам
(попечителям) детей, их приемным родителям или зачисляются на счета
воспитательных учреждений, лечебных учреждений, учреждений социальной защиты
населения и других аналогичных учреждений, где находятся дети, и учитываются
отдельно по каждому ребенку.
54
UNIT 8
Adoption.
VOCABULARY
adoption order приказ суда в отношении усыновления(удочерения) ребенка
guardianship опека; попечительство
joint guardianship совместная опека; совместное попечительство
international trusteeship международная опека
natural / real parent фактический родитель
adopting / adoptive/ foster parent приёмный родитель
adopter приёмный отец, приёмная мать
adoptee усыновлённый, удочерённая; приёмный
trafficking in children торговля детьми
foster care попечительство приемной семьи
Task 1. Study the Russian Family Code, Section VII, article 165 (see the Appendix).
a) Make your own glossary of the legal terms in English. Look up for their Russian
counterparts. Compare it with your fellow-student’s, discuss and complete.
b) Student A: Translate the questions into English.
Student B: Answer the questions.
1. Законодательство какого государства регулирует усыновление (удочерение) на
территории РФ иностранными гражданами?
2. Какие статьи Семейного Кодекса РФ также применяются при таком усыновлении?
3. Каков порядок и прочие условия для усыновления иностранцами?
4. При каких условиях такое усыновление не может быть произведено?
5. Как осуществляется защита прав и законных интересов усыновляемого ребенка?
6. Признается ли действительным в РФ усыновление ребенка-гражданина РФ,
произведенное за пределами РФ?
Task 2. Listen to the teacher reading the text and interpret it into Russian.
Adoption in the UK
Adoption of a child is effected by a court order known as an adoption order which
extinguishes the parental responsibility of the child's birth parents, and other persons, and vests
it in the adopters. Adoption therefore involves the complete legal transference of parental
responsibility and makes the child a full legal member of the new family.
The law of adoption is laid down in the Adoption and Children Act 2002, which came
fully into force on 30 December 2005. This Act introduced a radically new law of adoption in
place of the 'old' law which had been contained in the Adoption Act 1976. It also made
important changes to the Children Act 1989 . At the international level, the Hague
Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry
Adoption 1993 is also part of adoption law in the UK. The European Convention for the
Protection of Human Rights is also relevant.
Adoption and Human Rights As adoption agencies and courts are public authorities for
the purposes of the Human Rights Act 1998 they must exercise their powers and duties in
compliance with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR).
They must ensure, in particular, that adoption is in the child's best interests, and that it does not
breach the right to family life of the child and the natural parents art. 8 ECHR. Any
interference with the right to family life of children and parents must be legitimate, necessary
and proportionate (art. 8(2)). The following case was decided by the European Court of
55
Human Rights, and must be taken into account by the courts in the UK as result of its
obligations under s.2(l) Human Rights Act 1998. In Johansen v. Norway (1997) 23 EHRR 33.
The child, who was in care, had been placed in a foster-home with a view to her
adoption, and the mother had been deprived of contact. The ECtHR held that: 'the mutual
enjoyment by parent and child of each other's company constitutes a fundamental element of
family life and that domestic measures hindering such enjoyment amount to an interference
with the right protected by art. 8.' The ECHR held that there had been a breach of the ECHR, as
the far-reaching measures taken were inconsistent with the aim of reuniting the mother and
child and should only have been taken in exceptional circumstances where they could be
justified in the best interests of the child.
But each case depends on its facts. In Soderbcick v. Sweden [1999] 1 FLR 250, for instance,
an adoption order was held not to breach art. 8 ECHR.
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is also relevant .
Task 3. Translate the text in writingpaying attention to the words and grammar constructions
in bold.
Eligibility for Adoption
(I) Who Can be Adopted? The child to be adopted must be under the age of 18 on the date of the
adoption application , but an adoption order can be made if the child reaches 18 before the
conclusion of adoption proceedings . An adoption order cannot be made, however, in any case
if the child has reached the age of 19, or is, or has been, married .
(II) Who Can Adopt? A wider range of applicants can apply for adoption under the 2002 Act than
under the 'old' law. Under the old law only married couples could make a joint application
for adoption, but under the 2002 Act civil partners and cohabiting couples (opposite-sex and
same-sex) can now apply . This has widened the pool of potential adopters for children in
care. Applicants must satisfy certain domicile and age limit requirements. Applications for an
adoption order can be made by a 'couple' or a sole applicant:
-
a couple: a 'couple' means 'a married couple, or two people who are civil partners of each
other, or two people (whether of different sexes or the same sex) living as partners in an
enduring family relationship . A 'couple' does not include two people if one of them is the other's
parent, grandparent, sister, brother, aunt or uncle . Each applicant must have attained the age of
21 , unless one of the couple is either the mother or father of the child, in which case that
person need only have attained the age of 18 .
-
a sole applicant: the applicant must have attained the age of 21, and must not be married .
However, a married person can make a sole application if the court is satisfied that: his or
her spouse cannot be found; or that they are separated permanently and are living apart; or
that the other spouse is incapacitated from applying because of physical or mental ill-health .
(IIi) Step-Parent and Partner Applicants A step-parent or partner of the parent of the child can make a
sole application to adopt a step-child or the child of his or her partner, provided the applicant
has attained the age of 21. This provision removes the anomaly under the old law which
required a step-parent to make a joint application for adoption with the child's parent. As an
alternative to adoption, a step-parent or partner might consider becoming a special guardian
of the child, or obtain parental responsibility for the child, or obtain a residence order in respect
of the child (which can be extended until the child reaches the age of 18) .
56
(IV) Domicile Requirements At least one of the couple or the single applicant must be domiciled
in part of the British Islands; or both of the couple have been, or the single applicant has been,
habitually resident in part of the British Islands for a period of not less than one year ending
with the date of the application .
Task 4. Read the text and render it into Russian.
Child Protection and Placement Agreements
A. Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, etc., for the Protection of Children 1996
The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children
(1996 International Laws: Children’s Rights – August 2007) covers a wide range of civil child
protection measures, “from orders concerning parental responsibility and contact to public
measures of protection or care, and from matters of representation to the protection of
children’s property.” The Preamble confirms “that the best interests of the child are to be a
primary consideration.” Article 2 stipulates that the Convention is applicable “to children from
the moment of their birth until they reach the age of 18 years.” The 1996 Convention provides
a structure to resolve disputes over contact and custody issues when parents are separated and
living in different countries and has uniform rules to determine which country’s authorities are
competent to take the necessary protection measures. Provisions on recognition and
enforcement ensure that primacy be given to decisions taken by the authorities of the country
where the child has his or her habitual residence, reinforcing provisions of the 1980 Hague
Convention (see below). There are also provisions on cooperation procedures to better protect
unaccompanied minors who cross borders and are in vulnerable situations and children placed
in alternative care across frontiers. The latter includes arrangements such as foster care and the
Islamic law institution of Kafala, a functional equivalent of adoption falling outside the scope
of the 1993 Intercountry Adoption Convention (see below).41
B. Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, etc., Relating to Adoptions 1965
The Hague Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Recognition of Decrees Relating
to Adoptions (1965 Convention), the first Hague Convention on the issue, apparently has no
contracting parties at present. The Convention is applicable “to all international adoptions, not
only where a child originated from another country but also to adoptions where the only
international aspect is the foreign nationality of the child.” It has been characterized as
incorporating four important provisions.
C. Hague Convention on the Protection of Children in Intercountry Adoption 1993
The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of
Intercountry Adoption (1993 Convention), has three stated aims: to establish safeguards to
ensure that intercountry adoptions are in the best interest of the child and in accordance with
the child’s fundamental rights; to establish a system of safeguards to avoid abuses such as
trafficking in children; and to secure recognition in States Parties of adoptions made in
accordance with the Convention (article 1). The underlying principle of the 1993 Convention
is that “although it is difficult to define the best interests of the child, the child’s interests
should always take priority over those of the prospective adopters,” but the application of this
principle has proved problematic. The 1993 Convention asserts that authorities must ensure,
taking into account the age and degree of maturity of the child, that he or she has been
57
counseled and informed of the effects of the adoption and of his or her consent to the adoption,
where such consent is required; that consideration has been given to the child’s wishes and
opinions; that the child’s consent to the adoption has been given freely, in the required legal
form, and in writing; and that consent has not been induced by payment or compensation of
any kind (article 4(d)). Information on the child’s origin, in particular the identity of the
parents as well as the medical history, should be preserved, but access by the child to that
information is permitted only insofar as it is allowed by the law of the State where it is held
(article 30).
Task 5. Read the “Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of
Intercountry Adoption”, Chapters II and IV, and translate the text in writing.
CHAPTER II – REQUIREMENTS FOR INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTIONS
Article 4
An adoption within the scope of the Convention shall take place only if the competent
authorities of the State of origin –
a) have established that the child is adoptable;
b) have determined, after possibilities for placement of the child within the State of
origin have been given due consideration, that an intercountry adoption is in the child's best
interests;
c) have ensured that
(1) the persons, institutions and authorities whose consent is necessary for adoption, have
been counselled as may be necessary and duly informed of the effects of their consent, in
particular whether or not an adoption will result in the termination of the legal relationship
between the child and his or her family of origin,
(2) such persons, institutions and authorities have given their consent freely, in the
required legal form, and expressed or evidenced in writing,
(3) the consents have not been induced by payment or compensation of any kind and
have not been withdrawn, and
(4) the consent of the mother, where required, has been given only after the birth of the
child; and
d) have ensured, having regard to the age and degree of maturity of the child, that
(1) he or she has been counselled and duly informed of the effects of the adoption and of
his or her consent to the adoption, where such consent is required,
(2) consideration has been given to the child's wishes and opinions,
(3) the child's consent to the adoption, where such consent is required, has been given
freely, in the required legal form, and expressed or evidenced in writing, and
(4) such consent has not been induced by payment or compensation of any kind.
Article 5
An adoption within the scope of the Convention shall take place only if the competent
authorities of the receiving State –
a) have determined that the prospective adoptive parents are eligible and suited to adopt;
b) have ensured that the prospective adoptive parents have been counselled as may be
necessary; and
c) have determined that the child is or will be authorised to enter and reside permanently
in that State.
CHAPTER IV – PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS IN INTERCOUNTRY
ADOPTION
58
Article 14
Persons habitually resident in a Contracting State, who wish to adopt a child habitually
resident in another Contracting State, shall apply to the Central Authority in the State of their
habitual residence.
Article 15
(1) If the Central Authority of the receiving State is satisfied that the applicants are
eligible and suited to adopt, it shall prepare a report including information about their identity,
eligibility and suitability to adopt, background, family and medical history, social
environment, reasons for adoption, ability to undertake an intercountry adoption, as well as the
characteristics of the children for whom they would be qualified to care.
(2) It shall transmit the report to the Central Authority of the State of origin.
Article 16
(1) If the Central Authority of the State of origin is satisfied that the child is adoptable, it
shall –
a) prepare a report including information about his or her identity, adoptability,
background, social environment, family history, medical history including that of the child's
family, and any special needs of the child;
b) give due consideration to the child's upbringing and to his or her ethnic, religious and
cultural background;
c) ensure that consents have been obtained in accordance with Article 4; and
d) determine, on the basis in particular of the reports relating to the child and the
prospective adoptive parents, whether the envisaged placement is in the best interests of the
child.
(2) It shall transmit to the Central Authority of the receiving State its report on the child,
proof that the necessary consents have been obtained and the reasons for its determination on
the placement, taking care not to reveal the identity of the mother and the father if, in the State
of origin, these identities may not be disclosed.
Article 17
Any decision in the State of origin that a child should be entrusted to prospective
adoptive parents may only be made if –
a) the Central Authority of that State has ensured that the prospective adoptive parents
agree;
b) the Central Authority of the receiving State has approved such decision, where such
approval is required by the law of that State or by the Central Authority of the State of origin;
c) the Central Authorities of both States have agreed that the adoption may proceed; and
d) it has been determined, in accordance with Article 5, that the prospective adoptive
parents are eligible and suited to adopt and that the child is or will be authorised to enter and
reside permanently in the receiving State.
Article 18
The Central Authorities of both States shall take all necessary steps to obtain permission
for the child to leave the State of origin and to enter and reside permanently in the receiving
State.
Article 19
(1) The transfer of the child to the receiving State may only be carried out if the
requirements of Article 17 have been satisfied.
(2) The Central Authorities of both States shall ensure that this transfer takes place in
secure and appropriate circumstances and, if possible, in the company of the adoptive or
prospective adoptive parents.
(3) If the transfer of the child does not take place, the reports referred to in Articles 15
and 16 are to be sent back to the authorities who forwarded them.
Article 20
59
The Central Authorities shall keep each other informed about the adoption process and
the measures taken to complete it, as well as about the progress of the placement if a
probationary period is required.
Article 21
(1) Where the adoption is to take place after the transfer of the child to the receiving
State and it appears to the Central Authority of that State that the continued placement of the
child with the prospective adoptive parents is not in the child's best interests, such Central
Authority shall take the measures necessary to protect the child, in particular –
a) to cause the child to be withdrawn from the prospective adoptive parents and to
arrange temporary care;
b) in consultation with the Central Authority of the State of origin, to arrange without
delay a new placement of the child with a view to adoption or, if this is not appropriate, to
arrange alternative long-term care; an adoption shall not take place until the Central Authority
of the State of origin has been duly informed concerning the new prospective adoptive parents;
c) as a last resort, to arrange the return of the child, if his or her interests so require.
(2) Having regard in particular to the age and degree of maturity of the child, he or she
shall be consulted and, where appropriate, his or her consent obtained in relation to measures
to be taken under this Article.
Task 6. Study the following words with definitions. Complete the sentences with suitable word and
translate into Russian.
-
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ward a person, esp. a child, who is under the protection of another person or of a law court
Guardian a person who has been legally appointed to look after a child whose parents are
away or dead , or to look after someone who is too ill to be responsible for themselves
Custody the act or right to look after your child and have them live with you after your
marriage has been officially ended
The parent who does not have …… of the child is usually allowed to see the child regularly.
Could you contact Mrs Smith’s …… and tell them she’s been admitted to hospital?
Everyone was shocked when he married his young ….. .
Waltman’s wife, Cindy, had been granted temporary … of their child after her husband’s arrest.
My sister has been appointed legal ….. of my children in case my husband and I both die.
Task 7. Render into English paying attention to the words and word combinations in bold.
1. Большинство континентальных европейских государств, традиционно открытых для
иностранных усыновителей, подчиняют иностранное усыновление личному закону
усыновителя.
2. Логика данного подхода заключается в том, что иностранный усыновитель, как
правило, увозит ребенка в свою страну, поэтому необходимо соблюдение требований,
прежде всего соответствующего иностранного законодательства.
3. В США, напротив, применимое право к международному усыновлению - это право
страны суда. Однако во всех странах законом страны суда определяются императивные
требования к усыновлению: необходимость получения согласия со стороны
усыновляемого, достигшего определенного возраста (от 10 до 21 года); особые
требования к возрасту усыновителей (от 18 до 50 лет); наличие разницы в возрасте
между усыновляемым и усыновителем (от 10 до З0 лет); запрет на усыновление
единственным усыновителем ребенка противоположного пола; запрет усыновления
60
лицами, уже имеющими детей и даже признание усыновления недействительным в
случае последующего рождения в семье ребенка.
4.
Россия следует подходу стран континентального права: со ст. 165 СК РФ
усыновление в России иностранными гражданами российских детей производится
в соответствии с законодательством государства, гражданином которого является
усыновитель. Если иностранный усыновитель состоит в браке с российским
гражданином, то усыновление российского ребенка производится в порядке,
установленном для граждан РФ. В некоторых договорах о правовой помощи по
гражданским и семейным делам усыновление может регулироваться также
законодательством государства, в котором усыновитель имеет свое постоянное
местожительство.
5. Однако во всяком случае при международном усыновлении должны соблюдаться требования
ст. 124-133 СК РФ : 1) усыновление допускается в отношении несовершеннолетних
детей и только в их интересах; 2) усыновление братьев и сестер разными лицами допускается
только в случаях, когда усыновление отвечает интересам детей; 3) усыновление детей иностранцами допускается только в случаях, если не представляется возможным передать
этих детей на воспитание в семьи граждан РФ, постоянно проживающих на территории РФ,
либо на усыновление родственникам детей независимо от гражданства и места жительства
этих родственников; 4) усыновитель должен соответствовать требованиям, указанным в
ст. 127-128 СК РФ.
61
APPENDIX 1.
Unit 1.
The Family Code of the Russian Federation
Chapter 3. Conditions and Procedure for Conclusion of Marriage
Article 10. Conclusion of Marriage
1. Marriage shall be concluded in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status.
2. The rights and duties of spouses shall arise from the day of State registration of the conclusion of the marriage
in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status.
Article 11. Procedure for Conclusion of Marriage
1. A marriage shall be concluded in the personal presence of the persons entering into marriage upon the expiry
of a month from the date of the filing by them of an application in an agency for the registry of acts of civil status.
When there are justifiable reasons, an agency for the registry of acts of civil status at the place of State
registration of the conclusion of a marriage may authorise the conclusion of the marriage upon the expiry of a
month, and also may increase this period, but not by more than one month.
When there are special circumstances (pregnancy, birth of child, direct threat to life of one of the parties, and
other special circumstances), the marriage may be concluded on the day of filing the application.
2. State registration of the conclusion of a marriage shall be made in the procedure established for the State
registration of acts of civil status.
3. The refusal of an agency for the registry of acts of civil status of the registration of a marriage may be appealed
to a court by the persons wishing to enter into marriage (or one of them).
Article 12. Conditions of Conclusion of Marriage
1. In order to conclude a marriage the mutual voluntary consent of the man and woman entering into marriage
and the attainment by them of marriage age shall be necessary.
2. Marriage may not be concluded when there are circumstances specified in Article 14 of the present Code.
Article 13. Marriage Age
1. Marriage age shall be established as eighteen years.
2. When there are justifiable reasons, agencies of local self-government at the place of residence of the persons
wishing to enter into marriage shall have the right at the request of the said persons to authorise persons who have
attained sixteen years of age to enter into marriage [as amended 15 November 1997].
The procedure and conditions, in the presence of which entry into marriage in the form of an exception taking
into account special circumstances may be authorised before attainment of the age of sixteen years, may be
established by laws of subjects of the Russian Federation.
Article 14. Circumstances Obstructing Conclusion of Marriage
The conclusion of a marriage shall not be permitted between:
persons of which one already is in another registered marriage;
near relatives (relatives by direct ascending and descending lines (parents and children, grandfather, grandmother,
and grandchildren) full and half (having common father or mother) brothers and sisters);
adoptive and adopted persons;
persons of which one is deemed by a court to lack dispositive
legal capacity as a consequence of mental disturbance.
Article 15. Medical Examination of Persons Entering into Marriage
1. The medical examination of persons entering into marriage, and also consulting with regard to medico-genetic
questions and questions of family planning, shall be conducted by institutions of the State and municipal public
health system at the place of their residence free of charge and only with the consent of the persons entering into
marriage.
2. The results of the examination of the person entering into marriage shall constitute a medical secret and may be
communicated to the person with whom he intends to conclude a marriage only with the consent of the person
who underwent the examination.
62
3. If one of the persons entering into marriage concealed from the other person the existence of venereal disease
or AIDS infection, the last shall have the right to apply to a court with a demand to deem the marriage to be
invalid (Articles 27-30 of the present Code).
63
Unit 2.
SECTION VII. APPLICATION OF FAMILY LEGISLATION TO
FAMILY RELATIONS WITH PARTICIPATION OF
FOREIGN CITIZENS AND STATELESS PERSONS
Article 156. Conclusion of Marriage on Territory of Russian Federation
1. The form and procedure for the conclusion of a marriage on the territory of the Russian Federation shall be
determined by legislation of the Russian Federation.
2. The conditions of concluding a marriage on the territory of the Russian Federation shall be determined for
each of the persons entering into the marriage by legislation of the State of which the person is a citizen at the
moment of concluding the marriage in compliance with the requirements of Article 14 of the present Code with
respect to the circumstances obstructing the conclusion of a marriage.
3. If the person together with citizenship of a foreign State
has citizenship of the Russian Federation, the
legislation of the Russian Federation shall apply to the conditions for the conclusion of a marriage. When a
person has the citizenship of several foreign States, the legislation of one of these States shall apply at the choice
of the particular person.
4. The conditions for concluding a marriage by a stateless person on the territory of the Russian Federation shall
be determined by legislation of the State in which this person has a permanent place of residence.
Article 157. Conclusion of Marriages in Diplomatic Representations and Consular Institutions
1. Marriages between citizens of the Russian Federation residing beyond the limits of the territory of the
Russian Federation shall be concluded in diplomatic representations or in
consular institutions of the Russian Federation.
2. Marriages between foreign citizens concluded on the territory of the Russian Federation in diplomatic
representations and consular institutions of foreign States shall be recognised to be valid in the Russian
Federation on conditions of reciprocity if these persons at the moment of concluding the marriage were citizens
of the foreign State which appointed the ambassador or consul to the Russian Federation.
Article 158. Recognition of Marriages Concluded Beyond Limits of Territory of Russian Federation
1. Marriages between citizens of the Russian Federation and marriages between citizens of the Russian
Federation and foreign citizens or stateless persons concluded beyond the limits of the territory of the Russian
Federation in compliance with legislation of the State on whose territory they were concluded shall be deemed to
be valid in the Russian Federation if the circumstances obstructing the conclusion of a marriage provided for by
Article 14 of the present Code are absent.
2. Marriages between foreign citizens concluded beyond the limits of the territory of the Russian Federation in
compliance with legislation of the State on whose territory they were
concluded shall be deemed to be valid in the Russian Federation.
Article 159. Invalidity of Marriage Concluded on Territory of Russian Federation or Beyond Limits of
Territory of Russian Federation
The invalidity of a marriage concluded on the territory of the Russian Federation or beyond the limits of the
Russian Federation shall be determined by legislation which in accordance with Articles 156 and 158 of the
present Code was applied when concluding the marriage.
64
Unit 3.
Chapter 4. Termination of Marriage
Article 16. Grounds for Termination of Marriage
1.
Marriage shall be terminated as a consequence of death or as a consequence of the declaration by a court
of one of the spouses to be deceased.
2.
Marriage may be terminated by means of the dissolution thereof upon the application of one or both
spouses, and also upon the application of the trustee of a spouse who is deemed by a court to lack dispositive
legal capacity.
Article 17. Limitation of Right of Husband to Present Demand Concerning Dissolution of Marriage
A husband shall not have the right without the consent of the wife to initiate a case concerning dissolution of a
marriage during pregnancy of the wife and within a year after the birth of the child.
Article 18. Procedure for Dissolution of Marriage
A marriage shall be dissolved in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status, and in the instances provided for
by Articles 21-23 of the present Code, in a judicial proceeding.
Article 19. Dissolution of Marriage in Agencies for Registtry of Acts of Civil Status
1.
In the event of mutual consent to the dissolution of a marriage of spouses not having common minor
children, the marriage shall be dissolved in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status.
2.
A marriage shall be dissolved upon the application of one of the spouses irrespective of whether the
spouses have common minor children in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status if the other spouse:
has been deemed by a court to be missing;
has been deemed by a court to lack dispositive legal capacity;
has been sentenced for the commission of a crime to deprivation of freedom for a term exceeding three years.
3.
A marriage shall be dissolved and a certificate concerning the dissolution of marriage shall be issued by
the agency for the registry of acts of civil status upon the expiry of a month from the day of filing the application
concerning the dissolution of the marriage.
4.
The State registration of the dissolution of a marriage shall be made by the agency for the registry of acts
of civil status in the procedure established for the State registration of acts of civil status.
Article 20. Consideration of Disputes Arising Between Spouses in Event of Dissolution of Marriage in
Agencies for Registry of Acts of Civil Status
Disputes concerning the division of common property of spouses, payment of means for the maintenance of a
need spouse lacking the capacity to labour, and also disputes concerning children, arising between spouses, one
of whom is deemed by a court to lack dispositive legal capacity or has been convicted for the commission of the
crime to deprivation of freedom for a term of exceeding three years (point l9(2)of the present Code) shall be
considered in a judicial proceeding irrespective of the dissolution of the marriage in agencies for the registry of
acts of civil status.
Article 21. Dissolution of Marriage in Judicial Proceeding
1.
A marriage shall be dissolved in a judicial proceeding hen the spouses have common minor children,
except for in¬ stances provided for by Article 19(2) of the present Code or in the absence of the consent of one
spouse to the dissolution of the marriage.
2.
A marriage shall be dissolved in a judicial proceeding also in instances when one of the spouses, despite
the absence of objections on his part, evades dissolution of the marriage in an agency for the registry of acts of
civil status (refuses to file application, does not appear for State registration of dissolution of the marriage, and
others).
Article 22. Dissolution of Marriage in Judicial Proceeding in Absence of Consent of One Spouse to
Dissolution of Marriage
65
1.
A marriage shall be dissolved in a judicial proceeding if it is established by a court that the further joint
life of the spouses
and preservation of the family is impossible.
2.
When considering a case concerning dissolution of marriage and in the absence of consent of one of the
spouses to
dissolution of the marriage, the court shall have the right to take measures to reconcile the spouses and shall have
the right to
postpone examination of the case, having designated a period to the spouses for reconciliation within the limits of
three months.
The marriage shall be dissolved if measures relating to reconciliation of the spouses proved to be without results
and the spouses (or one of them) insists upon dissolution of the marriage.
Article 23. Dissolution of Marriage in Judicial Proceeding in Event of Mutual Consent of Spouses to
Dissolution of Marriage
1. In the event of the mutual consent to dissolution of the marriage of spouses having common minor children,
and also of spouses specified in Article 21(2) of the present Code, the court shall dissolve the marriage without
eliciting the reasons for the divorce. The spouses shall have the right to submit for consideration of the court an
agreement concerning the children provided for by article 24(1) of the present Code. In the absence of such
agreement or if the agreement violates the interests of children, the court shall take measures to defend their
interests in the procedure provided for by Article 24(2) of the present Code.
2. The marriage shall be dissolved by a court not earlier than a month from the date of the filing by spouses of the
application concerning dissolution of the marriage.
Article 24. Questions to be Settled by Court When Rendering Decision Concerning Dissolution of
Marriage
1. When dissolving a marriage in a judicial proceeding the spouses may submit for consideration of the court an
agreement concerning with which of them minor children will reside, the procedure for payment of means for
maintenance of the children, and/or the lack of labour capacity of a needy spouse, the amounts of such means, or
the division of common property of the spouses.
2.If there is no agreement between the spouses with regard to questions specified in point 1 of the present Article,
and also if it is established that the particular agreement violates the interests of the children or one of the
spouses, the court shall be obliged to:
- determine with which of the parents minor children will reside after the divorce;
- determine from which of the parents and in what amounts alimony shall be recovered for their children;
-at the demand of the spouses (or one of them) divide property in their joint ownership;
- at the demand of the spouse having the right to receive maintenance from the other spouse, determine the
amount of this maintenance.
3. If the division of property affects the interests of third persons, the court shall have the right to separate out the
demand concerning the division of property into an individual proceeding.
Article 25. Moment of Termination of Marriage in Event of its Dissolution
1.
A marriage dissolved in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status shall terminate from the day of
State registration
of dissolution of the marriage in the book for the registration of acts of civil status, and in the event of dissolution
of a marriage
in a court, from the day of entry of the decision of the court into legal force.
2.
Dissolution of a marriage in a court shall be subject to State registration in the procedure established for
the State registration of acts of civil status.
The court shall be obliged within three days from the day of entry into legal force of the decision of the court
concerning the dissolution of the marriage to send an extract from this decision of the court in the agency for the
registry of acts of civil status at the place of State registration of the conclusion of the marriage.
Spouses shall not have the right to enter into a new marriage before receiving the certificate concerning
dissolution of the marriage in art agency for the registry of acts of civil status at the place of residence of one of
them.
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Article 26. Reinstatement of Marriage in Event of Appearance of Spouse Declared to be Deceased or
Deemed to be Missing
1. In the event of the appearance of a spouse declared by a court to be deceased or deemed by a court to be
missing, and the vacating of respective judicial decisions, a marriage may be reinstated by the agency for the
registry of acts of civil status upon the joint application of the spouses.
2. A marriage may not be reinstated if the other spouse has entered into a new marriage.
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Unit 4.
SECTION VII. APPLICATION OF FAMILY LEGISLATION TO FAMILY RELATIONS WITH
PARTICIPATION OF FOREIGN CITIZENS AND STATELESS PERSONS
Article 160. Dissolution of Marriage
1. The dissolution of a marriage between citizens of the Russian Federation and foreign States
or stateless persons, and also of a marriage between foreign citizens, on the territory of the Russian
Federation shall be in accordance with legislation of the Russian Federation.
2. A citizen of the Russian Federation residing beyond the limits of the territory of the Russian
Federation shall have the right to dissolve the marriage with a spouse residing beyond
the limits of the Russian Federation irrespective of the citizen ship thereof in a court of the Russian
Federation. If in accordance with legislation of the Russian Federation the dissolution
of a marriage is permitted in agencies for the registry of acts of civil status, the marriage may be
dissolved in diplomatic representations or in consular istitutions of the Russian Federation.
3. The dissolution of a marriage between citizens of the Russian Federation or the dissolution
of a marriage between
citizens of the Russian Federation and foreign citizens or stateless persons
concluded beyond the limits of the territory of the Russian Federation in compliance with legislation of
the respective foreign State concerning the competence of agencies which adopted the decision
concerning dissolution of the marriage, and legislation subject to application when dissolving a
marriage, shall be deemed to be valid in the Russian Federation [as amended 15 November 1997].
4. The dissolution of a marriage between foreign citizens concluded beyond the limits of the
territory of the Russian Federation in compliance with legislation ot the respective foreign
State concerning the competence of the agencies which adopted the decision concerning the dissolution
of a marriage and legislation subject to application when dissolving a marriage shall be deemed to be
valid in the Russian Federation.
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Unit 5.
Chapter VII .
Article 38. Division of Common Property of Spouses
1.
The common property of spouses may be divided both in the period of the marriage and after the
dissolution thereof at the demand of either of the spouses, and also in the event of the statement by creditors of a
demand concerning the division of the common property of spouses in order to levy execution
against the participatory share of one of the spouses in the common property of the spouses.
2.
The common property of spouses may be divided between the spouses by their agreement. At the wish of
the spouses their agreement concerning the division of common property may be notarially certified.
3.
In the event of a dispute, the common property of spouses shall be divided, and also the participatory
share of the spouses in this property shall be determined, in a judicial proceeding.
In the event of the division of the common property of spouses, the court at the demand of the spouses shall
determine which property is subject to transfer to each of the spouses. If property is transferred to one of the
spouses, the value of which exceeds the participatory share due to him, the other spouse may be awarded
corresponding monetary or other contributory compensation.
4.
The court may deem property acquired by each of the spouses in the period of their separate living when
terminating family relations to be the ownership of each of them.
5.
Things acquired exclusively in order to satisfy the requirements of minor children (clothing, footwear,
school and sport appurtenances, musical instruments, children's library, and others) shall not be subject to
division and shall be transferred without contributory compensation to that spouse with whom the children reside.
Contributions made by spouses at the expense of the common property of spouses in the name of their common
minor children shall be considered to belong to these children and shall not be taken into account when dividing
the common property of spouses.
6.
In the event of the division of common property of spouses in the period of the marriage that part of the
common property of spouses which was not divided, and also the property acquired by the spouses in the period
of the marriage thereafter, shall comprise their joint ownership.
7.
A three-year period of limitations shall apply to the demands of spouses concerning the division of the
common property of spouses whose marriage is dissolved.
Article 39. Determination of Participatory Shares When Dividing Common Property of Spouses
1.
When dividing the common property of spouses and determining the participatory shares in this property,
the participatory shares of the spouses shall be deemed to be equal unless provided otherwise by the contract
between the spouses.
2.
The court shall have the right to depart from the principle of equality of participatory shares of the
spouses in their common property by proceeding from the interests of the minor children and/or by proceeding
from the deserved attention to the interest of one of the spouses, in particular in instances when the other spouse
did not receive revenues for unjustifiable reasons for expended the common property of the spouses to the
prejudice of the interests of the family.
3.
The common debts of spouses when dividing common property of the spouses shall be distributed
between the spouses in proportion to the participatory shares awarded to them.
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Unit 6.
Chapter 8. Contractual Regime of Property of Spouses
Article 40. Marriage Contract
An agreement of the persons entering into a marriage, or the agreement of spouses determining the property
rights and duties of spouses in the marriage and/or in the event of its dissolution, shall be deemed to be a
marriage contract.
Article 41. Conclusion of Marriage Contract
1. A marriage contract may be concluded either before the State registration of the conclusion of the marriage or
at any time in the period of the marriage.
A marriage contract concluded before the State registration of the conclusion of the marriage shall enter into
force from the day of State registration of the conclusion of the marriage.
2. A marriage contract shall be concluded in written form and shall be subject to notarial certification.
Article 42. Content of Marriage Contract
1. The spouses shall have the right to change by a marriage contract regime of joint ownership (Article 34 of the
present Code) established by a law and to establish a regime of joint, participatory share, or separate ownership to
all the property of the spouses, to individual parts thereof, or to the property of each of the spouses.
A marriage contract may be concluded either with respect to existing and also in respect to the future property of
the spouses.
The spouses shall have the right to determine their rights and duties in a marriage contract with regard to mutual
maintenance, means of participation in the revenues of one another, the procedure for each of them to bear family
expenses, to determine the property which will be transferred to each of the spouses in the event of dissolution of
marriage, and also to include in the marriage contract any other provisions affecting the property relations of the
spouses.
2.
The rights and duties provided for by the marriage contract may be limited by determined periods or
made dependent upon the ensuing or non-ensuing of determined conditions.
3.
The marriage contract may not limit the legal capacity or dispositive legal capacity of spouses, their right
to have resource to a court for the defence of their rights; to regulate personal nonproperty relations between the
spouses, and the rights and duties of the spouses with respect to children; to provide provisions limiting the right
of a needy spouse lacking labour capacity to receive maintenance, to contain other provisions which place one of
the spouses in an extremely unfavourable position or contrary to the basic principles of family legislation.
Article 43. Change and Dissolution of Marriage Contract
1.The marriage contract may be changed or dissolved at any time by agreement of the spouses. An agreement
concerning the change of or dissolution of the marriage contract shall be concluded in the same form as the
marriage contract itself.
Unilateral repudiation of the performance of a marriage contract shall not be permitted.
2.
At the demand of one of the spouses, the marriage contract may be changed or dissolved by decision of a
court on the grounds and in the procedure which was established by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation for
the change of and dissolution of a contract.
3.
The operation of a marriage contract shall terminate from the moment of termination of the marriage
(Article 25 of the present Code), except for those circumstances which have been provided for by the marriage
contract for the period after termination of the marriage.
Article 44. Deeming of Marriage Contract to be Invalid
1.
A marriage contract may be deemed by a court to be invalid in whole or in part on the grounds provided
for by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation for the invalidity of transactions.
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2.
A court may also deem a marriage contract to be invalid in whole or in part at the demand of one of the
spouses if the conditions of the contract place this spouse in an extremely unfavourable position. The conditions
of a marriage contract violating other requirements of Article 42(3) of the present Code shall be void.
SECTION VII.
Article 161. Personal Nonproperty and Property Rights and Duties of Spouses
1. Personal nonproperty and property rights and duties of spouses shall be determined by legislation of the
State on whose territory they have a joint place of residence, and in the absence of a joint place of residence, by
legislation of the State on whose territory they had the last joint place of residence. Personal nonproperty and
property rights and duties of the spouses who did not have a joint place of residence shall be determined on the
territory of the Russian Federation by legislation of the Russian Federation.
2. When concluding a marriage contract or agreement concerning the payment of alimony to one another,
spouses not having a common citizenship or joint place of residence may
choose the legislation subject to application in order to determine their rights and duties under the marriage
contract or agreement concerning the payment of alimony. If the spouses have
not chosen the legislation subject to application to the marriage contract or to their agreement concerning the
payment of alimony, the provisions of point 1 of the present Article shall apply.
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Unit 7.
SECTION
V. ALIMONY OBLIGATIONS OF MEMBERS or FAMILY
Chapter 13. Alimony Obligations of Parents and Children
Article 80. Duties of Parents With Regard to Maintenance
1.. The parents shall be obliged to maintain their minor children. The procedure and form
for granting maintenance to minor children shall be determined by the parents autonomously.
Parents shall have the right to conclude an agreement concerning the maintenance of their
minor children (agreement on payment of alimony) in accordance with Chapter 16 of the present
Code.
2. If the parents do not grant maintenance to their minor children, means for the
maintenance of minor children (alimony) shall be recovered from the parents in a judicial
proceeding.
In the absence of an agreement of the parents concerning the payment of alimony, the
failure to grant maintenance of minor children, and the failure to bring suit in court, the trusteeship
and guardianship agency shall have the right to bring suit concerning the recovery of alimony for
the minor children against their parents (or one of them).
3. In the absence of an agreement of the parents concerning the payment of alimony, the
failure to grant maintenance of minor children, and the failure to bring suit in court, the trusteeship
and guardianship agency shall have the right to bring suit concerning the recovery of alimony for
the minor children against their parents (or one of them).
Article
Proceedings
81. Amount of Alimony to be Recovered for Minor Children in Judicial
1. In the absence of an agreement concerning the payment of alimony, alimony shall be
recovered for minor children by a court from the parents thereof monthly in an amount of: for
one child — one fourth; for two children — one third; for three or more children — half of
the earnings and/or other revenue of the parents.
2. The amount of these participatory shares may be reduced or increased by the court, taking
into account the material or family status of the parties and other circumstances deserving
attention.
Article 82. Types of Earnings and/or Other Revenue From Which Alimony for Minor Children
is Withheld
The types of earnings and/or other revenue which parents receive in rubles and/or in foreign
currency and from which alimony is withheld to be recovered for minor children in accordance with
Article 81 of the present Code shall be determined by the Government of the Russian Federation.
Article 83. Recovery of Alimony for Minor Children in Lump Monetary Amount
1. In the absence of an agreement of the parents concerning payment of alimony for minor
children and if the parent obliged to pay alimony has irregular fluctuating earnings and/ or other
revenue, or if this parent receives earnings and/or other revenue wholly or partially in kind or in
foreign currency, or if he lacks earnings and/or other revenue, and also in other instances if the
recovery of alimony in participatory share correlation of earnings and/or other revenue of the
parent is impossible, difficult, or materially violates the interests of one of the parties, the court
shall have the right to determine the amount of alimony to be recovered monthly in. a lump
72
monetary amount or simultaneously in participatory shares (in accordance with Article 81 of the
present Code) and in a lump sum monetary amount.
2. The amount of a lump monetary amount shall be determined by the court, proceeding
from the maximum possible retention for the child of the former level of provision taking into
account the material and family status of the parties and other circumstances deserving attention.
3. If children remain with each parent, the amount of alimony from one of the parents to
the benefit of the other less provided for shall be determined in a lump monetary amount to be
recovered monthly and determined by the court in accordance with point 2 of the present Article.
Article 84. Recovery and Use of Alimony for Children Left Without Care of Parents
1. Alimony shall be recovered for children left without the care of parents in accordance with
Articles 81-83 of the present Code and shall be paid to the trustee (or guardian) of the children or
to their foster parents.
2. Alimony to be recovered from parents for children left without the care of parents and
situated in nurturing institutions, treatment institutions, institutions of social defence of the
populace, and other analogous institutions shall be credited to the accounts of these institutions
where they shall be taken into account individually for each child.
The said institutions shall have the right to place these amounts in banks. Fifty percent
of the revenue from the dealings of the amounts of alimony received shall be used for the
maintenance of children in the said institutions. When the child leaves such institutions the amount
of alimony received for him and 50% of the revenue from the dealings therewith shall be credited
to an account opened in the name of the child in a division of the Savings Bank of the Russian
Federation.
Article 85. Right to Alimony of Children Who Have Reached Majority and Lack
Labour Capacity
1. Parents shall be obliged to maintain their minor children who lack labour capacity and who
need assistance.
2. In the absence of an agreement concerning the payment of alimony, the amount of alimony
for minor children who lack labour capacity shall be determined by a court in a lump
monetary sum subject to payment monthly, proceeding from the material and family status
and other interests of the parties deserving attention.
Article 86. Participation of Parents in Additional Expenses for Children
1. In the absence of an agreement and when there are exceptional circumstances (grave
illness, mutilation of minor children or of children who have reached majority, are needy, and lack
labour capacity, the need to pay for outside care for them, and other circumstances), each of the
parents may be enlisted by a court to participate in bearing the additional expenses caused by these
circumstances.
The procedure for the participation of parents in bearing additional expenses and the
amount of these expenses shall be determined by a court by proceeding from the material and family
status of the parents and children and other interests of the parties deserving attention in a lump
monetary amount subject to
payment monthly.
2. The court shall have the right to oblige the parents to take part both in the actual
additional expenses incurred and in additional expenses which is it necessary to make in future.
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SECTION VII.
Article 161. Personal Nonproperty and Property Rights and Duties of Spouses
1. Personal nonproperty and property rights and duties of spouses shall be determined by
legislation of the State on whose territory they have a joint place of residence, and in the absence of a
joint place of residence, by legislation of the State on whose territory they had the last joint place of
residence. Personal nonproperty and property rights and duties of the spouses who did not have a joint
place of residence shall be determined on the territory of the Russian Federation by legislation of the
Russian Federation.
2. When concluding a marriage contract or agreement concerning the payment of alimony
to one another, spouses not having a common citizenship or joint place of residence may choose the
legislation subject to application in order to determine their rights and duties under the marriage
contract or agreement concerning the payment of alimony. If the spouses have not chosen the
legislation subject to application to the marriage contract or to their agreement concerning the payment
of alimony, the provisions of point 1 of the present Article shall apply.
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Unit 8.
Chapter VII.
Article 165. Adoption
1.
The adoption, including the vacating of an adoption, on the territory of the Russian
Federation by foreign citizens or stateless persons of a child who is a citizen of the Russian Federation shall be in accordance with legislation of the State of which the adoptive person is a citizen (in
the event of the adoption of a child by a stateless person, in accordance with legislation of the State
in which this person has a permanent place of residence) at the moment of riling the application
concerning adoption or the vacating of the adoption.
When adopting on the territory of the Russian Federation by foreign citizens or stateless
persons of a child who is a citizen of the Russian Federation, the requirements of Articles 124-126,
Article 127 (except for point 1, paragraph eight), and Articles 131-133 of the present Code, taking
into account the provisions of the international treaty of the Russian Federation on inter-State cooperation in the domain of the adoption of children, also must be
Complied
With
[as
amended by Federal Law No. 94-ФЗ, 27 June 1998].
The adoption on the territory of the Russian Federation by foreign citizens and stateless
persons married to citizens of the Russian Federation of children who are citizens of the Russian
Federation shall be done in the procedure established by the present Code for citizens of the
Russian Federation unless provided otherwise by an international treaty of the Russian Federation
[added by Federal Lam No. 94-ФЗ, 27 June 1938].
When adopting on the territory of the Russian Federation by citizens of the Russian Federation a child who is a foreign citizen, it shall be necessary to receive the consent of the legal representative of the child and competence agency of the State of which the child is a citizen, and also, if
this is required in accordance with legislation of the said State, the consent of the child to the
adoption, [as amended by Federal Law No. 94-ФЗ, 2T June 1998].
2. If as a result of adoption the rights of a child established by legislation of the Russian
Federation and international treaties of the Russian Federation may be violated, the adoption may not
be done irrespective of the citizenship of the adoptive person, and an adoption made shall be subject
to being vacated in a judicial proceeding.
3. The defence of the rights and legal interests of children who are citizens of the Russian
Federation and adopted by foreign citizens or stateless persons beyond the limits of the territory of
the Russian Federation, unless provided otherwise by an international treaty of the Russian
Federation, shall be effectuated within the limits permitted by norms of international law by
consular institutions of the Russian Federation in which the said children are recorded until they
reach majority [added by Federal Law No. 94-ФЗ, 27 June 1998].
The procedure for the recording of children by consular institutions of the Russian
Federation who are citizens of the Russian Federation and adopted by foreign citizens or
stateless persons shall be determined by the Government of the Russian Federation [added by
Federal Law No. 94-ФЗ, 27 June 1998]
4. The adoption of a child who is a citizen of the Russian Federation and who is
residing beyond the limits of the Russian Federation made by the competence agency of a
foreign citizen of which the adoptive person is a citizen shall be deemed(or one of them)
resided before the exit beyond the limits of the territory of the Russian Federation to be valid in
the Russian Federation on condition of receiving the prior authorisation for the adoption from
the agency of executive power of the subject of the Russian Federation on whose territory the
child or his parents (or one of them) resided before the exit beyond the limits of the territory of
the Russian Federation.
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APPENDIX 2
LISTENING COMPREHENSION SCRIPTS
Unit 2.
SCRIPT TO “COLLABORATIVE FAMILY LAW”
(Duration 3,45 min.)
A: Well, the case can be international for a variety of reasons: we may simply have an English couple they live
here but they have property in Spain where they are staying quite regularly. You may have a couple where one of
them comes from a country other than England or where you are working abroad either you are English working
in a different country or you not English and you are working here. All of those we can term international cases.
B: In London with the huge number of international managers but I would also include other disputes for
example abduction, child abduction disputes, where children move from one country to the other and an
international case can involve dispute relating to foreign property or assets.
A: We are very mobile world now and I’m finding in my own case law increasingly there is an international
element very common indeed. And it’s not just in London and I think it’s important to stress that there are not
just families with a lot of money, there we can see people in quite ordinary jobs having those kinds of
international connections.
Interviewer: And why does it matter where you raise these cases?
B: It can matter terribly from a financial point of view. England sometimes is referred to as a divorce company??
Of the world a financial awards here can sometimes not be better than anywhere else and there’s given a rise to
something known as forum shopping where potential divorcing parties often try to issue proceedings in
jurisdiction which benefits them/
Interviewer: And I should I come to a Collaborative Family Law member?
A: In a word, the expertise I’ll try to sound very modest but we are all are the members of the International
Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers and they recognize our expertise in the law of our own country but also
access to the Worldwide network of family law experts .. so if somebody comes to me and says I’m getting
divorced, I’d like a divorce, my husband’s from Germany and I’m not quite sure whether or not we should do it
here or in Germany I can pick up the phone to somebody not somebody I found in a book but somebody I met
and know, the instant advice on the situation there to guide us on how we are going to proceed.
B: Our task, our message is quite simple: to bring dispute resolution to complex and often international family
cases.
Interviewer: The cross-border disputes must by their nature be very difficult is it always possible to introduce the
collaborative approach successfully into these things?
D: It can be very difficult and quite often there would be proceedings, for example, steps taken by one party to
secure jurisdiction but that does nor preclude the possibilities of the parties involved under the lawyers sitting
around a collaborative round table and exploring a practical sensible way of resolving the issues that were reason
or result of divorce or separation …..
Interviewer: What are the benefits of keeping under the collaborative system?
A: First of all, you control the agenda and what’s important because you were talking about what’s important to
you not somebody else this is important and you reach an agreement, at the end of the day you reach an
agreement that’s something you can both live with whereas you have a judge to impose the decision one of you
may be happy, the other one may be very unhappy. Or as we find very often neither of you are exactly happy.
76
Unit 5.
MONEY ISSUES ON DIVORCE
(duration 2,35 minutes)
When two people are divorcing, one of the most common questions that people want to answer, too, is
on the financial side, and that is what am I going to get in terms of the financial settlements. The
position in law is that the starting point of any division is an equal one. However, there are various
circumstances that can mean we move away from an equal division. But every situation is different and
we have to look at the particular circumstances of every case and then apply the legal principles.
The starting point in trying to reach an agreement on a financial division when coupls are divorcing is
that you have to look at every asset – those within the marriage, everything does come into account,
such as people’s bank accounts whether they are in their sole name, properties whether they are in their
sole names, inheritancce, pensions, policies – everything. And before you would still lokk to decide
what would constitute a fair settlement you have to look at everythingthere is because otherwise that
could by its very nature mean you have an unfair ssettlement if you’ve forgotten to take something into
account. So, the first step in the procedure we call a disclosure where you basically do disclose to each
other what you have of a financial nature.
Once the financial position of the parties has been established then the next step is to reach an
agreement. The parties are encouraged to reach that agreement directly between themselves but if they
can’t achieve that then the next step would be if the lawyer’s to work hard upon their behalf to help
them reach an agreement by negotitation. If that still doesn’t produce an agreement, then the next step in
an application to the court we made when the judge would also make the decision for them.
There are a lot of myths surrounding what would constitute a fair settlement in divorce. And it is a very
complex area of law. It is therefore essential if the parties do take specialist legal advice before entering
into any form of a financial settlement.
(Alison Hill, Wooly and Co Solicitors, from UTube)
Unit 7.
CHILDREN AND DIVORCE
When the couple split up whether they are separating or divorcing it is often the children that are hit the
hardest. It’s really important is that the parents put the interests of the children first and getting advice
on how to do with the problems that arise is a very good idea. It’s often seen a better part of the picture
if a lawyer can give you some advice about the duties and responsibilities that you have to your children
if you’re going through separation or divorce. And it’s really important that you understand what the
possible outcomes could be for your children and that you try to do it as reasonable as possible.
One concept that people often don’t understand is that of ‘parental responsibility’. “Parental
respomsibility” means whether the parent has all the rights and duties, responsibilities in relation to the
child. Not all parents have parental responsibilities autonmatically, it is important that you understand
that whether you are a parent that does have that parental responsibility. Parents that do have parental
responsibility have the right to have a say in all matters to do with the child’s welfare.
These days there is no such a thing as “custody”, it is replaced by the concept of “residence”/
“Residence” literally means where the children will live. The best solution is that which is agreed
between parents. And there may be in a number of ways that they can achieve it either between
themselves or with the assistance of something such as mediation where they go along and be assisted
in negotiating arrangements. If they really can’t reach an agreement between themselves then either
they may refer the issue to the court to be decided. The court wil apply a Welfair Checklist which
contains a number of factors: the wishes of the child, the needs of the child, the wishes of the parents,
but also will help to make a decision as to what they think is in the child’s best interest.
77
The idea of “access” is now being replaced by the concept of “contact” and “contact” describes the
arrangement whereby the child gets to spend time with the parent they don’t live with. As in all of these
matters it’s better if te parents cacn reach an amicable arrangement between themselves or with the help
of mediation. Often there can be such occassions where that’s not possible and the parent who is
looking for the relationship with the child can is necessary refer to the court to decide what’s in the
child’s best interest. “Contact” can be anything from letters and phone calls with the child
throughperhaps supervised visits if there are factors that suggests that’s a good idea all the way through
to the shared care arrangement where a child spends almost an equal amount of time with the parent.
It’s important to remember that this is about what’s in best interest of the child and it is the child’s right
to have the relationships with both parents rather than the parent’s right to have contacts with the child.
Child maintenance or child support as it’s commonly known is the ammount of money that’s paid from
the parent who doesn’t live with the child to the parent who has care of the child most of the time. It
arises whenever parents separate or divorce and is something which is as always best agreed between
the parties. If the matter can’t be agreed between them, then it can always be referred on for them by the
Child’s Support Agency as it’s used to be known and taken over by the Child’s Maintenance
Enforcement Comission or CMEC. They will apply a certain percentage to the absent parent’s income
to decide an amount that is payable to the person who looks after the child most of the time. Because it
is just a statutory formula that is applied to the absent parent’s income it doesn’t realy bear any
resemblance to the what is actually needed by the person who looks after that child. This can sometimes
lead to disputes between parents on things like who’s going to pay for the school uniform, who’s going
to pay for holidays, who’s going to pay for school shoes. This is why its so important that parents are
able to reconciliate with each other and try and find sensible arrangements between themselves that
really work in their circumstances.
If you’re separating or divorcing and you have children it’s really important that you get some
professional advice about the issues that re going to arise to try to make sure you make arrangements
which are the best for your children.
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ANSWER KEY
Unit 1.
Task 6.
1. by; in; for; of; to; of; upon; by.
2. of; about; of; of; to.
3. into; into; under; to; of.
4. at; to; by; at; in; of.
5. in; of; by; of; to; of; at; of.
6. to; for; of; after; of; of; of; of; of; to; of.
7. at; between; of; in; in.
Unit 2.
Task 1.
1 – e; 2 – f; 3 – d; 4 – c; 5 – a; 6 – g; 7 – b.
Task 6.
1. from; upon; as; as.
2. to; of; in; to; of; in.
3. as; for.
4. as; by; of; as.
5. of; to; to; to; at.
6. by; into; with; of.
Unit 3.
Task 7.
1. to; for; of; in; of; of.
2. on; by; to; under; in; of; of.
3. on; to; with.
4. within; of; on; of.
5. for; of; by; on; of.
6. on; of; on; of; for.
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Task 8.
1 – b; 2 – d; 3 – a; 4 – e; 5 – f; 6 – c.
Unit 6.
Task 7.
1 – g; 2 – i; 3 – e; 4 – f; 5 – c; 6 – d; 7 – a; 8 – h; 9 – b.
Unit 7.
Task 6.
1 – c; 2 – j; 3 – a; 4 – i; 5 – g; 6 – h; 7 – e; 8 – f; 9 – d; 10 – b.
Task 8.
1. against; in; of; of; of; to; for; to; of; for.
2. to; for; on; for; for; of.
3. on; of; to; to; of; in; of; to; to.
4. in; of; of; on; for; of; to; at; of.
5. against; for; of; for; of; for.
6. on; about; about; for.
7. in; with; on; to; in; about; for.
8. in; into; in; of; in; of; of.
Unit 8.
Task 8.
1 – custody; 2 – guardians; 3 – ward; 4 – custody; 5 – guardian.
80
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81
http://www.iirx.com/features/russia.html
http://www.law.nyu.edu/eecr/volumes.html
http://www.vii.org/monroe
http://family.findlaw.com/marriage/marriage-resources.html
http://vlex.com/vid/brussels-ii-454846
http://hcch.net - The Hague Conference on Private International Law.
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