вход по аккаунту


Violet shift

код для вставкиСкачать
The corpuscle-wave dualism EMR, in the physicist of space, leads to three rules: 1. Speeds, accelerations and distances, and, hence, and representations about the world metrics, in one way or another, are defined by measurements of parameters EMR,
Violet shift and virtuality of the law of Hubble.
Rafael M.
VAO Manley Mountains, fort True (Alma-Ata)
The star G2V the Sun, including planets, is covered from external space by the
gravitational dome possessing all properties of a convex lens, therefore, we in a condition to
observe star congestions, galaxies, fogs and other star worlds. Introduction.
Speeds, accelerations and distances, and, hence, and representations about the
world metrics, in one way or another, are defined by measurements of parameters EMR, and
nonlinearity of the metrics, and expansion or compression of space and time an essence equivalent
concepts! For these reasons in XX-th century Astrophysics, not all so - as seems to us
, namely:
transformation of parameters EMR of a star, in the course of distribution from sources of radiation to
the detector, first of all, is interfaced to a long time interval of existence of photons! It is obvious that in
this time and properties of space change, and it is possible to expect that transform both constants of
interaction EMR and vacuum! And negation of this statement is equivalent to negation of an
evolutionary way of development of the Universe [
Further, a
t a conclusion of the law of Doppler equal displacement, both frequencies of a signal,
and lengths of a wave, from a moving source with relative speed ?
v, it is possible to receive and change
of speed of distribution of a signal c ? ?
v, at a motionless source. Thus, the elegant formula - c=
which connects key parameters EMR, will be transformed to the formula not smaller beauty [
]: (1)
, Where the index ?0? designates parameters of a source of radiation, and other are measured on the
detector. Further, last equation will easily be transformed to terms of displac
ement, namely:
, Provided that Max Planck's constant a constant. Actually, except Zc the remained displacement are
measured by tool Astronomy with sufficient reliability and consequently, on the present for
there is no problem for the answer to entertaining questions - Zc?0 and Z
! It is obvious that only
at Zc
0 we have equalities Z
=Ze and the postulate on a constancy of a velocity of light is fair, and
here at Z
?0 is already accident for XX-th century Astrophysics. We will contemplate this problem more
in detail, leaning aga
inst super reliable experimental data.
The analysis of beam speeds of stars close located to the Sun. Let's construct, following Hubble, distribution of beam spee
ds on displacement of length of a
wave from stars - Z
, in the nearest vicinity of the Sun (d <6 пс
). Thus, for observable stars it is necessary
to meet a condition сферически
symmetric distributi
on and as to use the fact that average beam speed
of their movement concerning Sun Vsun < |50|km/s. It is as a result had following laws (diagram): for a
distance r> 3,72 ps stars leave from the sun (red color - under Hubble's law), and here for distances r
<3,72 ps observable stars движутся
in the Sun
direction (Violet color - displacement of the Author).
Thus, the measured displacement of length of wave
it is represented in the form of superposition of
effect of Doppler Vsun and linear red-violet
law (2): (3) V (km/s) = 32,43*r (ps) ? 120,68. Actually, th
e constructed diagram unequivocally
specifies in virtual character violet displacement as
at such movement observable stars would be for a
long time in the Sun vicinity. But they aren't present,
and consequently Hubble's red displacement so, virtually, by a rule of an induction and common sense!
Behind a shot there is a question ? why this picture was ignored by weights scientific 100 years!
From features of formation of displacement it is necessary to note them паритетность
absolute size (with sign change) at an exit of radiation from a star of a source and an input in the field of
gravitation of a star of the observer. And equality of red and violet displacement is observed on a
distance r = 3,72 ps, thus, displacement have such values: Zred ?
- Zviolet =, 000402. And derivative of
linear red-violet law leads to such value of parameter - H=32,43 km/s/ps that high enough displacement
of length of a wave and which is much more than Hubble's
constant Ho=74 km/s/mps. Such inequality,
most likely, is caused by gravitational anomalies of two close located stars, a source and the detector,
but with increase in a distance the inequality is obliged will turn to identity H ?
Ho! In a case when the signal comes not
a star, and from space vehicles pioneer
, Zred ?
0 and on a distance r> ~15 a.e.
Abnormal delay of a signal is equivalent to
acceleration a = - 8,4484*10
km/s/ps On the
present abnormal displacement of a signal from
oneer 10,11 matters Z = - 8, *10
, but at r =
3,72 ps displacement will increase by five
usages and becomes equal Z = - 000402 that
answers virtual beam speed of rapprochement
V = -120,6 km/s. It is obvious that above
resulted analysis specifies that Hubble's
"constant" is parameter of delay of speed of
distribution EMR, on one mps its ways and
which has nonlinear character of dependence
on a distance (dc ? 0). Actually, parameter H (km/s/ps) defines acceleration of photons EMR in the field of gravitation
of a star of a source (red displacement), detector stars (violet displacement), and as on linear
extragalactic gravitational potential. And if acceleration нелинейно
on ?distances ? time?, and it can
occur only as a result of influence of environment, the conclusion follows: the physical vacuum is a real
environment which fills all space of the Universe, and there is no place to emptiness!
Both red extragalactic displacement (RS), and red displacement (RED), at an exit of
radiation from a star and violet (VIOLET), at occurrence of photons in the field of a detector star, are
caused by change of speed of distribution ЭМИ
and, accordingly, loss of energy of photons on gradients
of gravitational fields. And the presented diagram illustrates violet accident of Astrophysics of the XX-th century ? and
its basis, Hubble's law, means already virtual expansion of the Universe which is caused by delay of
speed of distribution EMR on H
km/s for 1 мпс
ways of photons. But it is true provided that identity
Ze fairly
, and differently - problems essentially increase.
The true nature of transformation of parameters of photons
, at distribution EMR from a source
and to the detector, consists in gravitational properties of radiation which are caused by a principle of
equivalence of energy and weights. Yes, photon ЭМИ
doesn't possess neither weight of rest, nor a
gravitational field (as a first approximation), but it possesses energy, and it has appeared enough for
interaction with a gravitation field as source stars (red displacement of energy), and detector stars
(violet displacement of its energy). Extragalactic red displacement has more difficult nature, namely:
With the Universe birth process of transformation of dark energy in material bodies, with accompanying
gravitational fields, plus EMR in a wide range of frequencies is started. And as consequence, on a current
of world time process of issue of weight-energy in radiation proceeds, that is, at the Universe birth its
weight-energy was above and extragalactic photons overcome this gradient, and consequently there is
their "braking".
Whether and intensity of braking of light
depends on frequency? As it is established above, a
major factor at transformation of parameters EMR are
interaction of photons with gravitational fields, both a
radiation source, and a star of the observer, and as the
extragalactic red displacement caused by issue of
gravitational weight from the Universe. If these
statements are true, photons with higher energy, and,
hence, and большей
in weight, should lose more
energy, at braking we weed gravitations, than photons
with smaller energy, with other things being equal! For
the answer to this question the rest supernovae E0102-
72 on radio-waves and in X-rays is considered.
It is possible to see that the presented forms on a figure are similar (dark blue color, at rest
expansion, is transformed to red color) and on this property, we come to a conclusion - radio-waves
come to system of the observer earlier, than X-rays! This fact finds acknowledgement and at supervision
over formation Sn87A - radiation in a x-ray range is revealed on telescope Chandra half a year later after
flash in visible area of a spectrum! Hence, speed of distribution of photons ЭМИ is also function of
frequency (energy) of radiation, is more true so, intensity of braking is frequency function and
consequently displacement of speed, frequency and energy of these photons, measured on the detector
are various! Thus, radiation from explosion supernovae come on detectors of the observer in such time
sequence: radio frequency range, microwave radiation, in an optical range, an ultraviolet and after all -
x-ray area. It is obvious that for the purpose of the early notification about explosion supernovae in the
nearest vicinity of the Sun is admissible to use first two ranges is a radio frequency range and microwave
For an illustration of an extragalactic inequality dC ? 0
and virtual character of the law of
we will consider supernovae, received name SN 2008iz and which is in limits of galaxy М82
removed from the Earth on 12 million of light years. Opening was made by Andreas Brunthaler of
institute of radio astronomy of Max Planck. On technology of a radio interferometry with superlong
bases, authors of work have made images of their interesting area on which the ring-shaped structure
extending with speed more of 40 million of km/h is visible. By last estimations, explosion has occurred in
the end of January or the beginning of February, 2008. It is necessary to add that in 2008 galaxy М82
carefully investigated by means of optical telescopes, but explosion remained not noticed; moreover,
supernovae it is hidden from supervision both in ultra-violet, and in x-ray ranges. But according to the
concept of the Theory of Thrones, and should be. Let's spend an estimation of time of a delay of arrival
of package EMR SN 2008iz in various ranges of lengths of waves. For this purpose we use the fact that
radiation Sn87A, in x-ray area, has come on telescope Chandra after l of year after fixing in an optical
range and consequently, concerning distances SN2008iz/Sn87A=75 we will receive as a result of
light. Years. And further, the optical range is roughly in the middle between radio frequency range and
x-ray area and consequently, we have as a result time of fixing SN 2008iz in visible a spectrum is a May-
July, 2045. And in microwave area (1; 4,5; 8 mm) time of fixing SN 2008iz will come earlier, it ~ 2025!
Thus it is established
that extragalactic photons "are slowed down" on a current of world time,
and this process defines extragalactic red displacement. Moreover, intensity of process of "delay"
depends on energy of photons and consequently arrival EMR on detectors of the observer from event in
space is built in such sequence (on time): the radio frequency range, microwave radiation, an optical
range, an ultraviolet, x-ray radiation and in end is ?
- radiation
. And, the more the distance to star object,
the is more time interval divides fixing in various ranges o
f energy of photons. This property allows to
"expect" flash supernovae in an optical range by supervision in radio frequency range or microwave area
EMR. On the other hand, fixing ?
of enormous power which can be the certificate of
a ho
t birth of the Universe, it is impossible to connect with events in an optical range, understandably.
, taking into account the established law of "delay" EMR model of formation of
equilibrium microwave radiation, from an epoch of a hot birth of the Universe, it is possible to present
and thus (an algorithm definition). After volume flash of file Gipernovae
radiation, let us assume, under
the linear law of a spectrum of frequencies and which at distribution is transformed thus is formed:
packages of photons with большей
energy more to lose energy more intensively and consequently will
be, pass in groups of photons with smaller energy, thereby raising their concentration. On the other
hand a spectrum of frequencies concentration of photons большей
energy will decrease and as a result,
on the detector, distribution close to a microwave spectrum will turn out. All problems at modeling is
reduced in a choice of an initial spectrum of the frequencies which are distinct from linear, and as size of
distance R
till an epoch of a hot birth of the Universe.
Gravitational dome of star G2V
with focus in its centre
As it has been established, on border
of external gravitational radius of a star (R=3,72 пс
) parametre H defining a measure of interaction EMR
and environment-vacuum, changes a sign on opposite, that is - extragalactic red displacement is
replaced on violet, already in a star gravitational field. Actually, the found out effect is equivalent to
overcoming EMR of external spherical gravitational optical border of a star of the Sun. We will consider
effect more in detail. Supposing justice of the law of gravitation for the full Universe, an attraction on sphere, with
uniform distribution of weight on its surface, and considering the fact that ??????
) g/sm
2 is the
superficial density, the law of gravitation for individual weight on sphere, in a centre direction, assumes
such air: (4
= a
)] = F
Where G
= 6.67 *10
-8 (sm/s
) / (g/sm
) - a gravitation constant! We will notice that in (4) there is no
obvious dependence on a distance and weight as, Newton's theorem is used: ?equivalence of an
attraction of weight located as in the centre, and in regular intervals distributed in volume of a sphere or
on a surface on which acceleration? is measured!
On the other hand, at radiation distribution to extragalactic space photons test braking in linear
gravitational potential that leads to acceleration formation: q*c
= H = a
. It is obvious that there is such
distance (external gravitational radius r
=~3,72 ps) when vector of these accelerations are compensated
p + a
) =0, therefore:
(5) H ?
At performance these conditions, for a star the Sun superficial density ?
, on external
(optical) gravitational radius r
=3,72 ps
Thus, the star gravitational field creates gravitational sphere in
external radius ~ 3,76 ps. It is obvious that the superficial (optical) density changes under the law ~ r
Let's formulate a hypothesis
: the Star the Sun, including planets, is surrounded by gravitational
sphere, with parametres defined above which possesses all properties of a convex gravitational lens.
These properties
for an illustration, are presented in drawing. It
is necessary to be convinced of a reality of a gravitational dome
still and as to calculate or measure its factor of strengthening.
But it not trivial problems.
Probably, what exactly on these to the reason our bodies
of perception also observe congestions of stars, galaxies, fogs
and other star objects. Actually, all removed from observable
star objects, are, probably, on some usages further than it is
accepted on the present for the reason that their visual star size
will appear in small size. And as soon as the observer (the
astronaut of a star probe vehicle) will appear outside of external
gravitational radius of the star, all star objects will drop out of
sight, except for several tens close located stars in image
, including the Sun, and it will appear in the power of a
black gloom (absolute darkness) external space! 07.10.2010,
Размер файла
235 Кб
violet, shifr
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа