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The Controversy Behind Stem Cell Research

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The Controversy Behind Stem
Cell Research
Tonya Blevins
Toye Lowe
Sakinah Alston
Jasonta Norris
Kiva Browning
The History of Stem Cell
Research and the Politics that
Follow
Sakinah Alston
Potential uses of Stem cells
Stem cell research has the potential of curing and treating
diseases and injuries that have been deemed incurable for
many years.
п‚—
Different Stem Cell Research Techniques
1868, 1981, 1998
1950, 1960, 1990’s
2006, 2007
Embryonic Stem Cells
пЃ¶
1868 – Known as the
fertilized egg that
becomes an organism
пЃ¶
1981 – Scientists
discovered ways to
derive embryonic stem
cells from early mouse
embryos
пЃ¶
1998 – The isolation of
the first batch of human
embryonic stem cells
Adult Stem Cells
 1950’s – Two types of
stem cells discovered;
Blood & Skeletal
 1960’s – Two regions of
the brain were discovered
 1990’s – Discovered the
brain contains three major
cell types
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
2006 – Created from a
mouse at Kyoto
University in Japan
2007 – Created human
induced pluripotent
stem cells
The government against Stem Cell
Research (comic relief)
Federal Funding Ban
 2001 – President Bush
prohibited federal funding on
cell lines derived after August
09, 2001
 2007 – Executive order by the
president supporting research
for Adult stem cells
 2009 – President Obama lifted
the restrictions on embryonic
stem cells research
State Funding
Federal Funding for Stem Cell Research before and after
the 2001 compromise of embryonic stem cell research.
Voters Favor Expanding Funding for ESC
Research
Strongly favor
Somewhat favor
Somwhat oppose
Strongly oppose
Not sure
Source: A Research! America poll of likely voters conducted in
partnership with JZ Analytics in August 2012
Olijah McKinney - 3 year old boy received stem cell treatment last year for a
rare cancer called Neuroblastoma, has been found cancer free as of June 11,
2013
Psychology & Sociology Impact
Jasonta
Norris
Psychology & Sociology Impact on Research
Scientific Community
• Believes stem cell brings greater advancement
Prolife Activists
• Believe that using an embryo for research should
be banned
Stem cell research Public Opinion stats
Source: Statistic Brain
www.statisticbrain.com
In Favor of Stem Cell Research
People that live with certain medical
conditions
• Diabetes, Parkinson's, Spinal cord injuries
Certain Religious Groups
• Support research, don’t consider embryos as
human beings.
Groups not in Favor of Stem Cell Research
- Abortion Groups
• Using embryos from
abortions
• Using unused embryos
from fertility clinics
Religion & Sociology
Church Leaders & Religious
Institutions
• Human life is created by God
Social Impact
• Potential to impact and treat diseases in millions of
Americans
Economics & Ethical Issue
Toye Lowe
Types of Stem Cells
Early
Embryonic
Blastocyst
Fetal
Early Embryonic Stem Cells
Are derived from embryos. Most embryonic stem
cells are derived from embryos that develop from
eggs
Economics & Ethics
The structure formed in early development of vertebrates is called
the blastocyst.
National Institutes of Health, Turning Discovery Into Health (2013),
Embryonic Stem Cells, Blastocyst, retrieved from:
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/pages/glossary.aspx
Fetal Stem Cells
пЃ¶This is the most controversial
пЃ¶At this stage the fetus has taken human form
пЃ¶Is the fetus life less important?
Umbilical Cord Stem Cells
Adult Stem Cells
Ethical Concerns
пЃ¶Religion
пЃ¶In Vitro Fertilization
пЃ¶Fetal Stem Cells
Religion
пЃ¶Human Embryonic
Research is
unethical and
Immoral.
пЃ¶Jewish law forbids
the taking of one
life to save another
In Vitro Fertilization
пЃ¶Embryos are either abandoned or left in
frozen storage
пЃ¶So why not use them for research?
What Influences You?
Pro Life vs. My Choice
Family & Friends
пЃ¶How far should researchers take stem cell
technologies?
пЃ¶Should the government provide funding for
embryonic stem cell research?
пЃ¶Should there be laws to regulate stem cell research?
пЃ¶Do embryonic stem cells represent a human life?
Changes in Federal Law
Results
Babies
Saving Lives
Science & Environment
Tonya Blevins
Stem Cell Theory
пЃ¶ Different from an other cell:
– Ability to replicate into
other cells or tissues
– Ability to replace damaged
or cells that have died
Types:
– Adult Stem Cells
– Cord Blood Stem Cells
– Embryonic Stem Cells
пЃ¶ Focus
– Replacing defective
cells/tissues
– Gene therapy (1900’s)
– How to put stem cells into
patients
http://www.stemcellscience.info/stem_cell_theory.htm
Why Are Stem Cells Important?
пЃ¶Stems are important to living organisms
because:
– 3 to 5 day old embryos (blastocyst) are
cells to the entire body, and organs like
the heart, lungs, bone marrow, skin, etc.
– Regenerative Abilities
• Reparative Medicines
– Possible combat birth defects
Potential uses of Human Stem Cells
пЃ¶Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
пЃ¶Therapeutic Cloning
– (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer)
пЃ¶Somatic Stem Cells
3D Printing with Embryonic Stem Cells
пЃ¶Allows for creation of three
dimensional tissues
пЃ¶Paves the way for artificial organs &
tissues
пЃ¶Means of transplantation for various
diseases
The Great Debate: Cloning
пЃ¶ What is Cloning?
пЃ¶ How is cloning done?
– Artificial Embryo
Twinning
– Somatic Cell Nuclear
Transfer
пЃ¶ Is cloning an organism
the same as cloning a
gene?
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/quickref/
Why Clone?
пЃ¶Medical Purposes
– Animals models of diseases
– Stems cells for research
– Pharming for drug production
пЃ¶Reviving Endangered Species
пЃ¶Reproducing a deceased pet
пЃ¶Cloning Humans
Obstacles & Risks to Overcome
Associated Obstacles
пЃ¶ Ethical Issues
пЃ¶ Legal Issues
пЃ¶ Social Issues
Associated Risks
пЃ¶ Mutation or gene defects
пЃ¶ High failure rate
пЃ¶ Problems during later
development
пЃ¶ Telomeric differences
Stem cell Research through Media
and Art
Kiva Browning
BEAUTY IN
MICROSCOPIC IMAGES
OF STEM CELLS
пЃ¶ Art is a way to
express ideas
creatively
whether socially
or politically
http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/index.php?
page=gallery&hl=eng
Fine Art Contest
пЃ¶ Art
Galleries
пЃ¶ Magazine
Covers
пЃ¶ Post Cards
пЃ¶ Websites
McMaster Museum of Art
McMaster Museum of Art
World Wide Web
пЃ¶ Internet communications medium
пЃ¶ Reaches countless consumers/ uncontrollable
пЃ¶Businesses market and advertise from around the
world
пЃ¶Social media
Online Stem Cell Clinics
F.D.A Prohibits
• advertising, testimonials or medical claims
being made on websites regarding medical
stem cell therapy
Beware Stem Cell Fraud!!!
пЃ¶ Exploit vulnerable impressionable families
пЃ¶ Guaranteeing cures
пЃ¶ High cost for experimental treatments
пЃ¶ Unlicensed Doctors performing treatments
пЃ¶ Other countries may not require studies to test safety
and effectiveness
Stem cell research shows great promise in the near
future to prolong quality of life for those with
debilitating conditions.
http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/index.php?page=galle
ry&hl=eng
Summary
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