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Afghanistan—Major Events

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Cuban Civil War & the Cuban Missile
Crisis
Cuba: 2 major figures
п‚— Fidel Castro
п‚— Initially praised by
Cubans for
bringing social
reform and
improving
economy
п‚— Harsh dictator
п‚— No elections
п‚— Jailed opponents
п‚— Controlled press
п‚— Fulgencio Batista
п‚— dictator
п‚— Supported by US
п‚— Unpopular in Cuba
Major Events
1959—1962
п‚— Fidel Castro led a revolution overthrowing Batista in 1959
п‚— Castro took over economy, including US owned business
п‚— US president Eisenhower ordered an embargo on trade with
Cuba
п‚— Castro turned to Soviets for economic and military aid
п‚— 1960, CIA trained anti-Castro Cuban exiles
 1961—Bay of Pigs Invasion
п‚— Easy victory for Castro
 US didn’t provide air support
п‚— humiliating defeat for US
Major Events cont’d
п‚— Cuban Missile Crisis: closest world ever came to Nuclear War
 After failure of Bay of Pigs invasion—Soviets believed US would not
resist
 1962—Soviets built 42 missile sites in Cuba
п‚— American spy plane discovered these
п‚— JFK declared they were a threat
п‚— Demanded missiles be removed
п‚— Ordered a naval blockade of Cuba
п‚— 13 days between discovery by US and when Soviets agreed to back down
(example of brinkmanship)
п‚— Soviets would remove missiles if US promised not to invade Cuba
Cuba—outcome
п‚— Fidel Castro established a Communist dictatorship
in Cuba
 2011 Fidel’s his brother, Raul, succeeded him
Legacy:
Trade embargo on
Cuba still in
existence today,
Americans aren’t
supposed to travel
to Cuba
Afghanistan’s Civil War
Afghanistan
п‚— Communist
Afghan
government
п‚— Aided from 1979
to 1989 by Soviet
troops
п‚— Mujahadeen
п‚— Anti-communist
Muslim guerillas
supported by
the US
Afghanistan—Major Events
 1979—1989
п‚— Soviet influence increased in Afghanistan in the 50s.
 Late �70s, a Muslim revolt threatened to topple Afghanistan’s
Communist regime пѓ Soviets invaded in 1979
п‚— Mujahadeen were supplied with American weapons & fought
off Soviets
п‚— US armed rebels because they saw Soviets as a threat to US
oil.
п‚— President Jimmy Carter stopped grain shipments to Soviet
Union and boycotted the 1980 Moscow Olympics
п‚— Soviet Union was crippled economically and withdrew in 1989
Afghanistan—outcome
п‚— Soviet and US forces withdrew in 1989, but Civil War
continued for 3 more years
п‚— Afghan communist gov fell in 1992
п‚— By 1996, one of the rebel groups that was part of the
mujahadeen called the Taliban, seized power and
established an Islamic government
п‚— Popular at first, became repressive and especially harsh
on women.
п‚— Failed to improve the lives of the people.
п‚— Became a sanctuary to international terrorists
 2001—coalition led by US drove them from power
The Cold War Thaws
And the Soviet Union Falls
The Thaw: DГ©tente
п‚— Crises of 1960s made US change policy
п‚— Cuban Missile Crises, Vietnam War, etc.
п‚— Fear of nuclear war
п‚— Nixon changes US policy:
п‚— From Brinksmanship пѓ DГ©tente: policy of
lessening Cold War tensions
п‚— Visited China and Soviet Union
 Began SALT—talks to limit arms race
п‚— Pres. Gerald Ford continued dГ©tente, but Carter and Reagan
were more anti-Communist
п‚— (Afghanistan was a move away from dГ©tente)
The Thaw
 1985—Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power
п‚— Greater political and social freedoms (atmosphere of
open criticism) “glasnost and perestroika”
п‚— Economic pressures from Cold War competition build
п‚— Scientific research
п‚— Space race
п‚— Nuclear proliferation
п‚— Surrogate wars
п‚— Soviet Union dissolves through 1991 (E. Euro nations
claim independence)
п‚— THE COLD WAR ENDS
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