MДЃori TДЃ Moko Ruth Phillips TДЃ Moko вЂў TДЃ moko is the permanent body and face marking by MДЃori people. вЂў ItвЂ™s not exactly like tattooing in that the skin was carved by chisels rather than punctured. This left the skin with grooves, rather than a smooth surface. вЂў The Moko is similar to an identity card, or passport. For men, the Moko showed their rank, their status and their ferocity. вЂў The wearer's position of power and authority could be instantly recognized in his Moko. Background вЂў According to MДЃori mythology, tattooing commenced with a love affair between a man named Mataora (which means "Face of Vitality") and a princess of the underworld named Niwareka. вЂў According to archaeological evidence, tattooing came to New Zealand from Eastern Polynesian culture. вЂў In New Zealand, it is in the early sites that the widest chisel blades are found. o Lends evidence to the theory that there was possibly a preference towards rectilinear (straight lined) tattoo patterns in earlier times. Background ContвЂ¦ вЂў The head was considered the most sacred part of the body, and because tattooing caused blood to run the tattoo craftsmen were very tapu (sacred) persons. вЂў All high-ranking MДЃori were tattooed, and those who went without tattoos were seen as persons of no social status. вЂў Tattooing commenced at puberty, accompanied by many rites and rituals. In addition to making a warrior attractive to women, the tattoo practice marked both rites of passage and important events in a person's life. Maori Moko- traditional facial tattoo Process вЂў The tattoo instrument was a bone chisel, either with a serrated or an extremely sharp straight edge. вЂў The first stage of the tattoo commenced was the graving of deep cuts into the skin. вЂў Next, a chisel was dipped into a sooty type pigment such as burnt Kauri gum or burnt vegetable caterpillars, and then tapped into the skin. вЂў It was an extremely painful and long process, and often leaves from the native Karaka tree were placed over the swollen tattoo cuts to hasten the healing process. вЂў During the tattooing process, flute music and chant poems were performed to help soothe the pain. Process ContвЂ¦ вЂў There were certain prohibitions during the tattooing process, and for the facial tattoo in particular sexual intimacy and the eating of solid foods were prohibited. вЂў In order to overcome this, liquid food and water was drained into a wooden funnel, to ensure that no contaminating product came into contact with the swollen skin. o This was also the only way the tattooed person could eat until his or her wounds healed. TДЃ Moko Designs вЂў вЂў The women were not as extensively tattooed as the men. Their upper lips were outlined, in dark blue. The nostrils were also very finely incised. The chin moko was always the most popular, and continued to be practiced even into the 1970s. The male facial tattoo - Moko - is generally divided into eight sections : o o o o o o o o вЂў вЂў Ngakaipikirau (rank). The center forehead area Ngunga (position). Around the brows Uirere (hapu rank). The eyes and nose area Uma (first or second marriage). The temples Raurau (signature). The area under the nose Taiohou (work). The cheek area Wairua (mana). The chin Taitoto (birth status). The jaw Ancestry is indicated on each side of the face. The left side is generally the father's side and the right side is the mother's ancestry. The tattoo designs themselves came from lifeвЂ™s force and energy. Modern TДЃ Moko вЂў The MДЃori tradition of tattooing lost much of its significance after the coming of European settlers. вЂў MДЃori traditions have become more known and popular since the 1990s. вЂў Most modern MДЃori tattoos are on the body rather than the face and ink is used instead of powder and chisels. вЂў It is considered insulting for a non-mДЃori to wear a MДЃori tattoo pattern because you are stealing part of their identity.