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practise your grammar 2

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compiled and edited by
ipek f,kmekqi & Qigdem Onat
Ankara 2003
Middle East Technical tlniversity
Department of Basic English
1.GRAMMAR (p.1)
2.VOCABULARY (p. 71)
3.CLOZE TEST (p. 97)
4.ANSWER KEY (p. 115)
Complete the following sentences with a suitable verb in either the present simple or
present continuous tense. Put the words in the brackets in the correct place.
Jason and Tricia ( I )
to the theatre tonisht. Jason
(always) a glass of wine during thc intermission and
going to a pub after the show. This play (4;
at l0 o'clock so there will be plentv of time to have another slass or two before thcir l-avouritc
pub (-5)
. Jason, who (6)
(always) aboLrt
Trrcia's driving and is too stingy to hire a cab. will hzrve to lct Tricia drivc. ll
I'ut the verbs in brackets into either the present simple or the present continuous tense.
Put any other words in the brackets in the correct place.
l. You
(always / find) cxcuses for being latc. I am bcgintring to lose
(write) a new book whilc his wif'e is on vucrrtion.
my paticnce with yor-r.
2. Davicl
3. Jef'liey
(f-eel) that his lif'e as an athlete will soon be ovcr.
4. Don'1 distr"rrb rne. nlease. I
(have) my dinner.
Put the verbs in brackets in either the past tense or past continuous.
'k When hc (l)
(stand) up to make a specch, he (2)
ovcr his wine glass. Hc was vcry embarrasscd
'1' Whilc David (3)
(watch) the football match on TV. thc chair hc
(sit) on suddenly (5)
(not live) in London when hcr fathcr
(get) married for the fburth tirne'/
to mc as if thcy are hcading 1'or trouble . not a pleasant night or-rt.
(become) older she (9)__ (find) li1'e easier to dcal
" As she (8)
Fill in each blank using the correct lbrm of the verbs in brackets.
I had one of the worst experiences of rny life a ferv years ago whcn ii friend and I
(ski) in the Dolomite Mountains in ltalv. We had dccided not to ski that
day - the sun (2)
(shine) and the snow (3)
(meltl 1'ast. We
had decided, instead. to take the ski lifi to the top of the nlountain and have a walk arouncl. As
there was so little snow. we (4)
(meet) many skiers, and the bar at the top of
the lift was empty. Afier drinking a quick cup of coffee, we (5)(set) out to
explore the mountaintop, following a path through a forest. Suddenly the weather changed, and
when the sun (6)(disappear), it (7)
(become) quite cold.
Snow started to fall. We decided to turn back immediately. After an hour of walking. we
realised that we were lost and that the snow (8)
(fall) faster and faster. We
couldn't go back the way we had come. There was no alternative but to carry on towards the
ski lift. Otherwise. we would spend the nieht on the mountain. Just as I
(begin) to get really fiightened, I (10)
(hear) shouts
in the distance. We ran towards the voices and soon came to the edge of the forest. The ski lifi
was ahead of us. We had made it! However, it wasn't the top of the slope. but the bottom.
Without realising it, we had walked all the way down the mountain side.
iilf in each blank with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
Some people (l)
(always/criticize) things without bcing
constructive about them. That's really irritating. To prove to myself that I am not one of thosc
people, I have decided (2)
(oin) the nexl environmcntal
(be) the third of
awrlreness cross-country bicycle rally, which (3)
its kind. I have even asked to be excused from the picnic that my school
(have) next Saturday bccausc the rally
(start) that day at noon. Considering the route. we
(certainly / run) into some bad weather and I arn al'raid it
(not / be) an easy run. Even so, I hope that when it's
finished, we (8)
(create) some environmental awareness in the
pcople watching us ride by.
Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs in brackets so that each sentence has
a future meaning. Use each future form only once, in the most appropriate place.
l. Look out! You
(crash) into that tree.
The doctors hooe that he
(get) better soon.
3. We'd better hurry. The plane
(take) off at l l :1 5.
4. The prime-minister
(give) a reception for the businessmen this
5. Just imagine! We
(sail) to Sardinia this time on Friday.
Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
The Evans family was planning (l)
(spend) the Christmas period in
Scotland. They (2)
(invite) to stay there for a few days at the house of some
friends. lt was a long way away, and the Evans thought they (3)( arn ve.)
very late, so the friends agreed to leave the door key under the mat. In this way, the Evans
could let themselves in without waking anyone up.
The map their friends (4)
(draw) for them wasn't very good. so they
(find) the house until about two o'clock in the mornine. They started to
look for the key. The whole family (6)
(search) without success for about
ten minutes when the father (7)(discover) that the door was open. They
went inside quietly. Since their friends (B)- (sleep) upstairs. they decided to
go straight to bed. They were tired after their long journey, so they found two empty
bedrooms and went to sleep.
When they came downstairs the next morning, to theiramazement two complete strangers
By accident the wholc l'arnily
( l0)
(sit) at the kitchen table.
(break) into the house next doorl
getting a job
taking care
Use a. an. the or no article (b) in the blanks below.
Fill in each blank with an appropriate preposition.
Alex has always been interested (l)
marine life and sorely wanted to take
prevented him (3)
fulfilling this ambition. Finally, last month he succeeded
at the city aquarium, where he was to be responsible
of the dolphins. He proved to be so good
Dear Diary,
Yesterday. I saw (l)
car of my dreams- (2)
convertible! I can easily imagine myself driving that wonderful machine along
French Riviera with (4\
sun in my face and
wind in rny hair. Gathering all my courage, I went into (6)
showroom and asked for (7)
test drive. This was (B)
display of boldness on my part, if I say so myself, considering my already over-drawn
bank account. Unfortunately, dear diary, (9)
over-drawn bank accounts are
harsh realities oI life...
his job that the city government offered to pay for his diving lessons.
is really excited (7)
his job and diving. When
I congratulated him
present job, come
and see my boss;
I am sure he can find something you are capable
( 10)
F'ill in each blank with an appropriate preposition.
You have finrilly succeeded ( 1)
making me angry. I have already
apolo-qized (2)bringing you here. You seem to be bored
everything around. I cannot be held responsible (4)
everything you dislike. Try to show some skill (5)
adapting yourself to the
Fill in each blank with the most suitable preposition.
Bel had always wanted to have a business of his own. His opportunity came whcn his rtt-tllt
lef't him hcr hugc country mansion. He had never expected this. Although it took hirr
engineers and workmen. While ont: group was clearing the old stablcs (3)- --- the
rubbrsh irccumulatcd ovcr the years, anothcr was fitting the rooms (4)------- thc latcst
model air purifiers. For a whilc, it was like a madhouse: the whole placc was (-5)-
total chaos. Howcver, slowly but surely, things settled down and a very attractive heltlth I'arttt
was built. The opening ccrclnony attracted many celebrities. Ben. howevcr. was
(6)-=-_- no illusions that a few famous names would be enough il'he wanted a steady
increasc (1)__ the number of paying customers. He is constantly trying 1o improve
"The Olcl Manor House", the name (8)-- which his health farm is known in the local
with in, into, on, close to andfrom.
his progress, he said, "If you ever get bored (9)
the top of a hill. You can see the terrific scenery
its terrace. There is an ancient temple in ruins (3)
hear the sound of the wind all the time since we live (4)---------- a
are stairs in front of our fiont porch, which descend (5)---- thc
blank with one word.
filling in
the form. I know you are bad
Anyway, don't get too exctted
them. It doesn't usually come. Why are
Itill in the blanks
Our housc is (l )
garden wall. We
hrlly area. There
Fill in each
Don't put
remembering things.
receiving a green card from
you so interested (4)
going to the U.S.A.'? You are capable
getting any job you like here. I apologise (6)
interfering, but you can do much better than this in life.
Fill in each blank with the appropriate preposition. If none is necessary, put a (X) in the
,' Please run (1)__ to my room on the top floor and get my coat. I havc an
appointment (2)_ two o'clock with Adrian. He is here (3)---- only two
days. He is leaving (4)
tomorrow. It's his wif.e's birthday (5)_____ the
l2th of April. He wants to celebrate it with hcr (6)_- Saturday evcnin-{.
'r' Cornc- on. gct (7)_ the car. I'll drive you (8)_ the tunnel to the other
sidc of the rivcr. Then if you walk (9)_ the park you can casily rcrch thc
'k I had cornpletely lbrgotten (10)____ the picnic. Actually. Ihad nothing to clcr
( I I )_ the weekend so I didn't even bothcr to go ( l2)--- ol'the hrttsc.
F'ill in each blank with the appropriate preposition.
bus (3) work. She sometirncs has to wait (4)
the bus stop {or
fiftecn minutes before getting (5)_______ a crowded bus which takes her to Tllfalgar
Square. Thcrc she jurnps (6)-- the bus and walks (7)
National Gallery. On the way to the gallcry. shc I'ccds the birds by the fbuntuin. Aftcr
spending a fcw minutes therc, she cntcrs the gallery. Actuirlly. she works
(u)_ _ _ thc National Gallcry - as an assistant curator.
" Gerald has a lovelv house (9)
the southern coast. but hc rvorks
( l0)
the east where he has a tov f itctorv. As a result. hc spends a lot ol'his
time (l I)the road ( l2) his car.
* Thc news of his trasic dcath was flrst given ( 13) television. then
( t4)the newspapers the next day.
* Please be here ( l5)_ time.
'i' We couldn't see the film properly because our sezits were (16)
the back o1'the
* Please sit (17)
that stool ( l8)
the hall. I want to draw vour
x We travelled a lot (19)
the east but I have never lived
the southern coast.
* Let's meet (2l)
the entrance to Karum (22)
Fill in each blank with the appropriate preposition.
You seem to be unaware (l)
the fact that people are getting tired of you.
You always express yourself (2)an aggressive manner. Moreover, most of
your jokes are (3)
poor taste. When people compliment you
your acting ability you take it for granted. When you are confl-onted
journalists, you are always rude to them. Ninc times
of ten you are late for your appointments. As your agent. I'm
responsible (1)
creating your public image. So let's get down
business. You either do what I want you to do or I quit.
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate relative pronoun. Add
commas where necessary.
l. Jacques-Yves Cousteau conducted underwater exploration in places no man
had gone bel'ore.
2. Jacques-Yves Cousteau
fihns made the strange underwater world
marvellously familiar had a rare enthusiasm for nature'
3. Sebastian's oldest brother is an army officer will not be able to attend his
4. After he was put in jail, Mr. Gullible was criticised by a lot of people many of
were his old accomplices.
5. Many people refuse to take any major decisions on the 13th of the month
they believe is unlucky.
Put the adjectives and nouns in the correct order in the blanks below.
1. I don't think it was really an accident. I would like to speak to the
. (involved/people)
2. There will be
(occasional / rain)
in the Mediterranean resion in the afiernoon
Write the most suitable modifying adjective in the blanks. In the first two sentences,
don't use the same adjective in both blanks.
x His behaviour towards the teacher was ( I )
impolite, but she handled
the situation (2)
It was a (3)
interesting proposal, but I can't
agree with him. I don't think
those trees should be felled.
thins he saw was the tree-house in the old oak tree. He remembered
a child he (5 )
(spend) hours
(imagine) he was the king of the castle. He also remembered his
(bend) over for hours on end in an effort
(keep) the garden blooming all year round. For one brief
We use our basement (5)
a washroom.
This material feels (6)
I used to be very thin (7)a child but since then I've put on weight.
Complete the following text with the correct form of the words in brackets.
In general, I've been very satistied with my new motorcycle, a Fuzimiko 50. It is
(l)--- (good bike) any other in the market. Its engine runs really
(quiet) and it certainly looks much (3)
(attractive) most other bikes of its type. And, mind you, it is (4)
(easy) bike in the world to maintain. The only real problem I've had is that it is trot
(5)_ (stable) it should be when there's a strong wind blowing. And
also the passenger seat is far (6)
(comfortable) I expected.
l'ill in each blank with the correct form of the verb in brackets.Use used to and would,
each only once, in the most appropriate blanks.
Although it meant ( l)
(have) a shorter vacation with his
friends this summer. William
decided (2)
(visit) the house
moved out years
where his grandparents (3)
(live). They had
ago because it had
really become too difficult lor them
(maintain) such a large house. As William walked through
the garden gate, the
nostalgically that
beloved grandmother (7)
moment, he considered (9)
(buy) back the house" He dreaded
( l0)
when developers discovered this as-yet-untouched location.
Put the verb in brackets in the correct form.
(think) what might become of the house and "his" tree
(give) you the key until you reminded mc you
(hear) from him after all those ycars of hrs
(see) Cindy Crawford there. Won't that be thrilling'/
(put; your career in danger by perfbrnring such alt
l. I didn't remember
had it.
2. Bill's father was glad
3. Just irnagine
4. Don't risk
9. This time, Junc is really determined
operation on him. He is a terminal patient
-5. She regrets -
6. Don't postpone
(inforrn) us that she won't be comitts to oLll- pafty
(have) a medical check up. I arn rcally worried
about your hcalth.
1. lt will take a long time
(sort) oul the books in thc lihrrrry.
8. I don't want to spend mY money
(buy) things which I don't nccd.
10. This new method caused chaos rather than
(win) the f irst prize in the
(nraintain) order in thc
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. You can add words
where necessary.
Very few spectator sports today are amatL-ur in any w;.ty. Sport has bccomc part ol' thc
entertainment and advertising industry. The top perlormers in sports such as solf. tennis artcl
lbotball can expect ( l)
(become) very rich. For example. Michael Jordan is
the most well-known basketball player in the world, but he's also famous (2)--
(wear) a certain brand of shoes. Is it right that sports stars should earn so nluch troney'?
Well. to reach the top in any sport you need a great deal of commitrnent. This means
(have) no time to do any other work. These days it is almost imposstble
for anyone to do a sport for fun and then, without very hard work, go on (4)
(achieve) success at the highest level. Many people would argue that top charnpions really do
deserve (5)(win) top prizes. After all, shouldn't we reward people at the top
of their profession? One unfortunate consequence of the desire to succeed in sport is the
spread of drug-taking to improve performance. Most athletes still wouldn't dream
(use) these drugs, yet an increasing number are finding them hard to
resist. However, maybe we should try (7')
(understand) the pressure modern
sportsmen and women are under. Only the chosen few are lucky enough to receive rnillions
for advertising contracts. Most find that when they stop (8)_---- (compete), there
is little else in life for them to do, and they can never regain the kind of success they enjoyed
in their sporting days.
Fill in each blank
I can't stand hrrn
the appropriate form of the verb in brackets.
(pult) all those tricks on me anymorc. I trted
, one of the contributors to
(you/do) at a lefi-handecl
(be) even lefi-handed."
(warn) him several times, but he wouldn't change- Now' I rcgret
(marry) him but it's too late. I really don't know how wc'll manitgc
(live) together. Just irnagine (-5)
(be) srt unhuppv
with someone and yct yotl go on (6)
(sharc) the same house with him
Put the verbs in brackets into their
appropriate form. Correctly place any other words
While Claudia ( l)
(study) for a degree in East Asian Cultures. shc
(develop) an interest in cooking. Apparently' by the titnc she
(graduate) in 1966, she (4)
(already/decide )
what she (5)
(want) to do. Immediately after school. she
(get) a residence permit for Tibet by enrolling in the lJniversity ol
Lhasa, in the Tibetan capital, and (1)
(open) an Italian rcstaurilnt
Strangcly enough. it was a roaring success! "Claudia (8)
(alwuys/he )
a bit 6f an eccentric, with a knack for the exotic, but this one takes thc cake." sitys her old
Vassar roommate Jcnny. Her mother, too, still unable to believe the rcstaurant's succcss,
says. "lt (9a)
(make) sense if it (9b)
(bc) a
Tibetan rcstaurant
in New York Citv; but this'1" Claudia, never
short of an answer, says, "It
only I ( l0a)
(run )
a restaurant in every major citY
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs in parentheses. Correctly place
any other words given.
(have) thc capital earlierl I (l0b)
in the world now."
Tina looked down at the scandalous graffiti with which her friends
(decorate) the plaster on her leg and smiled sadly. Her fiiend Sam
the decorations, asked, "What (2)
golfers tournament. anYwaY? You
"Well," Tina replied. "a couple of weeks ago as I (4)
(peel) potatoes.
(carch )
an ad in the newspaper I had laid on the table for the peelings (5)
my eye. lt sounded so promising: an l8-hole course in Hawaii, peaceful surroundings.
reasonable prices and so on. You know, I (6)
(always/have) a soft spot
fbr bargains, and this was irresistible. That night before I (7)
(go) to bed. I
(already/make) up my mind to book the trip. Initially, I had no intention
of entering
the tournament. But when I (9)
(arrive) in Hawaii, I
(decide) to give the tournament itself a try anywav,
(already I pay) the entrance fee as part of the package deal.
If I (l2a)
(know) how disastrous it was going to be. I
(never/do) such a fbolish thing. On my first day on the golt
course, I ( [3)
(stand) around watching the experts prepare for the first
(be) right-handed, I didn't realise I was on the wron-tl
tee-off. ( l4)
side, so I (15)
(hardly/expect) the blow from the club I got square on
the shin. The next thing I knew. I was in hospital with a broken leg."
After hearing Tina's tale of woe, Sam said, "Look on thebright sidc. Where
(you/be) now ifthe package deal (16b)
( cover )
accident insurance as well?" Tina thought but didn't say, "In debt no doubt, but probably still
in Hawaii. If I (l7a)
(see) that tempting ad in the newspaper. I
(dance) at my best friend's wedding right now."
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs.
(live) in Africa, I know what starvation is. I (2)
(work )
in Ethiopia when the great famine (3)
(strike). I (4)
( never/see )
anything like that before. People (5)(beg) on the streets for a mouthful o1'food
(promise) myself to help the poor for the rest of my lif'e, I dedicated my lif-c
charity. Quite a long time (7)
(pass) since my stay in Afiica but I
tragic scenes vividly. Before I
(see) Africa, I
( l0)
(claim/always) that nothirrg could
shock me, but my experiences ( I 1)
(prove) me wrong.
Complete the following text by putting
You can add words where necessary.
the words in brackets in their correct forms.
Ever since the day I ( I )
(clecide) to change my life and move to Istanbr"rl
I (2)
(think) it over carefully, wonderirtg whether my suddctt decisioti a
f'ew weeks ago was the right one. I (3)
(watch) a documentary about
Istanbul on T.V. one afternoon. and iill at once I (4)
(attract) to tl'rc idca ol
being a part of Istanbul's culture and excitement.
It just worrics lttc thet sot,tll I
have a feeling that the f irst l-ew
tlive) all alone in a stranee city. I
months could hc (6)
(dilficult) yet thrilling
time of rny lif'c so far. You see. I
sleepy village in the middle ol
(grow) up rn the city, but in a small
nowhere. and I (8)
(spencl) all my life here. lt would bc hard to imaginc it
(9)=_-- (quiet) place. Anyway, rly house (10)
( already/sel I ).
so it s too latc now to changc my rnrnd. I cxpect that in a f'ew years' tittlc. I
( I I )___ (have) cnough of thc noise and pollution of Istanbul and then I ciLtr
rnovc back to my village and bctter appreciate its peacc and trancluillity-
Use the approPriate lbrms
where approPriate.
of verbs in the blanks. LIse used /o and would ouce each
l-hcre (l )----- -- (be)
a lot ol' talk
about the negative ef't'ects o1' vitatlrilrs lttrcl
rnincrals rccentlY. PcoPle (2)
(take) thcm without thinl<irrg iibout tllc
consequences. Last wcek. I (3)
(warn) rny old aunt about taking too lllltlly
crrlcium tablets. She (4)
(take) two tablets a daY ulltil shc
stil'fhess in her knees ancl neck. Antlthcr
(feel) sornc: cramPs and
(occur) durirrg my childhood. When | (1)---- (go)
t9 prir-nary school. tny mothcr (U)_-- (be) vcry keen on making tnc swallow a
(alsolput) a slicc ol'oratrgc
spoonf'ul of cod-livcr oil cvery morning. She (9)-
into rny mouth to help relieve its bad taste. After six
gctting rcd spots on lly body. I ( I l)
(cver/change) tny Inind about tha{.
months or so, | ( I 0)-- ( stitrt )
(tor"rch) any vitatnilrs since thcn. and I
l'ill in each blank with
the appropriate fbrm of the verb.
lbring) it to hinr.
If shc
(give) her my ol'fice nulnbel
(have) breakfast in bed if his wilc
(be) very angry if someone
(burn) my house down
4. If you
(talk) to him now. I'm sure he
(be) very happy
He's been expecting your visit 1or a long time so don't hesitate. Just enter his room.
mothcr ( I )
(be) a
(give) him his first paintbrush then.
Now Edward (4)-
(be) quite a famous painter. Pre sently he
(5)(paint) the interior walls of a community centre in a suburb ol- L.ondolt
He (6)(never/rnake) such big paintings so when he f irst undcrtook thc
project. he (1)
(be) happy with it because he (8)
( havc)
engugh conl'idence in hirnself. However, now hc (9)- (do) cluite well ancl
evervbody ( l0)- (love) his work.
Fill in each blank
where necessary.
Edward was born in
five because his
Fill in eaclt
At thc party,
recently in
sidc. Shc hesitated
with the appropriate form
London in 1916. He first (l)
of the verb in brackets. Use negatives
(start) to paint at the age o1
f amous pninter and she
blank with the appropriate lbrm of the given verb. Use negatives where
spotted her among the crowd. If he ( 1)
magazine, hc (2)
(sce) her photo
(recognise) hcr. Shc
(3)__(changc) so much. When she saw hirn, she irnrnedratcly canrc to his
lirr ir rnon)cllt. I I shc (4) ---
(kiss) hint.
(mean) that she still lovcd him, so she decided lrot to. Br-rt
(never/experiencc) such a bitter-sweet l-eeling bctorc.
Complete the following text by putting the words in brackets in their correct fbrms.
You may add words to make the necessary changes.
In the early 1990s. a producer {br Yorkshirc Television (l)
(look ) for
material for a series o1'programmes called 'The Ilard Lif'e'. In the course of his research, hc
(come) across a sixty-year-old woman, Hannah Hauxwell,
(live) on her own on an isolated farm in the Yorkshire Dales. Her
conditiorrs wcrc (4)
(difficult) anyone could e xpect. Sht:
(have) a phone, electricity or even running water - cxcept lrorn lhc
throughout 1991.
Hannah. Srnce shc
(bring) fame and a totally diff'erent lifestyle to
(8)(discover) by the TV people, she (9)( le-acl ) .r
comfortable lile in usmall cottage in Cory, a nearby village. She is now
which (6)
(popular) personality and (11)
in the area. She (12)
the village's
(invite) to all
Cory for sixkinds of social occasions
(live) in
years this May. and the villagers (13)
(plan) to give a big party
honour. They all think that she deserves (14)
remaining years of her life.
(bet happy
Complete the following text by putting the words in brackets in their correct forms.
You may add words to make the necessary changes.
Two women who used to be the best ot
Tamara Foxton and Helena Wallace used
they won would ( l)
agreement. Three weeks ago,
"We (2)
nounce). But thc
(divide) between them, according to their
Tamarzr won the national first prize of f250.000. Helcna said.
(wccp t with joy whcn the prizc (.1 ) ------
ncxt day. Tatnara said that hcr husband Billy had pcrsuadcd
(keep) all thc money. 'Ihe agrecmcnt betwecn us was atl inl'ot'lral
friends have fallen out over a big win at bingo.
to play every Friday evening. and any prize moncy
(trr-rst) Tamara at the vcry
situation. "
won four hr.rndrcd pouncls. Shc
include Billy. cven though hc
cvening. Al'tcr that incidcnt. I
(rctirc ) sorln. lrnd this
(realisc) our dreams. Of coursc. some formalities
bcf ore wc can receive thc money."
(do) rnore than 70 kph, ran into it
(wcar) his sc;.rt hclt.
(throw) out of the window with the impact o[' the
onc. I l-ccl like a
lbol now. If I (5a)
bcginning, I (-5b)
(be) in such an unpleasanl
Tarnara's side of thc story is retther different:
"A month ago. Billy. Helena and I wcnt to bingo attd Helena
___ (split) the moncy three ways and
(lend) her tcn pounds to play that
natu|llly t0ltl he r that
rn()ney will crrrrhlc (9)
the deal was over. Billv (B)-
have ( l0)-- (cornplete)
Put the verbs in brackets into their correct past forms.
Thc car, which
lamppost. The
driver, who (l)
It was
(lie) u
a beautif-ul warm suln[ler
nder the big oak tree in the
davs. he (5t
Emma (4)
Hcr husband was out in the woods. On such
(always / take) his gun with him. but
(rarely / shoot) any rabbits or birds.
he (6)
Put the verbs in brackets inttl their correct future forms.
l. I'nt looking lorwarcl to rcading his new book. Pcople sr! lhe"
lpublisht it bv the end ol.this month.
2. It looks like cvcryotrc is ltgttinst us. I cloubt if'lve ---- -- - (!llvc)
another chattcc to collplcrte thc pro.iect.
'Ihe following text is about an incident that took place two days ago. I{ead it and
filt in the spilces with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
It wus a sr"rnnr,' clrry. Mr. llollis t l) (work) itt thc gitl'r,lctt lot- lr.vtr
lrours u,ltcr.r hc Q t _ _ (dccrtlc) to go irt lor i.t cltl) ol tclt. l le
(wlrlk) to thc l'r'ont o1' his hottse. rvltct'c llc
(.+) -- - (le avc) itis sltocs iuttl ltc (-5 ) - (hctltl ) ttcxl
to tlrc light srvitclr tri ltull of'l'onc urudcly boot. At this ltoinl. lv1r. Lark. lr ttciglltrot-tt ri'lttr
((r) _ ___ (rvash) his car acrr)ss thc roucl. (1 )- -_-__ ,-, (scc) N4r'.
ilollis shlrking u,ith lris hancl on thc light su'itch. I)r-rtting two utitl lrvo ttigcthcr. Mr Lrrlli
(S) ------ (rlur) acr'oss tlrt: rttail ancl (9)--- lhiti N'lr.
tlollis s urnt rvitlr u ltaschlll but to hrclrk his cotttrtct u'ith tlte liglht sv;itch lttttl sltvc ltittt ll'ottl
clcctr.oclrtion. 'I'hc unlortunatc Nlr. Hollis. u'ho ( l0) (ttlltnagc) to llr.rll
(watch) rny l'avouritc TV programllte ll-ottr nltc to tcn
o1'1' ()ne hooL ltttd ( I I )-
tllt -'- (scrtd)
flying to thc srout.tcl
( whltt hc (
tonr()rrow cvcrting. so pleasc call me beforc that.
Shc iooks arvf'r"rily palc. Obvit)tisl1'. s1.t"
{ }
(try) to tltkc ol'l thc othcr,
by his rrcighhor-rr's ltttuck. Bv thc tilttc
l-+) - (cltl). tt urts
[('() llttc.
ti. NIr. llollis, lvlrtt is nolv in lrospital
nrornirtg. Complcte the lirllotvitrg
correct lttrm.
with a bnrken arnt.
scntences hv putting
talked to a lrtcal repurtt'r {ltis
tlre verbs in lllackets in tlreir
Mr. Hollis :
i. 11' rt (a) ltrc) ntitty that clay. I (l))- - ----'s.
). I (a)--,---------- (lic) on this hospitll tred ii Mr. Lark (b)
tllirt I rvls bcing elcctl-ocuted.
( stil\')
Put the verbs in brackets in their appropriate form. Correctly
Matthew is the rrost indecisive
knows this but maintains. "I
r (l)
(hltve) rnorc splrcc. I {
place any other words
(knowlever) in my lif'e. He
(change) my rnind unless I
of months a-eo. Of
it. He said. "l
(incrcasc ) in valuc
back the house he (4)
. he had to pay
excellent reasons." Last week. he (3)
(sell) only a couple
fivc thousand dollars more for
(buy ) it hue k il' it t-5b t
so rnuch in sucha short time." OK, but if he (6a)
(sell) it in thc l'irst
placc, he (6b)
(be) fivc thousand dollars richer now. Sotle years aso
hc decidcd to leerrn how to play the guitar. He bought a f-lamenco guitar. Guess what'l Af tcr a
l-cw lessons, he decidcd that what he rcally wanted was to learn how to play clussical guitar.
Necdless to say. his latcst passion is thc piano. Matthew (7)
___ (nra|r'y)to
Maggie for twelve years ltow.
Amazing, isn't it'l Maggie says. "li I
(make) it clear that we either got married or I was leaving hitn. wc
tlive/stillt with our respcclive roomtnltcs." Mrtgtic is cxpcctiltg
thcir sccond child
Problcm: naming thc baby. Matthcw
says, "lf' my parents
(bc) casy. I coulcl narrc
( 9a)
(be) alivc, it (9b)
the baby ulter one of'thent, but I do not believc
This obviously is not the end of Matthew'
in giving
s story,
chilclren narrcs
but I ran out
ol' dcad pcoplc."
ol'spacc. Il'l
(go) on for pages.
( l0a)_
Fill in
Ncll (
(havc) six months to complete the course. Shc (3)___ _ (try)
her hand at everything from sculpturc to ceramics, and from painting to batik at thc school
Last term whilc she (,1)
(sculpt) thc head of a big anitnal I'igurc. shc
the blank with the
I )__________
(-5 )
she (8)
{irr kitchcns and bathrooms.
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the
Roy, generally a suspicious man, (l)
rnan (2)
appropriate form of the verbs in brackets.
(attend) an art school for thc last eightecn Inottths. Shc still
t l-rrll) frorn rr lrdder rtncl (6t
(break) her l"g. It
(take) her two months to walk again
Now she is perl'ectly all right and
(arrange / already) a job forhersel f.After her graduation. shc
(work) fbr a ceramics company that
( l0)
(produce) tilcs
(climb) the stairs to his office whcn ir
(stand) in his way and (3)
(demand) to see his ID
(never/meet) hrm in the building before, he thought the
card. As Roy (4)
man (5)
Roy (7)
out that someonc ( l5)
(see) sonre marks on his fl'ont
of peoplc on the stairs.
show. Thco thought
Personally, I didn't
(be) a criminal. Before
(reflect) tor a moment.
I ilti)
(give) hrm his wallet,
He was sure that if he (8)
(be) broke for the rest of the rnonth. He
(win), I
wallet without any fuss." The man
sorry, sir, but I'rn the new janitor" I
Mr. Andrews (14)
(try) to break into his office. He (16)
So he told me (17)
(check) the identitres
(mean) to
trouble you sir. tf I
(causc) such a
(hund) thc rnrn his wallet. he t9)
cursed his luck and said. "Let's toss a coin. If you ( l0)
(give) you the money in my
(take) aback. He said. "l'm
(hire) only recently. Yesterday,
( l9)
rnisunderstanding. "
Fill in each blank in the fbllowing text with a suitable modal verb together with the verb
in brackets.
I was sitting in the ol'l-ice last Wcclnesday afternoon when I got a phonc call ll-ont my lr-iend
Thco. lle sounded vcry excited. "Havc you heard the ncws'1" he said. "Jamcs Yaletnass is
coming to town. He's giving a show next weekend." I told him I didn't know who he was
talking about. "What do you mean you've nevcr heard of him'?" hc said. "Hc's the best stand-
up comcdian in the country. His show will be very l'unny. You really ( l)---,--
(rniss) it." I agrced to give it a try. "ln that case," he continucd, "(2)--(usk / I)
you a big f'avour'.) Would you rnind getting the tickets? You'vc got a credit card. so you
(3 )__
(go) to the thcatre yourself. just ring up the ticket of'ficc and book thctr
over the phone. Thanks." Thcn. he hung up. It sounded as if it wzrs gorng to be r popular
show. which meant that we (4)
(buy) our tickets as soon as possiblc bclbre
they were sold out. I called the ticket offrce, but thcrc was no reply. I tricd again scvcral
1imes. but I still had no luck. In fact, I spent most of the aficrnoon phoning up again and again
untrl I finally managed to get through and book our tickets. On the night o1'thc show. wc got
to the theatre. and I was surpriscd to see that there were still tickcts on sale . I
(waste) all that time on the phone. Anyway, wc went in and saw thc
it was hilarious: he couldn't stop laughing all the way through.
find it very funny at all. I wished I'd stayed at home - I
(let) him talk me into going with him in the first placc.(o)
Fill in each blank in the following text with a suitable form of can,could,may,might,be
able, must and the verb in brackets.
It was only when my television broke down that I found out how difflcult it is to -qet one
reparred. I asked around at different shops, but no one would even agree to look at it {br mc.
I wondered what other people do in this situation. They (l)
(throw) their
broken televisions away, I suppose, and just get the latest model instcad. Anyway. I
eventually l'ound a place, but. even then, I didn't have much luck: thc 'nvoman bchind thc
counter said, "The repairman's not here. He (2)
(come) to work litr the
last two weeks - he fell and broke his leg while frxing an antenna. He has an apprentice. bul I
don't know where he is at the moment. He (3)
(have) his lunch break
T'ry coming back in an hour or two." I went back an hour later and spoke to thc apprentice.
FIe agrcecl ro come straight round to my house and look at the television. The next day. I told
onc of rny friends about my expr'riencL-. "How much did you pay'?" he askcd. I tolcl him"
"That's so expensive. Why didn't you tell rne your TV wasn't working'/ Jack, rny neighbour,
is arnazingly good with gadgets. He (4)
(fix) all kinds of things. '['he best
thins is. he lovcs mcssing around with electronics so rnuch that he doesn't charge anything.
Hc (5)
(sort) out your television lbr nothing."
Complete the following conversational exchanges using
must and an appropriate verb.
a form of can, may, might or
Who's that across the street? It looks like Alex.
Ir ( I )
Alex. I talked to him on the phone this tnorning. Hc's
away on business in Izmir.
What happened in your chess game with Simon yesterday? You didn't lose again. did
tually, I didn t.
He had a bad cold. which upset his cotre cntrlttion. s() I
this time.
There's a big group of people from the office going out to dinner tonight. Why don't you
meet us at the restaurant?
['m not sure. I (3)later. It depends what time I finish work.
I didn't know Davidwas such a good lbotball player.
Yes, he (4)
a professional footballer,
university and become a doctor instead.
Have you seen Rachel? I've been looking for her all afternoon.
but he decided to go to
- I saw her in her office five minutes ago. She was talking about leaving early - she's
having a new washing machine installed today"
- Well, she's not in the office now, and her car is not in the car park. She
Complete the following dialogues with a suitable form of can,be able,rnay,might,musl
or should and the verb in brackets. Use each modal verb only once. There are more
modal verbs than you need.
* lt's l0 a.m. and Ricardo still hasn't come to work.
- Don't worry. He ( I )
his trarn.
(get) up on time, or perhaps he missed
" This is Jason's f ianc6e. They're planning to get married next month
- But she (2)
(be) rnore than 16 years old! Isn't shc (oo
young to get rnarricd'l
'k I'll give $900 lor that yellow Volkswagen.
- You (l)
(ioke)! It's worth at least $1.-500
'k It was raining rcally heavily ycsterday a1'ternoon. (4)
a taxi when yor"r lc{i work'i
- Of course. not. I walked to the nearest station and went home bv underground.
Complete the fbllowitrg sentences using a suitable modal verb together with the verb in
'r' What I like rnost itboutmy new iob is that I (l)
(drivc )
throuch rush-hour traffic. I start work at 7 a.m. and finish at 3 p.m., which is so
convenlent 10r ffle.
i' I hope we (2)
(find) tickets for the Twix Brothcrs' conccrt
next month. They are my favourite group.
* I'm sorry to trouble you but (3)
(I / borrow) your umbrella
lor hrlf an hour? I (4)
raining heavily.
(post) these documents. and it's
x Thanks a lot, but you (5)
to wash them in the dishwasher
(wash) all those cups. I was going
* A: Where's Dorothy? She is supposed to help me with these reports.
B: She (6)
(have) lunch. I saw her headine for the cafeteria ten
mlnutes ago.
* A: The boss (7)
(be) shocked when you told him to go to
hell at the staff meetins.
B: Well actually I (8)
(lose) my temper like that. I really
don't know why I got so angry.
Fill in each blank with a modal + the verb in brackets in order to express obligation or
L People
(lcave) their parcels and coats in the hall beforc cntering the
auditorium, if they wish.
2. 1
(go) to the confercncc hall so early because my assistant had already
put cverything in order.
3. Sheila (infbrm) the adrninistration about her materrrity lclve
befbrehand. Now she is in a difficult position.
4. We hope we
(make) somc renovations in the building ncxt year. bul
everything dcpends on our landlord's consent.
l'ill in the blanks with the appropriate passive forms of verbs in brackets.
Richarcl (l )
(respect) very much by everyone around him. He
(lately/promote) to manager. But I doubt if he (3)---- (allow) to
rnirkc all the neccssary reforrns in the ofl-icc. This is a delicate mattcr (4)
(scttle). lt rccluires hard work and lots ol-patience on Richard's part. First ol-all. the
personnel (5)
(have to/persuade) to accept the new order. As they
(treat) very badly before the last manager left, they now wcigh up every
option (7)
(give) to them with caution. Richard already anticipates that he
(criticize) by some people, but he is willing to take a chance. He is quitc
used to working under pressure.
Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
Although far more women have jobs nowadays, they still experience considerable difficLrlties
at work. ln the past. women ambitious to succeed (l)
(tell) that they only
needed to use their f'eminine charm to get what they wanted. In modern business. however.
charm is not enough, and women are finding that they have to work just as hard as men, evell
though they do not always get the same treatment. In fact, they are still subject to widespread
discrimination. For example, ever since women entered the world of work, they
(pay) less than their male colleagues. This is unfair: women
(deserve) equal status. In addition, they (4)
(often / blarne)
first for no reason when things in the office go wrong. Employers may accuse thetn ol
(distract) by commitments and responsibilities at home. They think that
women have difflculties balancing work and home life. lndeed, to a certain extent this is true.
Women are unable to take advantage of every opportunity (6)
(give; to thetn:
t-ew women are willing (7)
(promote) to top positions when the consequence
is longer hours at work and less time with the family. The solution to this problem would be
more flexible working hours. lJnfortunately, not many women believe that any progress olt
this matter (8)
(make) at the moment. It seems that. unless ernplovers bectlnle
more sensitive to the needs of working wornen, a large proportlon o1 wotttclt
(9) - (still/ force) to make a choice between their job and family
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. Use up to five
words, including the one you are given.
l. No matter how many times I tell her. our maid always folds my sweaters the wrong way.
No matter how many times I tell her, our maid
way. (keep)
the wrong
2. These days, people hardly ever write letters to each other.
These days, people to each other. (ofien)
Complete the second sentence following the given cues so that it has the same meaning as
the first one.
I . You can play in snow, but don't forgct to put on your gloves
Providccl that
2. The cat atc the gold fish because you put the flshbowl on the floor.
3. My little sistcr never gets on lifts because she is afraid of closed spaces.
4. Only by going to England or the States will you improve your English .
Unle ss
5. I l'9rgot to take l1y camera, which is why I didn't take any pictures.
6. You can't solvc your problerns unless you consult a psychologist'
provided that
j. She is not satisf ied with the present situation; that's why she's complaining so much
8. Liarn is a very good tennis player, so I don't think Percy will agree to compete aglinst
I don't think that Percy will agree to compete against
(as... as)
9. Jane's heisht is 1.60 m, whileher little sister's is only 0.85 m
(as... as)
Jane is
10. They produce very high quality work. They can set their own prices.
I l. The tardy student didn't change his attitude although the teacher warned him repeatedly.
The tardy student didn't change his attitude
(Do not
12. Andrew
(in spite of)
use "in spite of the fact that")
will not become a good scientist because he isn't very patient.
a good scientist.
(too )
13. Don't stay up late tonight. You do not want to miss your [J o'clock
if you do not
want to miss your 8 o'clock appointment fomorrow. (better)
14. I have not been trained in lirst-aid procedures so I couldn't help the injured child.
I wish
the in jurcd child
15. I am sitting here listening to this boring lecture. I'd pref'er to be at home reading a book.
sitting here listcning to
thrs bor
16. Thc cat
ing lecture. (rathcr)
snatchcd my steak just after I took a bite out of it.
17. Dorothy is a si
Dorothy is not
nger. Melody is a better singer.
(as ......... as)
I 8. He eats a lot, almost as if he were a horse.
19. In Rome. we visited
the historical places and we did lots of shopping
In Rome, not only
20. The moment I got in bed, the phone rang.
No sooner
21. Mr. Geriatrix is very uncomfortable with his new dentures (false teeth) at the moment,
but he hopes he will get accustomed to them soon.
Mr. Geriatrix hopes
22. She takes care of the sick and the elderly; she is accustomed to that
of the sick and the elderly
23. The bui
lding collapsed with a deaf'ening noise a few minutes after the firemen left it
24. Gina smokes l3 cigarettes a day whereas Maria smokes only 6
Maria smokes
(as ... as)
25. I entered the builcling and I immediately heard an explosion outside.
No sooner
26. I instructed Jack and he played the game according to my instructions
27. Nieel teachcs 20 hours a week whilc George teaches only t hours.
Nigel teaches
(as... as)
28. I read a f'ew pages before going to bed even when I'm vcry tired
No matter
Complete the sentences to express your thoughts for each of the following situations.
l. Your roommate always uses your belongings.
['d rather you -
2. You dream of livtng in a house with a swirnrning pool
I wish I
3. You regret spending all your money on a leather jacket.
If only I
4. You have got an old washing machine which keeps breaking down.
It's time we
5. Your friend is trying
Stop acting as if you
to give the impression that he is very rich
6. He goes out almost every evening
I wish
l. She doesn't notice me at all.
If only
8. I talked to him so severely yesterday
I wish
Write questions using the following prompts.
I . The children have eaten all the food in the refriserator.
2. She i
s sleeping in her sister's room.
3. Tonv gave them a farcwell dinner.
4. Bill carne to school quite early yesterday.
Complete the following sentences with suitable linking devices.
the extremely heavy snowfall overnight, many of the citv's main
roads were blocked in the morning.
2. The suspect in the murder case said he would not answer any questions
he had spoken to his lawyer.
3. We bought the most expensive tickets for the play
the best possible view of the stage.
we would cet
1. When I go on holiday abroad, I always take out travel insurance
huve an accidenl.
5. As the lecturer went over the topic, he added some ideas and examples o1' his own
the students could remember what was explained more easilv
6. Games such as squash can be dangerous if you aren't used to playing them. A number of
rnjunes can occur
games involve.
the sudden. twistins movements that such
7. I went into a bie self-service restaurant to have a sandwich and a coffee
I caught the train back to London.
8. The teenaeers looked
alike in their tieht ieans and leather
jackets with lots of badges
year-old cousin among them
I had difficulty in spotting my l5-
a creative photographer experiments with light. he or she may
take the same picture at many different times of the day.
had I stepped out of the li[t
there was
a power cut.
Complete these sentences in a logical way.
l. I won't change my mind no matter
2. Come and see me as soon as
3. I won't leave here until you
4. The library will have closed by the time
Complete the following conversational exchanges using appropriate future forms.
'' Look at Nedl He looks so pale.
- Oh, my Godl I think he (l)
,' I'd hate to be the one to tell David about the changes in the company policy.
- Why don't you wrtit until Monday? By then, hc
most of the news from thitt contDany
gossip, Chuck.
{' I have to work until late this evening, but it seems we've run out of coff'ee again.
to that all-night store ancl get
'i' We've run out of milk again.
- It4t
to the shop and get some, if you like.
x Look! The bus is setting off - we (5)
- That's OK. Don't run. there's another one in ten minutes.
* Have you still got that book I lent you?
- Yes. I'm still trying to get through the last few pages. I'm sure I
it by the time I see you on Thursday evening. Don't worry. I
it back to you then. I promise.
* I'm looking forward to our holiday.
- So am I. Just think. This time next week we (8)
the swimming pool at the hotel. I can't wait.
a drink by
* (9)your bag for you? You seem to be having
- Thank you. That's very kind of you.
'k Who could look afier the baby lor us on Friday?
- What about Greg'l
- Grcat idea. I t l0)
him now.
- No, wait until tonight. He's working late today, so he (ll)
at home afier 9 o'clock.
Complete each of the following conversational exchanges with the appropriate f'uture
form of the verb in brackets.
| . Hurry up, Susan, your father is waiting lbr you downstairs,
All right, I
(be) there in a minute.
2. Thc grocer's boy fbrgot to deliver the milk again this morning.
(call) the grocer now to rernind hirn'l
3. I hear the doorbell. Who can that be at this hour'/
oh. rhar a)
(be) David. We b)
to that new nightclub tonight.
1. Look, that boy is getting suspiciously close to that old lady.
My God, I think he
(mug) her. Call the police
Complete the following sentences by adding the correct preposition and a suitable verb.
L He is rather anxious
on such a long journey. Afier all, he is 72
years old and has had a serious operation recently.
2. He was terribly upset when he was accused
in the exam.
-3. Who is responsible
such a mess in the livins room?
4. The manager congratulated the store detective
the thief. who
had almost escaped through the back door of the store.
5. If I were vou. I wouldn't insist
ieans to work. You know the
boss wants everyone to wear suits and ties.
an exam, I usually close my eyes and relax for a few
minutes. Then I carefullv go over what I've done
F'ill in the question tags.
l. Let's change the subject,
2. Don't touch that.
3. Nobody was there,
4. ['rn qr.rite clever,
5. We had a lovcly time,
6. You havcn't seen my wallet,
Complete the fbllowing sentences with suitable relative clauses, adding commas where
l. Library membcrs
to pay a fine.
will be recluired
2. The world's rainforests
are being
dcstroyed at an alanning ratc.
3. This magazinc article strongly recommends the Chinese rcstallrattt
4. This morning the bus was late again
-5. Thc students
were cxcused
from class early. The rest stayed and reviewed the latest material.
6. This rnorning, I shut the car door on my finger
1. My fiiend from lnnir was really irnpressed by orlr facilities at l,ake Eynrir
8. My eldest sister
performing at the presidential palace next Saturday
will be
12. I can't understand the reason
us here stranded.
Complete the following sentences with suitable reduced relative clauses and anv
necessary prepositions. Each sentence must have a passive meaning.
I . Have you read the reports
spcllirrg mistakcs.
the new secretary'/ They are I'ull ol
2. The villagers are going to claim compensation from the owners of thc factory for ttre
the environment.
3. Filnrs
this cittctna are usually very gootl
1. According to some psychologists, children
tend to sul'f-er liorn f'celings of insecurity.
singlc purcnts
Complete each of the following sentences in a meaningful way'
l. - I'drather
my clectric drill to Hcnry without asking tre.
- I'm sorry. clad. He saicl he needed it urgently, so I couldn't say no to hilrl
to work on foot recentlY'l
- Becausc thc cloctor wants me to losc some wcight'
3. The crash of tw9 airplanes on the runway at Teneril'e Airport this ntorning has resultecl in
9. The Titanic was the famous shiP
10. Beethoven was the comPoser
1 1. Gaugin was the Painter
the death of 287 PeoPle. Never
accident in EuroPe.
4. Some people enjoy doing outdoor activities while
fiee tirne watching TV at home.
5. Even if
in 1912.
are well-known all over the
most of his lif'e on troPical
such a dreaclful
a job in their company, I wouldn't hitve
accepted it. I really enjoy my present job
6. On the Orient Express, three people who
tickets were
caught by the conductors and handed over to the police at the next stop.
, the less legible your handwriting becomes
B. The judge found the two youths guilty of destroying public property and they were made
the damage they had done.
L). If I ate less and
10. By the ttme we
heavy rain.
I l. Thc company is
fol people who
started exercising regularly, how long
arnved at the stadium.
l0 kilos'l
due to the
planning to open its first rcgional offlce in Germany so thcy are looking
12. 'l'hc restaurant is so crowdedl I'rn sure we'll have to wait l'or a long timc bcl'orc
13. I'rn hopeless at plrysics. I can't get a high grade. no rxatter
14. The phone has been ringing lbr a minutc. Whoever is calling will have given up by thc
15. Not surprisingly. hardly
to Suc's
birthday party last week. She is a very rude and aggressive person
16. He is a well-known expert on bultcrflies. There is scarcely
about these beautiful anitrals.
Fill in each blank with an appropriate word from the box. There are more words than
vou need. Use each ONLY ONCE.
In our office. it is (l)
accepted that Alex is
about the rnosl. ei.rsy-going
pcrson we havc ever met in our
that would upset him. I was
lives. There is (2)
surprised the
rclused to help Gwen. Sornething was obviously wrong. Soon cnough I
fbund out that
, had stolcn
lrnythrng in thc ntrrld
other day when he
Gwcn. who
has been having some problcrns with hcr finrtnccs
some money from Alex. That bit o1'news nearly knockcd
rne down (6)
Irill in the blanks with the appropriate expressions / words from the box. lle carelbl!
There are more expressions / words than you need.
since so unless as long as therefbre
We will be facing watcr shortages
sensitivc to the need to conscrve water.
he finishcs hrs work
I am lcavins David a notc
evervbodv tries to be rnole
I don't care what tirnc he arrives ltt thc ol'l'iee
he will know where we are.
gave me the choicc
Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blanks with suitable words from the
box. There are nlore words than vou need.
It was my first ever job interview and I was very excited about it. When I spoke to onc o1'the
two managing directors on the phone, I tried to note down carefully (1)
details of the interview. Our conversation was verv relaxed. and he even
of seeing him on Monday or Tuesday. As I was unemployed, (2)
was all risht
lbr me. We agreed that I would corne on Monday. When the big day arrived. I had
considerable difficulty finding the company's headquarters. It was on a long, busy street f'ull
of different kinds o1'buildings, and (3)
of them appeared to be the one I was
looking fbr. 'Io my relief, I eventually found it. In a frantic hurry, I got to the intcrvicu'
room. knocked on the door and burst in. The managing directors wcrc sittins at a large
stared at me blankly. I said, "l'm here for the
rneeting table. They (4)
seemed to
said, "No.
I'm not late, am I?" They continued staring at me. (5)
know what I was talking about. Then, one of them calmly
you're right on time, except that your interview isn't today. of itnothcr. (3)
of them
looked at his wat.-^h and
lt's next Monday""
Complete the following texts by filling in the blanks with suitable connectors from the
list below. Use each connector only once. There are more connectors than you need.
due to
provided that
such as
in other words
on the contrary
for instance
The nced fbr: moncy originates from the fact that dil-lcrent peoplc in socicty producc dil'lcrcnt
things. This mcans that people clcpend on each othcr for goods and scrviccs. Lct us takc thc
case of' a farmer who produces lrore foocl than he requires and a carpelltcr who livcs by
selling the tahlcs ancl chairs that hc has madc. It will be obvious that ll)----
sornc rrcans o1- cxchange is founcl, the l-armer will not be ablc to get ricl ol' his surplr-rs lirocl
ancl t6c cirrper)tor will starvcl Clearly, the sinrplest Ineans of cxchangc will bc l'tlr the tr to ttsc
barter. (2)_
. to cxchangc it certaitr atnollllt tlf one kind ol'sotlcls ftlr it ccrtattl
barter can work well in it sitrple stlcicty. itl ittt
'dvancecl society we ctnnot go around carrying thrngs in the hope that wc catt cxchange thctll
for thc things we need. (4)
-eoods attd services lhat we
. we nced something which will stancl lot' tltc
want to excharrge: hence the origin ol' mgney. It f'gllgws thirt
anything can act as moncy or currcncy (5)all thc peoplcr Lrsirtg it agrcc otl its
valuc. Clowrv shclls, coconuts, whalcs'tccth
sirlt were used as moltey in thc past
No one doubts that
the icleal way to conservc anitnals is to clo everything possible to savc thcir
habitatsl (6)
, ovcr the past 20 years it has become clcar that thc mere
conservation ol'habitat will not bc enough. L,vcn the bcst protectcd places arc usually nrorc
vulnerable thap they seem (7)_ thcy are often in areas of poverty and political
instability. Hungry people at war havc littlc concenl 1or rare animals. In thc Sahel'
(8)a combination of drought and human conflict has wiped out the
scir'itar-horned oryx. *r:>x
Fielcl stuclies have shown that wild animals, particularly large predators (9)
cheetahs ancl wild dogs, need far more room than anyone imagined. Population
have calculated that many species of animals face the danger of being wiped out
clrought, epidemic or war. It is clear that even if the
genetlcl sts
in thc long
best efforts
terrn (10)
are made to save what is left of the wilderness. many auimals are still doomed
, breeding in zoos
should be carried out on a
I wtrs speechlcss with anger
has become an essential part of
large scale. through cooperation
conservation. Such
between zoos and
cent of all species
to thern a f-ew tirncs. hc
will be in
well-chosen animals. (12)
an estimated 25 per
danger of becoming extinct in the first quarter of the next century.
Fill in the blanks with the words and the expressions from the list. Use each only once.
as soon
no sooner
tn case
so as to
(l)had I sat down (2)
the whole flat rocked with arr
explosiott. I didn't tnove at all (3)
I sarw the kitchen was on l'ire. I srabbed u
lug I'rom the l-loor t4)
cover the fire but it w:ts no use. I was sure Mrs. Hull.
the mard, had done somcthing wrong. She was (5)
a l'ool 1(rt
anything was possible whcn she was around. At that rnoment she appeiLred at thc kitchcrt
door from the garde n sidc with the garden hose gushing wilter in hcr hiutd.
shc entercd she startcd spraying the whole krtclrcn with it.
, the fire dicd. When I asked her what had happened she said. "Wcll. I wits
boiling sorne rnilk (9)
flame went out. and
make you a pudding. I think it boiled ovcr ancl thc
( l0)
, the gas lilled the place. I was stnoking in the
the kitchcn door wrth a cisarcttc in Inv heltd, tlte
gardcn and (ll)
I opcned
whole thing blew up. ( l2)
here am I sir. with all rnv evclashes and blows
burncd up, bcgging your pardon. I had put aside sorne lnoney ( l3)- I ncctlerl it
onc day and now I can compcnsate for thc damage I've done." I just srniled shecpishly
( l4)
Fill in each blank with the gerund or infinitive form of one of the verbs from the bttx.
Use each verb onlY once.
Jack can't help ( I )
puts thern up on a
CDs. After (2)
rack and lorgets about thcn'r. He
has some very intcresting disks though;
of Caruso. He occasionallv resrets
for example, the
very first (3)
all his money on disks but then whenever he sees a newly-released CD. he
doesn't hesitate (5)
it. He must really try (6)
hirnself and
corne (7)
the psychological motives behind this
pleasant and yet expensive
Complete the following sentences by
box below. Use each word only once.
filling in the blanks with suitable words from
There are more words than vou need.
hctter in the morning.
If you want to keep
of the people we have interviewed
They say they begin to t'eel rather exherusted
to your diet, you can have some salad
thinks that they work
in the afternoon.
or a vegetable clish;
is fattening.
You can buy
of thcsc cookers fbr your new house. There rs
no drff'crcnce between them in tenns of pricc or cluality.
Although llore than twenty girls have applied for thc sccrctarial post.
knows how to usc thc cor.nDutcr.
Complete the following paragraph by filling in the blanks with suitable words from the
box. Use each only once.
Onc day. rny father finally declared, "I have decided that you are matLlre enough to havc your
own car." Oh, what joy! Though we actually have two family cars, (l)-------------- l'its
within my ntodcst student budget in terms of'running costs. So I irnmediatcly sat clown to citll
the car clcalers in town attd carel'ully iotted down (2)
thc inl'onnation thcV
had to ol'l'er. My l-ather and I thcn wenl over (3)
detail and, irftcr long
discussions. agreed on a makc that was (4)--- sporty and ittcrxpcnsivc. -l-hc
ncxt step was to visit the dealcr closest to our house. As soon as we arrived. I noticed thc two
cars in the window. one bright rcd, the other British racing grcen. (5)--
would have been all right with me. My father, who is not easily impresscd by uttr-aetivc
colors. started asking endless questions. While he got a patient and thorough answer fl'orn thc
dealer to (6)
one. my father looked as if (7)
of the
answers satisfied him. After half an hour, I was really getting anxious. thinking we werc not
gorng to buy the car today. How was I to know that rny father was just enjoying the occasion'.)
I am now the proud owner of a beautiful sports car.
Complete the following sentences with a suitable past participle and a preposition. Use
each verb in the list below only once.
Filrns ( I )
Guns (2)
Sicilian identity. She was wrong also. He (7)
film critics are not always the most entertalnlng ones
silenccrs do not tnltke uny noisc.
Exarnination papers (3)red ink won't be accepted. l-urtllcrmore. tllc
adrninistration won't takc anY
responsibility f'or your personal bclongings
this rootl.
Pictures (5 )
live in and.
childrcn usually show what a rich colourful worlcl thcy
I think this world shouldn't be (6)
thcm too sootr
Iiill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the modals in the box helow and the
correct firrm of the verbs in brackets. Use each modal at least once; you need to use
some more than once. You may also have to use tlle negative form.
be able
have to
I wcnt to iltervicw Vilcenzo Caleonc at l'ris horttefor an article in a local llewspllpcr
Vi'c:c12.9's parcltts ( I )___ -- (llligrittc) to thc Urritetl Strttcs ol
America because gl'poverty. His pirrcnts crln't relttt:rrber cxactly. trut thcy say lle
(bc) any older than six at the'time. sitrcc hc still
had his baby tecth
llis father was worricd that Vinccnzo (3)
l lclrrn )
English. so hc (4)
(Vincenzolspeak) Italiirn cvell at Ilotne .
He (-5 )
lworry) bccausc Vincenzo was l-luctlt ill
English belore his tenth birthday. which hc cclebrated with his l'riends I'ronr sclrool. llis
ntother. on the other hand, was wtlrried that he (6)
(losc) his
the bcst o1-the two worlds. You (8)
(sec) htnt in Itis
owlt house now to understand what I mean. "At the very beginning, it
(be) quite a challenge for you," I say. Vincenzo. a respected
linguistics prof'essor at a prestigious university, jr.rst laughs and says, "lt ccrtailtly wlts
Nevertheless. yoLl ( l0)
(talk) to my children befot'c you
write your article. 1'hen you ( I 1 )----
still struggling to keep rny cultural identity
(really/understitttcl) how I rtm
Filt in the blanks with the appropriate form of the modals in the box below and the
correct form of the verbs in brackets. Correctly place any other words given. Use each
modal at least once. You may have to use the negative form.
must have to
should let can
l'ather went to an eye specialist the other day, and the doctor told hirn thal he'
(wear) tinted glasses. He did obey the doctor's orders. but ltc
hasnt stopped complaining ever since. He thinks thathe looks like a has-been pop star. I{e
because he refuses to go out unless it
({'eel ) vcry self:consctous
is absolutcly neccssary.
glasscs don't appear
Actually, he (3)
unusual at all. Another problcm
(him/drive) after dusk. Well,
(stop) driving at night a long
([eel) that way, sincc the
is that my mothcr
at thc age ol' 72. hc
time ago. but he still
(accept) this. So, when you sct: my l-ather. you
(cven/hint) at this touchy subject.
cnter here with their muddy shocs. I can't clcan those
a little boat for days were
the ship's captirin
F'ill in each blank lvith the most appropriate n-rodal from the box. Use each onlY once.
need to
have to
don't have to
wear glasses. You can't properly see what you'rc reading
The chilclren
carpets cveryclay.
-1. tlne ivilrzcd trihc:
have money tn ordcr to be contenl
obey thc rules in this school. Otherwise, you'll be disrnrssed.
5. t
see yolr tomorrow. I have something vcry important to tcll
put up wtth such behavior. You'd better talk to Lls lrlore politely
Complete each sentence with a suitable past participle and an appropriate preposition.
The base forms of the missing verbs are given in the box below.
damaqe write leave strand send
Shipwreck victims
rescued yesterday.
helped the rescue
signals (3)
rs to
whereabouts of the survivors. The ship. badly
the underwater rocks. was towed to a safe dock.
locate the
However. as the captain's log, (7)
ink, had become totally
will have to wait until the captain recovers to
The personal belongings of the passengers
their cabins were also ruined. but since there
illegible when it got wet, the authoritres
discover the reason for the accident.
( l0)
It was one of thosc days when nothing gocs right. Whcn
minutcs to get rcady. I distinctly remember that I had (l)
the night before. but it didn't go o1'1'. Thank God. I had (2)
was no loss of life, nobody is making a fuss.
Fill in each blank in the following text using a suitable form of one of the verbs in the
box. Use each verb only once. There are more verbs than you need.
I woke up. I realized I had only l-5
nry alurnr clock
thc col'l'ce
and (3)
the breakl'ast table belore I wettt to bed. Aftcr acluick hreak{'rrst' I
startcd getting dresscd and realized that rny cardigan had (4)
in thc n"itsh. I
(-s )
it across the rootn and one of its buttons (6)
favoritc coI'fec mug and shattered it. By the tirne I had carefully (7)
broken pieces of china and reachecl the door, I was already late for my first day at work. You
shoulcl havc seen the expression on my boss Mr. Murphy's l'ace when I gave hiln nlv exctlses'
Use five of the prepositions in the box appropriately to fill in the blanks.
You should look lcli and right beforc going
the str(]ct.
We look rt lottg trip - -
lhe river carnping whercver wc found a plcitsltnt
3. Her diamond nng slipped of f her linger and f-ell
the sink.
4. I went
his house last night. The lights were not on.
5. 'l'he train passed
the tunnel at a terrific speed
Complete these sentences with a preposition and the appropriate form of a word taken
from the list below.
routes action admission illusions
warn increase clear
There has been a considerable (1)
the' sales of uir-
purifrers lately because of extreme air-pollution. Local authorities simply say that lack of air
currents cause this phenomenon. Well. this is nothing but a(n) (3)---
defeat. They can certainly clo more than that. For example. they catt
rnove (5)
bv checkinc tl-tc cxhaust emtssion
of vchicles running (7)certain (8)Thel'
should llso (9)people ( l0)
using their cars too ol-ten
C)nly when thc streets have been ( I I )
traf'fic. thc problern will be solved. Even thcn people should be (13)
that evervthins will turn up bctter in a short time
Write the fbltowing dialogue between two friends in reported speech using the most
appropriate reporting verbs from the box below.'fhere are more verbs than you need.
l. David : "Tony, would you and your wif-e comc to dinner tomorrow'1"
2. Tony . "Ycs. hut you reallv tnust let mc bring the drinks."
3. David : "You rnay have to spend more thatt you think. I also invitcd Sean. who clrinks
like a I'ish."
4. Tony : "Don' t worry, I'll bring cnough beor 1'or an army."
-5. Davicl : "Oh Tony, plcase don't forget to bring that rock'n'roll albunt you bougl'rt
becltusc hc had also
invited Sean. who drinks like a fish.
Rewrite these phrases using compound adjectives.
l. a cake which was made at home = a
2. a book which contains 500 pages = a
Rewrite the expressions replacing the underlined parts with compound adjectives.
l. A politician who everybody knows = a
2. A woman who dresses well = a
3. A girl with red hatr = a
4. A iamily wliich own three cars = a
Rewrite the fbllowing sentences using ( the ... the).
l. It's easy to rnuke nristakcs rvhen you'rc tircd.
2. If one works harcl. one tends to so f ar in one's careel
l. Wc wcnt I-ar into the forest. Wc had little hope o1'survival.
Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets and without changing the
l. Thc crops f'ailcd bccause of thc scvcre drought.
( cause )
),. I'll speak to him only al-tcr he has apologised.
( until)
3. He was injured in the first ten minutes, but he carried on playing to the end.
(even though)
4. He suffers from hypertension although he doesn't eat salty food.
5. Using cellular phol
res may cause some nervous disorders in the human body.
a) (because of)
b) (result in)
6. Izmir has an
a) (due to)
inadequate drainage system; consequently, heavy rains liequently bripg
b) (be responsiblc lor)
7. Thc sradual rise in sea levels will make Venice sink underwater someday.
a) (becausc of)
b) (as a result)
8. Social chaos in b
ig cities fbllows fiorn the migration of people l-r'om rural areits
a) (due to)
b) (resulting in)
9. Because comm
a) (in view of)
unicatiort is faster and casier, banking and trade can aitn at gltlbltlisittion
b) (so ... that)
Ilewrite the sentences below using -irlg or not-ing.
l. He was not very interested. He rejected their o1fer.
2. I knew that this would happen. I took the necessary precautlons.
Rewrite the underlined part using an appropriate form of must, have to, or need to.
Use each only once.
l. Actually, I would like you to stay with me, but it isn't necessary.
2. We are obliged to obey whatever order he gives us.
3. Is it necessarv for you to leave us in the middle of this interesting conversation?
Rewrite each of the following sentences in different ways, using the words or phrases
which have been indicated. Use proper punctuation.
L Nanotechnology has great potential; consequently, many respectable reseetrch itrstitt-ttiolts
have becn allocating large sums of moncy for its development.
(Notc: nano rel-ers to a billionth part of a unit.)
a) (due to)
b) (lead to)
2. Sorne people may suffbr from problerns like anorexia and other mental disorders bccausc
they diet for extcnded periods of time .
a) (as a rcsult of)
b) (such...that)
c) (hence)
Rewrite the following sentences using the expressions given in parentheses. Do not use
other fbrms of these expressions, but some words may have to be changed or added.
I . Space travel will cause dramatic effects on philosophy and religion.
a) (because ofl
b) (will follow from)
2. The destruction
contaminate the
of rain forests will set previously unknown bacteria and viruses fiee to
a) (leading to)
b) (due to )
3. Faulty road conditions are responsible for most car accidents
a) (as a result of ) ----
Rewrite the following without changing the meaning and using the clues given.
l. I've got only f5 in my bank account.
Z. He was wearing his seat belt when the accident happened. so he wasn't hurt seriously
3. Frcd looks like Bill so much that nrost people mistake them for each othcr.
( alike)
4. Jessica beggcd her father but he didn't let her go out that night.
(even though)
.5. Sheila dicln'r have the proper cquipnent with her. Besides. she didn't want to clinrb thc
(even if)
6. I don't approve of your listening to loud music in this house
(would rather)
1. Excessive drinking may lead to partial memory loss-
(result frorn)
u. Parents are having a hard time. Their children are studying for the uttivc'rsity c'xanl
Rewrite the following paragraph using the passive voice where possible. If the sentence
cannot be made passive, write it without any changes. Use an agent if necessary.
Yesterday we had a busy day at home. My father mended the garage door. My mother
cleaned the carpets. Our cat Samantha jumped from one place to another. My sister and I
polished the woodwork. In our house, we usually do such things collectively on a particular
day of the week.
1. Mark the best choice.
I . She has a thirst learning
a) to
b) of
a) is tryrng
b ) have tried
2. The book gives reference _ other publications on the same subject.
a) to c) for
b) of d) at
3. To my way of thinking, herbal teas cannot be substitutes _ real tea.
a) to c) for
b) of d) at
4. Can you find an alternative _ that'l
a) to c) lbr
b) ol' d) at
-5. My younger brothcr, togethcr wrth a lot of his fricnds,
c) for
d) at
c) is tried
d) are lrying
c ) Sirnilar
d) As
to raisc moncy for strect
6. Jamcs is very proud of his I'athcr-, who was the first pcrson 1l-orr a univcrsity in his
a) graduating c) to graduate
b) that have graduated d) having to graduatc
1. The dealer showed us two cars, _ were too cxpcnsivc.
a ) onc of the rn c ) either of thcrn
b) both of which d) neither of which
thc prcsident of Middle E,ast Technical University, Prolessor Dr. lJral Akbulut is
rcquired to attend many official ccrctronies.
a) As though
b) A like
9. His incornpetent nephew _ still __ lbr thc governmcnt i1' Mr. Crubbyhands
the last elections.
a) would.... havc been working/lost c) would.... be working/hadn't lost
b) would.... have worked/didn't lose d) is ...... working/wor"rldn't have lost
10. _ a very good position at the university. James leli his prcvious job without alty
a) Offering c) That he was offered
b) Having been off'ered d) Having ofl'ered
I I . Your father had a difficult tirne at the hospital, _?
a) hadn't he c) has he
b) didn't he d) was he
12. At the beginning, John found it very difficult to wear a tie, but now he - it.
a) was getting used to c) has gotten used to
b) has used d) is being used to
13. Although he had a fight with Michelle earlier, Josh is still hoping to her
barbecue party.
a) he is invited c) fbr being invited
b) to have the invitation d) to be invited
14. __ that Agassi is the best clay court tennis player in the world.
a) Wide acceptance c) It is wrdely accepted
b) Widely accepting d) Having widely accepted
15. Only after I got home from work I had left the iron switched on all day.
a) I realised c) was when I realised
b) did I realise d) that I realised
16. We mect at the club now. I think he spends most of his e venings with his sick
Ir) oecasiortalll c) llways
b) sorretilnes ) hardly ever
17. YoLr touch thc objects herc. There is electric current passing through thcnr.
a) needn't c) shouldn't
b) don't havc to d) ought not
18. You should listen to me. I havc bcen - a I'ather to you all your lil-e.
a) such c) like
b) as d)
a) Let
b) Makc
a) Shc wasn't
b) Being
hirn slow down! He's going to kill us all in this car.
c) Tell
d) Get
vcry comfbrtable. she changed her scat.
c) Not being
d) Having been
21. I know vou're unh;lppv now. but vou'd better in the cold. The snow wott't trell
for thc next three months.
a) used to livc c) get used to living
b) be used to living d) live
22. They can't go on like this. She him fbr everything he does.
a) often criticizes c) will forever criticize
b) is always criticizin-e d) never criticized
23. That dog - when you touch its tail.
a) is biting c) tends to bite
b) is about to brte d) should bite
24. Don't disturb me by showing me those reports. I'm on holiday'
b) an
c) the
c) to hear
d) so to hear
c) about
25. Pamela's boss was very disappointed -- that she was going to reslgn
a) hearing
b) about hearing
26. Are you nervous taking the exam'J You seem to be restless
a) aI
b) for
27. lt is very hzrrd to resist --- chocolates.
a) to cat
b t e'lting
28. I wish I
34. The burglar
a) caused
b) madc'
35. That horse
c) at eating
d) to be caten
more careful while driving. Someday I'm going to havc an
him open the sal'c and got away with all the rnolley
e) lct
d) got
have beaten Miranda. who is considered to be one of the bcsl
a) could be c) can be
b) could have been d) would be
29. The situatiolt was bad enough last year, but this year it is evcrt
a) better c) the worst
b) worse d) the best
30. The nrore bad-tentpcred hc becomes
a) when she tnakes hirn angry c) he will do something awl'ul
b) she apprccilttcs him tnore d) tlle less she loves hiln
I l. David is not so clcvcr his brothcr-
a) like c) cornPared
b) ils d) than
32. We hacl---- rain that our bascmcnt was completely llooded.
a) so lnuch c) too
b) such d) enough
33 _- stcp on the grass. they took the stone path to the house.
a) ln order to c) So as not to
b) To d) So that theY could not
horses on the track. And as I said, Miranda is again the winner.
a) shouldn't c.) mustn't
b) can't d) maY not
Active :
a) It was thought that Carl Richter has written that article.
b) Carl Richter has been thought to write that article.
c) It is thought that the article was written by Carl Richter.
d) The article is thought to have been written by Carl Richter.
I know my mother doesn't mean -(37;- me, but she always secms to turn up itt
inconvenient moments. I wish she _(38) before calling round.
31. a) to disturb 38. a) Phones
b) clsturbing b) will Phone
c) she disturbs c) would Phone
cl) disturb d) had Phoncd
)i: >l: )k
Last year, thrcc rnen succceclecl in traversittg the ruggcd Alaska range by mourttitit't bikc On
the trek. ___(39)__ ovcr lnorr: than 775 milcs, the trio rode on glacrers. gante trrrils rtrld
gravcl bars ancl even raftecl rivers. __(40)__- their bikc handlcbars to tnakc passrtgc
casicr. thcy had to walk single l'ile through thick vcgctittion for days. When I'rtccd with rapid
runrring rivers. they crossecl thc white watcrs --(41 )- their bikes to thcir hrtcks.
One ol'rlrem nearly got killcrl _(42)_ the Black Rapids glacicr. At the ertcl of'thcir
sevcn-wcek.journcy, -(43)_- nothing but freezc-dricd meals and high-cnergy bitrs.
thcv cclebriited their sllccess with a hot tneal.
Evervbody thinks that Carl Richter has written that article
40. a) Whilc rcmoving
b) ['laving retnoved
e ) Bccltttsc rctnoviltg
d) Removed
39. a) what strctchcd
b ) stretchccl
c ) which strctched
d) that stretchcd
4 L a) thcy strappccl
b ) stiappccl
c ) wltile strltPIitt.'
d) by strrtPPing
42. a) clirnbing 43. a) eating
b) he was clirnbing b) sitrce- eltitrg
c) having clilnbed c) who has eitten
cl) hc began clirnbing d) having eaten
Somerimcs I rhink rhar sales clerks --]OO,1 to a clifferent species altogether.
Wcll, let me illustrate my point with a couple of examples. You go to a shop ancl ask for a
certain item and the sales clerk says, "We -(45)- it, sir, but not anymore." What
cloes he expect you __(46)_. time travel'l Another example: The sales assistttnt at a
shoe store wants you to try on a pair *--(47) obviously at least ortc siz.c
--(48) for you and says, "You -(49) into them. sir!" I
_(50) be 36 next month and show every year of it. You see. they say sucl-t
things because they do belong to a different species: one that -(51 )-- in time and
grow after the age of 35.
Thus, when they opened that huge department store in our neighbourhood, I was the first
person _\52)_: I thought that I -(53) deal with these strange
creatures anymore. Oh, how wrong -(54)-! The other day I went there to change
a sweater my wife -(55) a week earlier. The minute I -(56)---- up to
the clcrk in churge, I -(51)- I was in trouble. With -(58) --- hidden
irritation, she snatched the sweater out of my hand and started a long procedure
_(59) filling out endless forms. As I -(60)- the store. I was hoping
that I _(61)_ enough time to enjoy a cup of hot tea in their caf6 before they
closed. By the time I had my new sweater properly wrapped and securcly under my ann.
they __(62) the checkout counters. No one, not even my enetxles.
_(63) have to deal with these people.
44. a) who belong
b) are belonging
c) must belong
d) need to belong
a) used to have
b) used to having
c) have had
d) would have
a) very big
b) big cnough
c) too big
d) higger
a) will be travelling
b) don't travel
c) won't be travelling
d) can travel
a) wzrs I
b) I have
c) I was
d) have I
a) knew
b) was knowing
c) had known
d) have known
a) hltvc becn elltering
b) entered
c) enter
d) have entered
46. a) dorng
b) have done
c) coulcl do
d) to do
a) are going to grow
b) l.rave to grow
c) growlng
d) will srow
a) rejoicing
b) liave rejoiced
c) to rejoice
d) had rcjoiccd
55. a) has been buying
b) had bought
c) had been bought
d) was buying
a) worsc
b) worst
c) badly
d) bad
a) should havc
b) have had
c) would have
d) will have
a) which rnay be
b) that is
c) has been
d) looks
a) will
b) may
c) could
d) must
a) can't
b) wouldn't have to
c) couldn't
d) might have to
a) was walking
b) have walked
c) walked
d) have been walking
a) that is involved
b) which is involved
c) which involved
d) is involving
a) may be closing
b) were closing
c) have closed
d) have been closing
63. a) can
b) could
c) might
d) should
Mountaineering is a unique sport because the climber is in competition with nature itself and
not with other people. For this reason it is a dangerous activity. _(64)_ the spolt is
full of danger only seems to add to the excitement for most climbers. However. climbers
don't take unnecessary risks: _(65)_ being naturally adventurous people, they are
careful to follow the correct safety procedures. They point out that, for anyone wrshing to
take up the sport, proper training is essential. Experienced climbers recommend beginlrr-rs
__(66)_ a registered mountaineering club. In this way, they can learn to clinrb with
the minimum of danger.
Cryogenics is thc technique of l'reczing a dead body -(61)-- it can be preserved and
then brought back to life in the future. Most doctors think cryogenics is ____(68) an
rdea that it is _(69)_ worth taking seriously. However, this does not discourase sonrc
people _(70)_ a lot of money on cryogcnrcs in preparation for their death. Maria
Carnacho, an Italian language teacher fiorn Lorrdon, is one of thcse pcoplc. "Evcrybody
thinks I'rn crirzy," she says, "but when I die, I -(11 )- many of the wonders of thc
universc. With cryogenics, I have a chance. I want to live again and travcl through space."
64. a) That
b) What
c) However
d) No matter
67. a) in order that
b) in case
c) unless
d) until
70. a) to spend
b) to spending
c) their spending
d) l'rom spending
65. a) yet
b) despite
c) whereas
d) even though
66. a) to havc.joined
b) that they join
c) joining
d) .f oin
69. a) rarcly
b) nearly
c) hardly
d) entirely
68. a) such strange
b) so strange
c) as strange as
d) stranger than
11. a) don't see
b) am not seeing
c) won't have seen
d) won't bc secing
Even rf you -(72a)- a cigarette in your life, you -(72b)- at risk fiom
smoking-related diseases. When smokers and non-smokers share the same room, the non-
smokers can't avoid breathing in some of the smokers' tobacco smoke. This is called 'passive
smoking'. Fortunately for non-smokers, smoking -(73)- in most forms of public
transport and many public buildings have 'smoke-free' zones. In the private sector, therc are
many benefits for an employer _(74)__ action to create a smoke-fiee environmcnt.
First, the company has a better image. Second, the workforce are healthier and less likely
_(75)_ time off due to illness. Finally. there are lower cleaning costs for employees.
-(16)- are forced to go home in the evening in bad-smelling clothes.
12. a) don't touch...will bc
b) haven't touched...are
c) didn't touch...were
d) hadn't touched...would bc
15. a) to have
b) they have
c) fbr having
d) they will have
77. a) who are you working
b) whether you are working
c) what you are working
d) why are you working
73. zt) has been banned
b) had been banned
c) has banned
d) had banned
14. tt) taken
b taking
c) that takc
d) why thcy takc
llavc ytru cvcr askcd yourscll' ,___(11)___ lbr'/ If you have evcr had tirnc to put this
qucstion to your collcagues, you ___(78) __ thc f'ollowing answers. It's thc moncy. ol
coursc, sofnc srly with a srnilc, __(1())_- they werc explaining sotnething to a stttall
childl or it's the satisl'actiorr ol'doing a good job. Well, I --(80)- as atr itssistirnt on rr
bus once, but _(ul)_ ovcr in thc aislc with rny hands l'ull of drirtks didn't sivc rtte
much satisfaction. Othcrs say rt's the company ol' other pcople. If that's true . then what rbout
l'armers'l Does the conversation ol-the fanr-ryard make them -(82)-- their work'/
Somehow, I don't think so. For some, work is power and a sense of status. Howevcr. thcsc
are arnbitious people who have _(B3a)_ already achicved their goals --(lJ3b)--
are upset becausc their boss hasn't recognised their obvious potential. Most of us, I suspect.
hope that one day _(84)_ the lottery. Meanwhile, we would rather --(85;---- on
working when the only alternative is a lif-e of poverty and boredom. Thc problern is, we are
too busy working to realise this.
16. a) many wht'r
b) all of thern
c) which they
d) trone of whotn
18. a) should be hearing 19. a) as
b) needn't be hearing b) as if
c) can't have heard c) just as
d) may well have heard d) such as
a) worked
b) had worked
c) wns working
d) had been working
a) either...or
b) both...and
c) ne ither...nor
d) not...but
8(r. a) which it reclutrcs
b,) that rccluires
c ) thev reclr.rirecl
d ) rccluired
U8. a) duc to
b) lcad tcr
c) be car-rsed by
d) bc it result ol'
a) by falling
b) falling
c) having fallen
d) fall
a) we'd win
b) of winning
c) to win
d) we'll win
a) appreciated
b) to appreciate
c) appreciate
d) to be appreciated
a) we carry
b) we carried
c) carry
d) have carriecl
,: t: >k
Nursing is a popular prof-ession, but f'ew people have the personzrl qualitres ---(86)-- -
lor such r difficult job. To begin with. thc training is difflcult, and. ---(87)-- thcy
have finished this. qualified nLrrscs start a carccr involving long hours lor little pay.
Nurses. however, don't do thc.job for thc nronr:y. They do it fbr the satisfaction of hclping
pcople. I lnlortunrrtcly. tliis unsell'ish attitudc can __( 88)_ t: vt: n worsc conclitiotrs rrs
e mploycrs terrcl to takc advantagc ol'nurses and rlitke thcrn work as malry lrours as possiblc
I'or the sarne pay. lt is not surpristng. then, that nurscs, -(89)- eventually lcavc
the profession 1or lcss stressful .jobs, sometirncs becomc intpatient with thcir bosses ancl
decide to takc itction to improve thcir workirrg livcs.
a) oncc
b) while
c) by the timc
d) betorc
a) providing many
b) despite rr-rany
c) rrany of whorn
d) after which many
When faced with some new technological change, rnost people react in one of two ways.
They ___190a)_ try to avoid it, clairning that it is unnecessary, -(90b)- they
learn to accept the new invention, and then wonder how they ever managed without it.
Howcver. adults especially tend to be slow to apply new technology. --(91 )--- they
see clear evidcnce that a new machine has benefits, do they f'eel ready to use it thcmselvcs.
A good exarnple of this is the computer, which highlights the great difference between the
ge nerations. Adults usually suspect that computers are a threat to our f}eedom.
_(92)_ children seem to have less fear that they will take over our lives. Adults are
also constantly arnazed that their children czrn take _(93)_ so easily. Consequently.
they also feel inadequate when their children. _(94)_ the experts in the farnily. start
giving them advice on how to operate lfre familv home r:omputer properly. In fact, it does
not take long to operate a basic computer programme, _(95)_ things occasionally
go wrong for no apparent reason. However, what seems to really frighten many people is
that change is occurring -(96)- faster than it was, say, twenty years ago. No sooner
have we got used to one new invention _(97)_ we are told it is out of date and we
have to learn to use the machine that replaces it. But change and new technology do not
always bring improvements to our lives. When there is a power cut, for instance. wc
realise that there are still some sood forms of entertainment around that don't have to be
plugged in to work.
90. a) so much ... that
b) either ... or
c) both ... and
d) not only ... but also
a) whereas
b) nevertheless
c) despite
d) besides
a) like
b) alike
c) as
d) such as
96. a) considerably
b) slightly
c) exactly
d) a lot of
a) Seldom
b) Never
c) Only after
d) At no point
a) them
b) to
c) them to
d) to them
a) even
b) even if
c) as if
d) as though
a) then
b) than
c) that
d) when
I work fiom horne. so when we moved into this new flat, I wanted a study --(98)--
I could work in comfortably. The problcm with our old flat was that the roorns were far
too small. Besides, we weren't allowed to throw out any furniture or put in the extra
bookshelves necessary for my books _(99)- the flat and everything in it was
rented. In the new flat we have chosen this room at the back as my study. If I
_(100a)_ time, I _(100b)- it a nice bright colour, but I have too much
work to do. Still. it's quite a bright room already. The light comes in f'rom two sides.
because there are two huge windows and a terrace outside. Of course, I don't want to put
my books on _(l0l)_ of those sides and block any of the light. Luckily, there is
enough space along the other walls for my bookshelves, so it's the perfect arrangement.
98. a) where
b) in which
c) that
d) while
100. a) have ... will patnt
b) don't have ... won't paint
c) didn't have ... would be painting
d) had ... would paint
102. a) because ol'having 103. a) to take
b) which have b) o1'taking
c) where you have c) that take
d) rlrorcovcr [here is d) are takclt
99. a) as
b) whereas
c) owing to
d) in order that
l0l. a) none
b) both
c) either
d) neither
'fhis, trke a really carefree holiday on the Costa Brava. -(102)---- the guarantee
of hot sunny weather for most of the year. Book a package holiday, and all the transport
arrangements __(103)__ care of. lt's so easy. You step on board a jct at Gatwick or
Lutcln and in two and a half hours. you ___(104)__ the Mediterrancan heat of Spain on
vour facc.
104. a) will be f.eeling
b) arc always f'ecling
c) woulcl f-ecl
d) are going to be lelt
Five years ago, Mariano Minot was geft; bored in his saf'e ancl securc banking job in
Mexico City. Just then a tiiend suggested _(105)_ a new busincss manulacturing
jcwcllt-ry. Mrriano was temptcd but realised there were risks __(106a)_____ fbr the
carcer he had built ___(106b)__ 1br his young 1'amily. After a f-ew restless nishts. he
had a dream: he was locked in an empty, airless building and was suftocatirrg. On waking. he
knew what _( 107)_. He resigned f rom the bank and started the jewellery business.
105. a) that they start 106. a) more... than 107. a) can be done
b) to start b) neither ... nor b) hc had to do
c) that starting c) so high ... as c) might do
d) hirn he should start d) not only ... but also d) he may clo
My childhood memories of tea are of times of crisis. Whenever there was a problem. rny
mother would prepare tea, hoping that drinking strong, sweet tea would hclp
_(l0B)_ the situation. Perhaps as a reaction to that image of tea. I turned in my
teens, _(109)_ most of my contemporaries, to drinking coff-ee. These were the
sixties and the era of espresso bars. I drank coffee black, not because I liked rt that way but
because none of the smart people _(l l0)_ would ever dream of putting rnilk in it.
The style passed quickly and was replaced with a succession of new fashions and modes of
behaviour. The image o1'tea today -(1 1 1)- with being health conscious. Tea is a
'Green' thing. unlike its alternatives, which are regarded as unhealthy.
Jessc Owens. whosc lour gold medals at the 1936 Olyrnpic Giirncs in Bcrlin rnade hinr
pelhups thc glcrtest and rnost f'ar.nous athlete in track and field history. lll2t _
ntuch rccognition at thc tirne o1'his success. 'fhe victit-n ol racial discrirnination lurd o1'thc
tirnes _(ll3)___ he lived. Owcns ultinratcly crcated his place in history thror"rsh his
own inner couragc and deternrination. Today. nrore than fifteen years after his deirth.
Owens _(ll4)_ as a great athlctc and also as sorrconc with grcat rnoral intcgrit)'
who bclieved in the old-fashioncd values of honesty iincl hard work.
l0B. a) improved
b) to improve
c) improving
d) so as to improve
| 10. a) who have known
b) were known
c) that I knew
d) knew that
I I 2. a) never received
b) whcrc hc rcccivcd
c) who had received
d) hc had rcccived
ll5. a) Raising
b) Raised
c) To raise
d) To be raised
109. a) as
b) like
c) the
d) and
I I l. a) is associated
b ) is ussociating
c) when to associate
d) which associates
Julio Iglcsias rs by f'ar thc most popular Hispanic singer in history. according to most
E,uropcans und South Anrericans. _____(ll-5)___ in an upper-cltrss suburb of'Mudrid. hc
wAS encouraged to bc a diplomat by his l'ather, a well-known physician. Af'tcr scvcral yclrrs
_(ll6)_ a talented soccer goalie, he was sent to Cambridge University to study
law. In the mid-1960's, he wrs nearly killed in a car crash _(l11)___ almost two
years recupcrating. The rest reads like a l'airy tale: a guitar givcn to hirn in the hospital: the
f irst songs and studio recordings; and then the awards and sell-out crowcls.
I 13. a) througlr
b) whcncver
c) in which
d) during
I 16. a) later
b) like
c) of
d) as
I lul. a) r'crlerlbcrs to bc
b) was rcrncrnherc'rl
c) rcnrernbcrs being
d) is renrernberecl
1 17. a) having spent
b) ancl spent
c) a{'tcr which spcndin-s
d) that has bcen spent
Goocl personal relations based on mutual trust and esteem play a particularly important role in
cloing business in Japan. The Japanese -(llB)- to understand the finer points of
their own etiquette, but they like people who try to conform. Most Japanese meals consist of
a series of small dishes. Naturally, the polite thing to do is to eat -(119)--, but
Japanese hosts _(120a)- understanding if a foreigner -(120b)- that he
finds a particular dish unappetising. The custom of giving gifts to business and personal
acquaintsnces is common in Japan. It is not necessary to reciprocate immediately
_(l2l)_ it is customary to give something back in due course for personal presents
recei ved from individuals.
I I 8. a) are not expected by foreigners
b) expect that foreigners
c) as well as foreigners expt:ct
d) do not cxpect lbreigners
120. a) would be ... had explained
b) were ... would explain
c ) itrc ... expluins
d) are ... will explain
a) making
b) causing
c) resulting
d) having
a) many of us eat
b) which are eaten
c) we have eaten
d) some of which we eat
| 19. a) what one is ol'l'ered
b) thc things that offer
c) that arc otfbring
d.t those to ol'l'er
l2l . a) despite being
b) in order that
c) even though
d) unless
In what way is cholesterol bad for us, Dr. Answay?
Wcll. we all need some cholesterol for survival, but too much ol- it is bad for us. lt
builds up in our arteries, -( 122)-- them to get narrower, as a result ol' which
our bloocl supply has difficulty in getting through. This, of course, can eventually
--(f 23)-- a heart attack or stroke. The point -( 124\ - to Irtakc
here is that, even though we all need somc cholesterol to insulate our nt:rves. and to
procluce hormoues, the things -(125)- and even consider healthy may end
in tl'rc overproduction of cholesterol. Today. a lot of peoplc risk ---(126t-
their hcalth by consuming too much red meat, cheese, eggs, and so on, all of' which
increase the cholesterol level in our blood.
a) the source of
b) be the result of
c) caused by
d) result in
a) having lost
b) losing
c) to lose
d) loss of
124. a)
I try
is trying
I'm trying
is to try
To say that my father and I do not get on would be an understatement. The root of the
trouble is his attitude to women, _(121)- as little better than domestic servants.
What is more, he does not believe _(128)- a formal academic education. havins
himself left school -(129)-- twelve and made his own way in the world"
According to him, __( 130)__ continuing your education beyond the minimum age.
especially if you are a girl. He keeps pointing out that he has become a successful
businessman _(l3l)_ the benefit of any college irpart from the'University of
Life'. Nevertheless, I chose _(132)-- my education, which marked the br'grnntrrg
of a lons feud between us.
121. a) as they are regarded
b) who were regarded
c) whom he regards
d) that he regards thetn
130. a) it's no good
b) you shouldn't expect
c) he doesn't mind
d) there's no pornt
133. a) must be seeing
b) had been seen
c) might have seen
d) had seen
I 36. a) looked
b) possession
c) owned by
d) belonged to
128. a) that getting 129. ,t) oncc he has bcen
b) those who get b) at the age
c) to get c) wherc hc was
d) in getting d) as soott as hc was
l3l. a) due to
b) without
c) as
d) befbre
132. a) continuing
b) so as to continuc
c) to c()ntinuc
d) and continued
Londoners who happened to walk along the Tharnes during the rnid-thirtccnth century
_(133)_ a large whitc bear walking down to the river. __(134)-- bchind woulcl be rt
rnan, h6lding the bear with a long leash. The man would sit on the riverbank ---( 1 3-5 )--- thc
bear, still attached to the leash, would go into the water and flsh for its dinner.
The bear __( 136)_ King Henry IIL Henry wanted to save money, so he had thc bear cittclt
its own food. The people of London --(137)-- his sense of economy since they paid firr
the bear's tlxpenses.
Henry was not the first king to keep large pets. -(138)-, practically evcry royal head of
state from the beginning of civilization to the French Revolution seemed to want to own
animals _(139)_ - animals that were the biggest, the strangest, or the tnost dangerous.
134. a) Leaving
b) Following
c) Leading
d) Pursuing
137. a) must have appreciated
b) used to be appreciated
c) who appreciated
d) appreciating
135. a) with afier
b) while
c) therelore
d) if
138. a) In brief 139. a) ofgreat beauty
b) In contrast b) really beautiful
c) In fact c) whose beauty
d) In addition d) as beautiful
Both the ancient Egyptians and Chinese collected irnimals _(140)_ pleasure. Chinese
cmperors kept them in places called "parks of intelligence" whereas Egyptian royalty kept
monkeys. leopards and _(l4l )_ a giraffb on the palace grounds.
Birds, exotic and familiar. were popular in Rome. When Octavian defeated Marc Antony in
battle, he was given aparrot _(142)_to say "Hail, Octavian, victorious leader". Octavian
was very pleased ___(143)_ he learned that the trainer had also taught another parrot to say
'Hail. Antony, victorious leader," _(144)__ Antony had won.
Not only did rich people keep pcts, they _(145)__ thern do strangc things. Napoleon's
wife Josephine had an orangutan that sat at her table in a coat. A Portuguese princess wcnt to
the troublc of getting zebras since she thought _(146)_ pretty pulling the royal childrcn
in a little carriage. To her disappointment, she got no cooperation _(147)_ the z.ebras.
Owning and displaying exotic pets has continucd into morc modern timcs, but ovcr thc year-s.
it has becorne obvious that the care of exotic animals (l4B)_ spccializcd knowleclge.
(iencralf y speaking. neither the public nor thc cxperts arc in _(149)___ ol.kccping bcars in
the backyard or lions in the living room.
140. a) of
b) at
c) in
d ) 1'or
143. a) as soon as 114. a) in case
l4l. a) consecluently 142. a) hc traincd
b) conversely
c) accordingly
d) occasionally
b) yet
c) although
d) until
b) because
c) if only
d) unless
b) traincd
c) that trained
d) to train
145. a) uscd
b) wanted
c) made
d) took
146. a) if they looked 147. a) ol'
b) that it looked b) about
c) of looking c) fiom
d) they would look d) with
l4U. a) requiring 149. a) favour
b) which requires b) fbnd
c ) requires c) aware
d) to require d) conscious
The Mysterious Gift of the ProdigY
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart will be remembered as one of history's most famous chrld
prodigies. By rhe age of eight. he _(150)- in half the great cities of Europe and was
_(151)-- his first three symphonies. He died shortly before his 36th birthduy. btrt tht'
world recognizes him as one of the finest composers -(152)
For centuries, people have been amazed by children of -(153)---" Pianist and
composer Felix Mendelssohn had composed a fair amount of music -(154)-- hc was
eleven. John Stuart Mill, the lgth-century British philosopher, --(15-5)--- Greek at
three. Success has not always brought happiness to prodigies, -(156)---. Whcn hc
was 20. John Stuart Mill suff'ered a serious mental crisis. "It was -( 151)-, there was
nothing left to live fbr," he wrote years later. Other well-known prodigies hitve had
experiences -( I 58)- his.
A numbcr of history's rnost limous prodigies had sotnething else in comnrorl: - (159),---
lived very long lives. Composer Franz Schubcrt died at 31. Scientist Blaise Pascal dicd bcl'orc
hc was 40.
Thosc who have _(160)__ studicd today's prodigrcs huve observed that lhcy livc ltltder
the great weight ol'their loneliness. In school, they bccome bored, frustrated. and they do not
Ittempt _( l6 | )_ at all. lf ten-year-old geniuses -( 162 a)_-_-_- to univclsitics
because of therr mcntal abilities, they usually -(162 b)---- in sincc ctrotiotrally. they arc
still children.
l-50. a) would have performcd.
b) would be pcrforrning
c) had performed
. d) had them perlonn
153. a) unusually talented
b) unusual taleltt
c) a talent of the unusual
d) talents so unusual
156. a) as well
b) either
c) though
d) too
159. a) neither
b) none
c) never
d) whoever
162. a) are sent ... can't fit
b) would be sent ... couldn't fit
c) had been sent ... wouldn't fit
d) were sent ... don't fit
l5l. a) about to write
b) being wrilten
c) to be writing
d) just written
I 54. a) once
b) by the tirne
c) whenever
d) then
157. a) as if
b) so that
c) even iI-
d) otherwise
160. a) just
b) probably
c) closely
d) still
l-52. a) who ever lived
b) that lives
e ) to hc lir ing
d) of'the lrving
l5-5. a) that had rerd
b) whu read
c) havrng rcad
d) rcad
l-58. a) as
b) sitnilar to
c) alrke
d) the same
161. a) to be learning
b) learning
c) learn
d) to learn
Many children, as they enter adolescence, begin to turn to other teenagers for af'fection.
_(163)__, and a sense of belonging. This can be a very difficult time in the lif'e of
prodigies. They know they are different, -(164)__ other teenagers.
"Nowhere _(165)_ friends - they all treat me like a creature from another world."
saysMacRandal, ll. Hetaught_(166)_anelectrictypewriterattheageof three. At
lbur. he began to write horror stories and he recently wrote a rock opera.
Although there has been a fascination with child prodigies _(167)__. there has bccn
little serious study ol'them until recently. Somc surprising common characteristics ol'child
prodigies __(l68)__. The vast majority are boys and they are usually f irst-born childrcn
ol'rniddle-class l'anrilics. Often, their parents are past the usual child-bearing age and nrany irrc
born by Caesarean section _(169)__ by natural childbirth. Thcy ol-ten havc parents
_(170)__ to be trying to realize thcir own arnbitions through their amazing chilcllen.
A child may be born with outstanding senetic potential. but this potential ____(lllt-,
nccessarily dcvelop. "Just having the gene is not enough." says Harvard LJnivcrsiti-
psychologist Howard Gardner. "Something in thc cnvironmcnL (1721 thc
porential. "
And although many prodigies the satisfaction o1' extraordinary achicvcnrcr']t. public
praise. ancl matcriirl wcalth, evcn ___( 173)__ somctimcs cllrcstion thc valuc ol'their livcs
and accornplishments. "l havc a longing which grows _*(114)___ as I get older : to bc
mccliocre ." conf'esses the acclaimcd Atnerican conct:rt pianist Eugene Istomin.
163. a) encollragement
b) encouragcd
c) cncouraging
d) cncouragingly
| 66. a) how to usc
b ) hirnsell- to use
c) the uses of'
d) him how he used
169. a) irt case
b) rather than
c) afier which
d) as long as
112. a) may be nourishing
b) need nourishing
c) has to be nourished
d) must nourish
164. a) also the
b) but hardly do
c) as well as
d) and so do
167. a) afterwards
b) lbr centuries
c) several ycars later
d) aficr 1920
I 65.
170. a) that seems
b) seem
c) who seem
d) they seem
I 73. a) when they succeed 114.
b) the most successful
c) they are more successful
d) those succeeding in
a) I lind
b) I have fbr-rnrl
c) can I find
cl) could be firr-rncl
l6tt. a) to have idcntifiecl
b) had becn idcntil'ying
c) who arc identil'ie d
d) have bee n idcntified
a) might not bc
b) might
c) will not
d) will have
a) such a stronlJ
b) as strongly
c) stronger
d) the strongest
It has been reported that at noon each day. -(175)-- students at Princeton
University come out of their classrooms and go to any convenient television set available.
They may be _(176)_ in homework assignments, term papers, and so on. but
they still won't miss their favourite soap opera. They will watch The Yourtg rtntl the Re.r|fu:.s.s in
_( 111)_.
ln colleges across the United States, the daytirne serial drama known as the soap opcfa
_(178)_ "in". Between the hours of l1 a.m. and 4.30 p.m.. college TV lounges
are filled with soap opera fans who _(179)- to see the next episode in thc lives
of their favourite characters. Actually, soaps are more than a college fad; they're a youth fad.
One young working woman admitted that she -( I B0)- a higher paying job since
it would mean having to give up watching her favourite serial.
The fact that so many youltg people ---(181)-- the soaps has charrgcd soap opera.
The mgst obvious difference now is in the age of the characters. " lt scents the y'rc
_( ll.i2)_ all my l'avourite charactcrs and bringing in all these new young kids."
complairred one long-timc viewer. Now all shows have at least a few characters betwectt the
agcs of fifieen and twenty-five _( lB3)_____ ce rrtral figures in the drama. Youttg
people can identify with young characters who find -( l84)--- in situaliorts such
as conl-licts with parents or carcer-identity cl'ises.
l7-5. a) a lot more than
b) most of
c) as many as
d) a large number of
111. a) fascinated silcnce
b) l'ascination of silcnce
c) fascinatinglysilcnt
d) silently fascinated
a) had to wait
b) can hardly wait
c) has been waiting
d) can rarely wtrit
a) that are watched
b) who watch
c) would be watching
d) are watching
a) as
b) of
c) with
d) from
116. a) up to their ears
b) head over heels
c) all lingers and thumbs
d) tooth and nail
l7ti. a) had become
b) that is hccomirtg
c) has become
d) to have become
1 80. a) picked out
b) got over
c) turned down
d) carried out
I82. a) sorting out
b) getting rid of
c) steering away fronr
d) sending fbr
184. a) theirs
b) those
c) themselves
d) them
David is dedicated ---( 185)-- his job. For the last few years, he --( 186)- very
hard ro ger his =--(187)-- appreciation. But Mr. Ford, his boss, -(188)---- a
positive word about Dzivrd's work. ----(189)-- he constantly looks for something to
criricize. David woulcl have left his job a long time ago if it --(190)- for his family.
He has a large family -( 191 )- support and he is afraid of what lif'e
__( 192)_. David doesn't rely ---(193)- his own strength and energy. This
lack of self-conficlence prevents him from making -(194)- attempt in that direction.
-(195)-, he just keeps moving in circles.
I 85. a) at
b) rn
c) fbr
d) to
I 88. a) never says
b) hardly ever tells
c) selt.lont Incntions
d) rarcly adds
l9l. a) for
b) in order to
c) so as to
d) ro
194. a) a
b) the
c) any
d) some
186. a) hasn't worked
b) worked
c) has been working
d) isn't working
l89. a) In addition
b) Nevertheless
c) On the contrary
d) For example
192. a) brought
b) will bring
c) brings
tll has hrouglrt
195. a) C)therwise
b) Finally
c) Similarly
d) As a result
187. a) boss
b) boss'
c) boss's
d) bosses'
190. a) wcre
b) had becn
c ) wcrcll't
d ) hltstt't hee tt
193. a) oll
bt ol-
c) to
d) with
Mickey _( 196)_ his first novel whcn he -( 191)-- to Mary. She
__(l9B)__ A rnaster's coursc in economics at the university at that time and she had onc
lnore year to complcte thc course. Good revicws of Mickey's book -(199)-- in t.trost
newspapcrs and magazines. Both of them -----(200) over thirty already. decided to gct
rnarried af'ter knowing each other for only two months.
They ____(201)__ married for nine years at the end of next month. but things itrc llot
_eoing vcry well. Mickcy -(202)- to Japan to do research on his next book. He will
stay there for a year. Mary is expecting their child in March. By the time he ----(203)-
the baby _(204) to do many things. Mary wants to share parenthood with Mickcy.
She cloesn't like having to raise the children alone. She thinks that Mickey ought to spend Inorc
time with her and the children, but he feels his prof-ession is more important.
I 96. a)
I 99. a)
202. a)
203. a)
had been
will return
had returned
* '{: )k
hed been finishing
was just finishing
had just finished
was published 200. a)
were publishing b)
published c)
were being published d)
191. a) introduced l98. a) did
b) was introduced b) has done
c) hed been introduced c) was doing
d) was introducing d) had done
201. a) are
b) have been
c) will have been
d) had been
204. a) will learn
b) will be learning
c) will have alrcacly lcarned
d) is going to learn
Thc clock -(20-5)-- seven just as Mary --(206)-- her f-lat. Shc ____1201)_, _ ir
dif'ficult day lbr she --(208)- a Japanese group r.,isiting her firm. She just hoped nobody
--(209)- her in the evening so that she -(210)_ a good night's sleep. But as she
-(21 l)-- the bath, there -(212)_ a knock on rhe door. __(213)__ hersclf
in a towcl. she rushed to open the door. Robert. her boylitend, _(214)__ therc with a
boucluet of roses in his hand. "Happy birthday" he said, 'Nobody _(21-5)_ spencl rhcir
brrthday alone. Conte on, ---(?16)-_ you out. I __(217)__ listcn to any cxcusers. I
(218)-- cnough of y()ur rclusals. Gct rcady quickly. Othcrwise" thc,y will
,---(219)- thc tahle I booked at Chez Martin to somebody clse by the rintc we
(220)- therc.' Mary couldn't think of a reason -(221 )__ his oflcr. Shc surcl.
"l'hanks lbr the l'lowers. I know that you lclve rre and care for me, so _(222)___ rcl'usc
you'l -(223)-- herc 1br a moment while I --(224)_ nry bath. I prornisc lwon'r be
will have gone
will soon be going
stri kes
had struck
is striking
20-5. a)
206. a)
is reaching
wrll reach
201. a)
210. a)
had had
was having
can get
could get
will get
may gct
20u. a) would have entertained
h) had to cntcrtirin
c) rnust have cntertained
dt should cntertairr
2ll. a) enters
b) had entered
c) was entering
d) had been entering
209. a) ring
b) rang
c) would ring
d) was going to ring
212. a) is
b) was
c) has been
d) had been
213. a) She wrapped
ht Shc wls wrlr;lprnr:
c) Wrapped
d) Wrapping
214. a) standing
b) who stood
c) was standing
d) who had stood
211. a) needn't
b) don't
c) couldn't
d) won't
220. a) get
b) will get
c ) hlve gotten
d) got
223. a) Sit
b) You will sit
c) Sitting
d) You sit
225. d) scarccly
b) hardly any
c) rarelY
d) hardly anywhere
221. a) where theY live
b) whose lives
c) that live
d) when they live
229. a) could get
b) might have got
c) were able to get
d) could have got
215. a) can
b) must
c) might
d) should
2l 8. a) have
b) have had
c) had
d) am having
221. a) why she rejected
b) to have rejected
c) that she rcjects
d) for re.iecting
224. tt) am going to take
b) arn taking
c) will be trrking
d) will take
216. a) shall I take
b) I'm taking
c) let's take
d) I take
219. a)
222. a)
be giving
be given
have given
how can I
why would I
how I can
why I would
I m glad that thcre's increasing concern about animal rights in our country. Whcrcas thcrc wcrc
__(225)____ campaigns or clemonstrations orgitnizecl to dcl'end thc rights ol' attimltls
l'ive or tel years ago. thcre ale now hunclreds of pcople dcterrnined -(226) --- thetr'
['m not talking about species in rlanger of extinction, but about animals --(22])--itt
the strects : cats ernd dogs. A few days ilgo, we watched a disgusting act of violencc agalinst a
street dog on verrious channels on TV and after ---(228)-- viewing, I f'elt pity fbr the
poor dog. 'fhe garbage men who "buricd" the dog alive ---(229)-- away with what
they'cl clonc because thcy weren't fbr-rnd guilty in court; but thrs incidcnt lcd to a demonstt-atiotl
Iurcl the pegple taking part were of the opinion that the men ---(230)---- punishcd so
that such acts of violence wouldn't be repeated.
226. a)
in helping
for helping
to help
228. a) each
b) all
c) both
d) every
230. a) had been
b) should have been
c) may have been
d) must have been
231. a)
Your son Richard is very selfish. He never helps anybody.
Don't talk _(231)_ him in that manner. Afier all, he's _(232)__
a child.
Let me remind you of a favorite saying of your _(233)_.
I don't want to hear it. My father _(234)_ a lot of things _(235)__-
never acted according to them.
I disagree. He _(236)_ sensible judgernents until that disease struck hirn.
You mean Alzheimer's?
Yes. He _(231)_ his book on children if that _(238)_ to him.
By the way, the editing _(239)__ done on his book at the nronrent. thc
publishers ____(240) ___ me.
Who's cornpleting the unl'inished parts'1
Gcolgc. _(241 )_.
George'? I don't think hc can ever be a substitute _(242)_ your I'ather.
I'm not sure _(243)_. Anyway, the publishers say that by the tirne wc
corrmernorate the third year of rny I'ather's death, the book will _(241) _.
Georgc rang rnc a f-ew mirtutes ago _(245)_ to persuade me to hclp hinr
with the manuscript.
What exactly did he say'?
"Mrs. Larrg, _(246)
Well. were you persuaded?
No, I rel'used to do it. but then hc added that he (241) lur a week
_(248)_ I changed my mind.
All right, back to Richard again.
Look. he _(249)_ through a difficult period in his lile . I think we should
be patient ___(250)__ him. I don't want to hear any more on this sub ject.
232. a) yet
b) not
c) still
d) such
233. a) to father
b) I'ather's
c ) l'athers'
d) {'athers
234. a) had been saYing
b) was saYing
c) has been saYing
d) used to say
237. a) may complete
b) could have cornpleted
c) can't have completed
d) must complete
239. a) is
b) is being
c) was
d) will be
didn't happen
wouldn't have happened
could happen
hadn't happened
will inform 241.
had just informed
have just informed
also 244.
236. a) always makes
b) was always making
c) had always made
d) has always been making
242. a)
245. n)
241. zt)
he tried
and try
is going to wail
will wait
would wait
will be waitin-e
235. a)
238. a)
240. a)
243. a)
246. a\
248. tr)
a) ior example
b) on thc contrary
c) of course
d) by the way
a) be printed
b) be printing
c) have been printed
d) print
your father's soul will rest in peacc i1'you hclp mc
I openly invite you to hclp me
you nevcr help me with your l'athcr's work
I think yoLr should help rnc
in case
249. a) gocs
b) wcnt
c) is goin-e
d) had gone
2-50. a) for
b) at
c) to
d) with
Michael and Maria _(251)_ together for thc last three years. They seern to bc very
happy. They -(252)-- while both o1'them -(253)---- for a TJNICEF
project. Michae I owns a small toy factory and Maria is a child-psychratrist. Thcy
___Q54) ro get marricd next year if' everything --(255)---- well.
Michael is thankful to UNICEF because if he -(256) there. he
_(257) Maria. Anyway, _(258) that experience behind, they are
now preparing for a happy future -(259) they can persuade Maria's father.
Maria is half-Spantsh and comes fiom a very conservative farnily -(260) values
are quite drffbrent from the British ones. Michael and Maria -(261)---- to Spain in
order to get their consent. Michael cannot exactly understand the reason --(262)
Maria wants their permission. Michael's good fiiend Jos6, -(263)-_-- he spoke
concerning his situation. says there is nothing to worry about. He says Michael s doubts are
rarher unnecessary. Jos6 thinks Michael is good (264)- persuading people and he is
sure that all will end well.
c) are living
d) live
254. a) wish
b) hope
c) wished
d) hoped
251. a) lived
252. a) have met
b) have been living b) had met
253. a) are working
h) werc working
c ) workcd
d) havc been working
256. tr) didn't work
b) had workcd
c ) hadn't workcd
d) worked
259. it) in case
b) if only
c) on condition
d) providcd that
2(r3. a) who
b) whom
c ) to whont
d ) that
c) met
d) were meeting
255. a) go
b) goes
c) went
d) had gone
264. a') with
b) at
c) in
d) for
251. ir) would mcet 2-58. a) they left
b) might not have tnet b) having left
c) wouldn't meet
c) leave
d) must not have met d) he lcaves
260" a) their 261. a) should have gone 262. a) how
b) where b) must be going b) why
c) whose c) will have to go c) that
d) those d) will be able to go d)
* t: >l:
It always __(265) rne wondt:r how some wornen work outsidc and at thc srttttc titnc
_(266) to kcep their houses in tip-top condition. Do they ---(261a)---- their
launrlry __(261b)- at a dry cleaner's? Or do they do these things thetnselves at homc'l
Such housework must _(268) them to experience stress and anxiety when thcy
can't cope with it. Some women may be able to afford to spend a lot of money on cleaning
services _(269) feel overworked. Others have no choice unless they
__(210) help. And of course, a husband is the first person that comes to mind to do
265. a) lets 266. a) capable 267. a) send... clcatted
b) has b) manage b) have ... cle aned
c) makes c) how c) allow ... cleanrng
d) helps d) succeed d) take ... cleaning
268. a) cause
b) bring
c) due
d) result
269. a)
in order to
so that
so as not to
270. a)
279. a) May I
b) Could I
c) Will I be able to
d) Am I going
have given
are given
273. ,t) lockcd
b) had been lockcd
c) were locking
d) lock
276. a) had bccn murdercd
b) must be murdcred
c) couldn't murdcred
d) would bc nrurdcrcd
Ralph -(271)- to have entered ,h" b*;"g at exactly 8 a.m. The janitor at the door
cfaimed that Ralph _(212)_ the building before that because all the entrances
_(273) until then. Some people think that he _(274) have slippcd into
the building early that morning. -(275) the coroner's report indicated that the sales
manager _(216)_ between 6 and 8 p.m. the previous evening. Therefore. Ralph
must be innocent.
211. a)
is expected
is said
was able
272. tr) could get into
b) was in
c) wouldn't gct into
d) uoultln't hlrvc gottcrr into
27 5. a) However
b) Despite the fact
c) On the contrary
d) Furthcrmore
274. tt1 rnust
b) might
c) can t
d) should
271. a) hadn't
b) had
c) didn't
d) did
We had a good time at the picnic, _(211)_ we?
Oh, yes. Il- only we _(278)___ some more food with us. I f'elt clLrite
hungry on the way back.
Tomorrow's exam is bothering me now. __(279) pass thc language test
for the assistant managers'7
Well, ol-course. You are _(280) good at French. You ll pass it with
flying colours. If you _(281a)_ clever, I _(281b)___ with you
now. I'm fond of bright people.
Thanks. I wish you __(282)_ the exam fbr me tornorrow.
Don't worry. You _(283) be anxious. Your French is good enough.
218. a)
had taken
have taken
280. a)
287. a)
290. a)
282. a) take
b) could take
c) will take
d) had taken
2t34. a) went on
b) put up
c) set out
d) took out
who returning
were returning
who are returning
wouldn't be .... had
couldn't be .... had
wouldn't have been.
mustn't have been ..
28-5. a) succeeded rn
b) managed
c) made
d) had
288. a) lbrgetting
h) desprte
c) having decided
d) deciding to
have to
can t
291. a) were walking
b) having walked
c) had walked
d) have walked
286. a) thanks to
b) so AS
c) so that we had
d) owing
289. a) on buying
b) meaning to buy
c) needed to buy
d) 1or buying
281. a) weren't ... wouldn't be
b) aren't ... won't be
c) hadn't been ... wouldn't have been
d) haven't been ... wouldn't be
ZB3. a)
Last ycar. my fiiend Chris and I decided to hitchhike to Gokova. We _(284)___, early
one morning and _(285) quite well from Ankara to Mu$a, _____(286) _ thc
sympathetic drivers of the vegetable trucks. Afier Mufla, we still made headway a.long
secondary roads because we f-ell in with villagers __(281) horne so we arrived a1 a
charming little village very pleased with ourselves and our luck. Then, ___(2U8) it
was unnecessary to set aside money fbr transportation. we spcnt rrost of our casl'r
__(289) a nice kilim. It __(290a) __ so bad if we _____(290b)
thc good sense to stay at that villagc overnight. Not us! We contiriucd. When wc
_,__(29l)_ more than a milc, we realized that the last o1' the villagers
_(292r)_ already __(2921r)___ home. Chris ____(293)
something like this, since without any hesitation hc spread ollt thc kilirn that wc
__(294) earlier and started snoring as soon as he _(295) _ down. I.
___(296) stayed up all night ___(297)__ to thc strangc noises of thc
wilderness. Chris _ (298)__ very sell'ish. sometimes. The next nrorning whcn he
woke up. I said to Chris, "You sure are a sound sleepcr." He laughed good-naturedly and said.
"l am, _(299) ?" Cod save us fr-orn good-natured travelling companions.
.... had had
.. had had
292" a) have . . .. gone 293. a') could have expected
b) had ......gone b) would have been expecting
c) must.... go c) was expected
d) can ..... be gone d) must have been expecting
294. a) have bought
b) have been bought
c) were made to buy
d) had bought
2c)l . a) listened
b) listen
c) fbr listening
d) listening
Andre w
298. a) can be 299. a) I am not
296. a) furthermore
b) on the other hand
c) besides
d) on top of that
b) amI
c) aren't I
d) didn't I
295. a) lay
b) lain
c) laid
d) lied
b) should be
c) must be
d) is being
Have you heard thc news'l The art gallery next door ____(300) ____ Iast
No, I haven't. Nobody was in thc gallery at the timc. _(301)_____ 'l
No, but still the owncr is very upsct bccause the thieves stole two vcry valuable
paintings. Apparently, the alarm he _(302)___ installcd clidn't go otf .
Do you think thc policc _(303) catch the thieves'l
Well. there is a good cherncc as they weren't _(304) to wipe ol'f
their fingerprints.
I see, but __(305a)____ the police __-_(305b)_______ a crirninal
rccord of'these people '/
Ycs and uo. lf they considcr the crime ilnporrunt cnough. thcy
_(306) always go through other files such as driver's liccnsc
application fbrms.
I hope they _(307)_ action immediately. The longcr it takes rhem
to solve these crimes. the __(308;__ it will be lor our neishbourhood.
300. a) was robbing 301. a) was he 302. a) made
b) was being robbed b) were there b) had had
c) was robbed c) were they c) had to
d) had robbed d) wasn'r there d) let
303. a) may 304. a) the cleverest 305. a) should . . . .. need
b) could b) too clever b) wouldn't... need to havc
c) is going c) clever enough c) couldn't "... need
d) will be able to d) as clever as d) need .... to have
a) need to
b) should
c) can
d) must
308.301.a) would take
b) should take
c) might take
d) take
a) better
b) worse
c) best
d) worst
Mark the best choice.
1. Becky decided to wear her green sweater on her first date, knowing that it would
well with her red hair.
a) go down
b) -eet along
2. Since it was his first off-ence, the judge let him off with a light
3. He tried to rndicate that he wrs just ioking by --- at her.
a) statement
b) sentence
a) blinking
b) fluttering
a) snowfall
b) snowdrop
c) go
d) make
c) verdict
d) judgrnent
c) staring
d) winking
c) Verbal
d) Suspended
c) give her right arrr
d) cut olT her srnall l'inger
4. punishment was vcry comrlon in British boys' schools in the 1800s. but now it is
strictly forbidden to even touch a studenl
a) Corporal
b) Capital
-5. Gwcn is such an ice-skating enthusiast that she would lbr a tickct to an Ice
Capades show.
a) give an eye
b) stop breathing
6. His rnother scolded Jamcs. "Don't rubbish. You arc embarrassing Ine ."
a) speak
b) say
1. Not happy about the verdict, the dei'endant's lawyers are planning to a highcr
a) appeal to
b) sue t0
tt. Experts say that every _- is diff'erent. This is indeed one of the wonders of nature .
c) tell
d) talk
c) try out
d) delend at
c) snowflake
d) snowball
c) exhibition
d) play
9 . The actor gave such a convincing _ that the whole audience was left in tears at the
end of the play.
a) demonstration
b) perfbrmance
10. Ciineyt Gokger has been on the stage for almost 50 years. His daughter, Deniz, is also a
fine actress. There is no doubt in anybody's mind that she is _ .
a) trying to teach an old dog new tricks c) as old as the hills
b) carrying an old head on young shoulders d) a real chip off the old block
I 1. Danny could not avoid one of the major of small businesses. He started
borrowing money from individuals at high interest rates when he failed to pay his debts
a) handicaps c) pitfalls
b) rip-offs d) restrictions
12. Nowadays certain substances are added to bread to keep it from getting
c) fresh
d) stale
the maths teacher, declared at the faculty meeting that he had
rules during the first week, so he couldn't possibly makc any
c) lied
d) lay
aware of the l'act that the students wish that attendancc wcrc not
c) compulsory
d ) reinlbrced
a) off
b) rotten
13. Mr. Strict.
the ground
a) laid
b) Iain
16. Whcn hc assured rr-rc that he had t: vcrything under control, it never t() me thllt he
was lyittg.
a) appeared
b) occurred
17. lt has been pouring for days now. I am sure wc havc received more than our rIVe ragc
annual (yearly) already.
14. The adrninistration is
a) obliged
b) banned
15. My grandmother's
a) helpings
b) meals
a) raindrops
b) th'iz.z.le
a) sea
b) beach
20. Tom Hanks may get his third Oscar for his
a) performance
b) act
21. We watched the film
a) aisle
b) line
roast beef was so delicious that evcrybody took sevcral
c) f'eeds
d) courses
c) ciimc
d ) clernonstrated
c) rainfall
d) downpour
c) shore
d) coast
c) interrupted
d) sacrificed
18. There are somc marvellous hotels on the southern of Turkey.
19. Madonna_ her singing career after giving birth to her baby and produced hcr
lrtest CD. 'Ray oI Light'.
a) stopped
b) resumed
in 'Saving Private Ryan'.
c) show
d) character
sitting in the frrst and our eyes got tired
c) row
d) file
22. Some of the sky find the galaxies very interesting.
a) spectators c) commentaries
b) audiences d) observers
23. When I entered the room, I saw her painting a portrait on a huge
a) stone c) carving
b) cloth d) canvas
24. For drawings you rnainly use _.
a) charcoal c) wood
b) clay d) pottery
I belong to a large l'amily of five brothers *O tnr." sisters. I love thern all, but the one I lovc
most is rny brothcr Stan, who is the youllgcst. My other brothers and sisters sornetirnes
complain that he is --(25) bccause he tries to get everybody else to do what he wants
to do. Personally, I think he is just _(26)_, like me. Neither of us is preparcd ttr
change his rnind when he has decided to do something. In the same way. hc is alscr
--(21 )-, and he won't leavc you rlottc' until hc' gets satisfactory answcrs to his
cluestions. I'm sure he clrivcs his teacher mad. but Stan is still her favoulitc pupil. Maybc its
bccausc he's got a rcal talent for art. He is very __(28)__. and he's done somc wondcrl'ul
drawings. What I love most about Stan, though, is that he is so __(29) ____. Most childrcn
arc quite posscssive. especially with their toys, but Stan shares cverything with his l'r-iends.
even when he does not set the same treatment in return.
25. a) sell-ish 26. a,) insecure 21 . a) adaptablc
b) care-llee b) withdrawn b) shy
c ) sarcastic c) stubborn c) content
d) timid d) cautious d) inquisitive
28. a) intolerant
b) restless
c) irnaginative
d) trustworthy
30. It took a f'ew minutes to
a) allocate
b) discriminate
a) eradicated
b) incorporated
a) insoluble
b) illegible
29. a) immature
b) generous
c) critical
d) attentive
tht: old woman afier she faintcd
c ) revive
d) subsidise
dilemma. There was just nothing he could do.
c) invaluable
d) insatiable
3l . In many coulttries, inf'ectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera hatve beerr
by the widespread use of vaccinations.
c) vacated
d) integrated
-31. It was an
33. The government refused to
with the unions over Dav rises for civil servants
a) overlap c) inflict
b) facilitate d) compromise
This document is quite ambiguous and can be --- in several ways.
a) implied c) interpreted
b) persecuted d) hindered
Advances in modern medicine have extended the average of people around the
a) longevity
b) lifespan
People have a tendency
a) restricted
b) banned
The car had to be written
a) trauma
b) symptom
It is natural for people to
a) dread
b) deny
c) expectancy
d) duration
to dislike rules, especially those whichare wtthout
c) prohibited
d) imposed
off, so it was a(n)-- that no one was hr"rrt in the critsh
c) miracle
d) assurnptiott
going back to work after a long holiday.
c) prolong
d) keep
of material learned in class helps students to -- their
c) overlook
d) undertake
wood is a physically demanding art
Constant revision at home
a) acquire
b) consolidate
a) Painting
b) Knitting
Since we were sitting in the front
a) aisle
b) stalls
42. Let's drink something during the
a) gap
b ) interval
43. Clay is the main ingredient in the making of
a) pottery
b) canvas
44. The little girl is having a _ at the
her Barbie doll.
a) phase
b) obsession
c) Carving
d) Drawing
we were very near the actors.
c) circle
d) row
before the third act.
c) pause
d) episode
c) sculpture
d) steel
moment because her friend
c) flair
d) tantrum
has just broken
zl5. Next week. it will be generally rainy with occasional dry -.
a) pitfalls c) trme
b) spells d) temper
46. Ali is a tourist guide who lives in Istanbul. He usually takes tourists for two or three
hour- around the city.
a) journeys c) excursions
bl trips d) travels
48. ln Disneyland, thcre are sevcral lakes with sailboats and rowboats on thetn.
47. Let's hurry or else we will miss the
a) car
b) bicycle
a) artificial
b) false
4(). In Las Vegas, most people spend thetr
a) payment
bt winnings
-50. Bcing the son o1' a sheik, hc has
doesn't know what do with rt.
a) inadequate
b) remarkable
a) grant
b ) pension
52. Do you expect mc to
'Harnlet' at such short notice.
a) realize
b ) remember
53. Shame on you for giving me that
a) valuable
b ) worthless
c) boat
d) taxi
c) imitation
d) imagrnary
on gambling a-{ain
c) earnings
d) budget
monev in his bank account. He
c) good
d) lirnitless
c) refund
d) rip
my lines in just two days'? I .just cannot play
c) memorize
d) recognize
check. The bank wouldn't cash rt.
c) allluent
d) generous
c) passion
d) intimacy
c) lonely
d) tolerant
5l . When the blouse she bought shrank alier the flrst washing, she asked for it
54. 'Love' was a weak word for what he f'elt for her. Actually, it was that drove
him towards her.
a) affection
b) excitement
,55. Teenagers shouldn't take advantage of
them and don't want to hurt them.
a) calm
b) happy
parents because such parents trust
56. His
of flying has caused him many business problems in hrs life.
c) depression
d) tension
c) vandals
d) burglars
c) pacifism
d) optimism
c) under his thumb
d) sticking out like a sore thurnb
c ) technical
d) technique
c) rattling
d) curling
c) wrinkled
d) brought up
57. People are getting more and more annoyed with breaking telephone booths
and park benches in their town.
a) crooks
b) thieves
58. Depriving women of top positions in certain jobs is a good example cl1'- - in this
a) sexism
b) cynicism
59. I think you nc-ed a holiday. It'll do you -.
a) all over the world
c) the world of good
d) on top of the world
. He broke his coffee cup, cut his face while shaving and
b) for the world
60. Today, Jack is
played the piano awfully.
a) all fingers and thumbs
b) a thumbnail sketch
c) starchy
d) spicy
a) rnilky
b) dairy
62. As a pianist. his _ is brilliant, but I don't care much 1'or his intcrprctittiott
a) disappointment
b) fear
a) technology
b) technicality
a) grinding
b) biting
a) launched
b) retarded
a) importance
b) priority
63. His wife complains that she can't get a good night's sleep because he is always
his teeth in his sleep.
64. lf a child doesn't consume enough protein, his growth is
65. Mv sister is as stubborn as a Once she makes up her rnind, it is itlmosl
impossible to change it.
a) donkey
b) goat
c) post
d) mule
66. With his keen rnind, Alex is never distracted by trivia. He alwavs goes straight to the
of a problem.
c) core
d) citation
67. As Mary was unable to find her mistake in that sentence, I had to point __ her.
a) out it to c) to
b) it out to d) it to
6lJ. The new promotion program they had proved to be very expensive. They had
to pull out of it or else they would have lost a lot of money.
69. Inflation will never be brousht under control while prices continue to
a) outfitted
b) scoured
a) run
b) glide
a) severance
b) stability
c) launched
d) grouped
c) heighten
d) soar
c) roving
d) making out
c) snug
d) proud
c) better
d) craftily
c) f-lea
d) daisy
c) starvation
d) synthesis
c) persecuting
d) violating
70. As my sister was _ the apples fbr a pie, a worm popped out. You should have
seen the look of disgust on her face.
a) fitting
b) coring
7l . t put a 1'ew logs on the fire, put a blanket over my shoulders and started reading my book. I
was l'eeling as __ as a bug
a) cosy
b) slu_q
12. The diplomat rnasterfully avoided answering the sensitive question by ___
changing the subject
a) stupidly
b) lapsing into
73. Mountain air does wonders for a person. Al'ter a long night's sleep in our mountuin cottugc.
I wokc up feeling as fresh as a
a) rose
b ) kitten
c) prohibited
d) viable
14. Anirnals on the whole are very to love. Even a stray cat will become your
l-riend if you show her some aff-ection.
a) responsc c) responsible
b) responsive d) respondent
75. Many people believe that solar energy is really a _ alternative lor solving
Turkey's energy problem.
a) miracle
b) symptomatic
16. If the famine in Ethionia continues. there is a real danser of mass
1l . The residents of the area are the city council to stop the building of the new dam,
which will flood several historic sites
a') prosecuting
b) petitioning
78. Very old Central Asian customs are still in some nomadic communities in
a) extant c) prolonged
b) inf-licted d) revised
79. George has opened a beautiful little shop which sells only electric household ---- such
as washing machines, toasters, and coffee machines.
a) appliqu6s c) applicants
b ) applicators d) appliances
80. My doctor's handwriting is so _ that I usually make a note of the medrcine he has
prescribed just in case the pharmacist isn't erble to decipher what he has written.
a) eligible c) illegible
b) illogical d) illegal
81. I am sorry I missed Prof'essor Longwind's lecture, but I am cluite farriliitr with the subicct
so I don't need to know everything hc said;just tell me the --- points.
a) salient c) consolidated
b) traumatic d) subsidizcd
83. Children __ of'parental lovc usually end up bcing very strict parcnts thetnsel'u,es.
a) hindcrcd c) dcprivcd
b ) proliferated cl) recognized
84. It was impossible to dctect any car or sign on the road. 'fhe had turncd
cvcrythrng whitc.
a) slcet c) hurricane
b) blizztd d) tornado
85. When we ran out of pctrol, we wcre __ in the middle of the dcsert l'or two days.
a) strandcd c) stopped
b) trapped d) fbrced
E6. The
wornzln could hardly be lified from the sea. Apparently a shark had bitten
off her leg.
a) isolated
b) freezing
87. The video camera is on . You can start filmine their conversation immediatelv.
82. ln my estimation. Chuck
company's decision to go public.
a) did
b) had
a) sale
b) application
88. The Tower of Pisa is
a) backlogged
b) lopsided
thc stupidest move ol' his lif'e when he vctoccl thc
c) took
d) made
c) aw['ul
d) stricken
c) stand-by
d) action
. That's why it is a great tourist attraction
c) flawed
d) sullied
90. Six hambursers and two bottles of cola couldn't satisfy his
asked 1or yet another hamburger.
a) infertile
b) arrant
89. Andrew
a) lags
b) endures
91. There has been a surprising
Everybody wants to own one.
a) continuum
b) nurture
a) metaphor
b) dilemnta
93. We
a) cdged
b) receded
L)4. It's dil.ficult to
spcrrkirrg to hcr.
a) enrich
bt bestow
95. AIDS has been the
a) scourge
b) llaw
a) bankrupt
b) salient
91. When the pop concert was over. the audience
a) clamoured
b) fared
98. We cannot
a) condone
b) conjure up
behind other students in expressing his ideas clearly.
c) envrsrons
d) outstrips
c) prolonged
d) insatiable
in the demand for cellular phones
hunger" He
r)2. Whether to use nuclcar energy or not is a --- 11- you use it. you risk
disastcr; if you don't, you lack necessary e nergy.
c) surge
d) blob
c) paradigm
d) stasis
our way to the door and then ran out in order to escape the burglars.
c) grappled
d) infringcd
a brokcn heart, so choose your words carefullv when
c) mend
d) spawn
of the last two decades ol'the twenticth century.
c) slrog
d) inversion
c) calcified
d) recessive
96. You'd bcttcr wake up and step back into modern lif'e. You won't get anywhere with your
value judgements.
for more songs.
c) unsnarled
d) inflicted
such behavior at school. That student should be strictly
c) dredge up
d) cast
99. How to reconcile the difl'erent interest groups is the
a) vibrant c) key
b) lucrative d) hasty
lssuc ln our
100. With all the
a) mandatory
b) alienated
101. The
don't want to pay more taxes.
a) fatal
b) hard-nosed
102. The swimming pool with its
hot summer afternoons.
a) indispensable
b ) lush
103. A strong sense of ethics is the
a) mantle
b) threshold
104. I give you fi'ee
a) flak
b) crack
105. All his ideas are nothing but a(n)
a) buzzword
b) affliction
106. Alier years of his inefficient administration they havc
a) put
b) taken
107. We shouldn't
a) prolif-erate
b) hinder
I 08. I1' you buy that car, you also get a mobile phone as a
a) gift c) partner
b) bonus d) device
reporters around, it is difficult to maintain our privute
c) blessed
d) prying
approach to tax reforms won't please many people because they
c) freckled
d) petty
surroundings is extremely pleasant on
c) rampant
d) disparate
of a dominant civilization
c) bedrock
d) panacea
with all the expenditure as long as thc cnd product is
c) rein
d) umbrella
. It is not worth readins his books
c) crux
d) sham
109. I think you are losing your
a) love
b) zrnger
I 10. He hurt his
a) shoulder
b) wrist
hinr out to
c) brought
d) sent
babies of parental aff'ection.
c) deprive
d) prosper
on her; she doesn't listen to you any more
c) boost
d) grip
while playing football. He cannot walk properly.
c) calf
d) elbow
Thinking most people are fools
towards mankind.
a) attitude
b) idea
She just sat there
talked business.
a) did
b) talked
andcan easily be deceived is the worst possible
c) method
d) style
gossip with the other women while the men
c) exchanged
d) spoke
his last play. In my opinion, it was much better than
c) overestimated
I 13. I think the critics
they said it was.
a) overcharged
b ) understaff'ed
I 14. You cannot _ your
a) shrug off
b) donate
a) eye-catching
b) lcgal
d) underrated
responsibilities like that. Don't you have a heartl
c) redress
d) own
c) unbiased
d) chagrined
I 15. What we want liorn you is to develop a(n) attitude towards all the people
around you. You arc not fair to them.
I 16. After the court case, he was not permission to leave the ccluntry.
a) sought c) complied
b) granted d) extendcd
ll7. 'fhis has become a(n) __ mistake on the exams. Every year, thcy writc that word
the same way.
a) prof'cssional c) individual
b) historical d) classical
I lB. She that I had stolen her note-book.
a) claimed c) agreed
b) boasted d) persuaded
I 19. I noticed that at the meeting he wzrs drawing of people around hirn.
a) paintings c) sculptures
b) lithographs d) sketches
120. A(n) has to create believable characters so that they can come alive on the stagc.
a) playwright c) author
b) poet d) comedian
l2l . Each of a Wagner opera lasts nearly two hours.
a) act c) instrument
b) movement d) quartet
122. The floor =- in under his very feet.
legs and one arrl.
a) went
b) took
123. You are
a) burning the candle at both ends
b) jumping in at the deeP end
124. Don't worry, those wounds will
a) cure
b) heal
a) round
b) across
He fell to the ground below breaking both his
c) pulled
d) gave
lt wasn't me who deceived vou, but your dearest friend. Alex.
c) getting the wrong end of the stick
d) being at your wits'end
in a week.
c) injure
d) operate
125. idil giret is a(n) pianist. She won a music scholarship at the agc of'nittc.
a) bright c) intelligent
b) irnaginative d) gifted
126. I can't understand why Ann at peoplc all the tirne. Docstt't shc know it tnrtkcs
people uneasy'/
lr) gllnccs t) ohscrvcs
h) glimpscs dt stal'cs
127. Please leave a fbr the watiter before we leavc.
rl) tl'e c) f-ine
b ) tip d) grant
l2u. Matt rs nearly __ so don't expect any l'inancial help frorn hirn.
a) broke c) lneal'l
b) stingy d) gener()rls
129. You have __'- at least ten times during the last ten minutes. You nlusl trtlt hitvc
slept wcll last night.
a) dozed c) naPPcd
b ) snored d) Yawned
| 30. 'f he rnanagelnent
a) kept up
h) calnc down
was in a crisis until Tom
with an astonishing plan to solvc
l3l . Don't worry about me.
:l :il1':;'
I'll somehow get ------ on whatever money that is lcft
c) away
d) out
a) bY
b) over
132. Cancel allmy appointments, Mrs. Matthews. Something very irnportant has come
and I must be off all afternoon.
c) down
d) up
133. Sandra didn't accept Paul's marriage proposal at first, but Paul wouldn't give
Finally, she agreed to marry him.
134. He has -.._-- down with typhoid after drinking the water from that well.
a) out
b) up
a) come
b) kept
135. Gerald just
next week.
a) up
b) along
136. We
a) spent
b) paid
131. Bill has stolen solrle money from
a) out
b) in
138. You wcrc born with a
you wanted.
a) gold
b) big
139. In the good old
a) midwives
b) specialists
me to give you back the
a) Rccollect
b) Remind
lJ l. This painting is _-
a) worth
b) priced
142. Most shops spend a
a lot more goods.
a) exhibitions
b) demonstnttions
c) off
d) away
c) cut
d) lain
doesn't go =- with their ideas and plans, so he will probably resigtt
c) down
d) under
out of money while in Paris, stt we sold our gold wattches and
c) ran
d) went
his father to pay his garnbling debts
c) off
d) to
spoon in your mouth. You'vc always gotten what
c) silver
d) hard
days, they used to call - to deliver babies at honle
c) nurses
d) patients
money when we arrivc there. I'nt terribly
c) Remember
d) Ask
143. The relationship between
a) neighbour
b) tenant
one million dollars. but he is selling it fbr half a million
c) cost
d) valued
lot of money on their window
because then they scll
c) shows
d) displays
a landlord and a
has always been a fragile one.
c) visitor
d) resident
144. Jack and June their engagement within a week of deciding that they were
not meant for each other.
a) halted c) ended
b) stopped d) completed
145. Let's buy a house with your from the horse races.
a) investment c) income
b) earnings d) winnings
146. How many - do you eat for lunch'/
a) meals c) plates
b) courscs d) foods
141. lf you ask hirn. he will help you ___. He is such a kind person.
a) readily c) carelessly
b) vividly d) unbelievably
l48. I had a(n) of her in the crowd and tollowed her, but she rnanagcd to flee.
a) glimpse c) view
b) observation d) glancc
149. Mrs. Gaudy looked totally out of when she showed up in a bright yellow
dress and huge silver earrings at the funeral.
a) place c) this world
b) sight d) mind
l-50. The twins are so alike that it is impossible to
thcm apart
a) say c) tell
b ) understand d) decrcle
l-51. If the government continues its present housing policy. it is likely to come
cortsitlerablc opposition.
a) under
b) around to
1.52. Albert is going to
association meeting.
a) rise
b) bring
153. Color-blind people often find it
a) separate
b) distinguish
on top of
up against
proper rubbish disposal at our residents
the question of
difflcult to
lay down
between blue and
c) compare
d) contrast
154. When I return from rny holiday, I shall have to with a lot o1'work
a) catch on c) make do
b) catch up d) make up
155. With the worsening inflation, most people are beginning to have difficulty in
a) tightening their belts c) going head over heels
b) keeping in touch d) making ends meet
156. I am afraid you missed the ___ of my argument.
a) topic c) concept
b) point d) subject
157. Mr. Hobbler, who lost a leg in a car accident, has now been fitted with a(n) _______ l"g
a) artificial c) substitute
b) extra d) imitation
158. It was impossible for the student to work out the answer to the question. so he just gavc
il) out
b) away
c) up
d) into
c) momentous
d) mandatory
areas have to p_U!_Up_wtb poor public transport
Choose the word or phrase which is closest in meaning to the underlined word.
l-59. The assistant manager was given the onerous task of organising thc company's annual
a) viable
b) burdensome
160. People living in rural
a) depend on
b) complain about
| 6l . A vote in parliament of two-thirds in 1'avour
a) confinn
b) abolish
162. The results of the inquiry
a) accidentally
b) suddenly
a) behaviour
b) rudeness
c) expenence
d) tolerate
is required to amend the constitr-rtion.
c) alter
d) reject
163. There are countless tiny villages located in these mountains.
a) isolated c) various
b) ruined d) nurterous
164. He looked at his watch hastilv and decided it was time to leave.
a) quickly c) occasionally
b) secretly d) carefully
165. His aunt told him she disapproved of his conduct the previous evening.
indicated that the flre had been started deliberately.
c) naturally
d) intentionally
c) criticism
d) speech
166. The plane vanished as it was flying over the Atlantic Ocean.
a) exploded c) disaPPeared
b) dropped d) accelerated
t67. The refugees in the war suffered a great deal of deprivation.
a) violence c) illness
b) loss d) Pain
t6B. He tried to get official approval for his scheme of building a sports facility in the rnidclle
of the nature reserve.
a) amendment c) alteration
b ) sanction d) assumption
169. The experienced politician steered away from the journalists' questions on the latest
a) abolished c) avoided
b) appointcd d) resPonded
170. Wc received invaluablc help l'rom our students while wc werc scttitlg Llp oLlr llew
cornputer ccnter.
a) worthless c) without value
b) valuable d) exPensive
l7l. He walked into the room with a somber expression on his face.
a) joyful c) exPlicit
h) gloorny dt c()mpctcnl
112. If you want your new company to p]])lp_9l. yoLl I.nust try and find loyal illvestors.
a) alter c) thrive
b) continuc d) Proceed
173. She inherited her propensity to talk too much fiom her rnother.
lr ) i.rmncsl.y c) inclination
b) gcne d) trendiness
114. A Health Ministry spokeswoman has announced that malaria has been virtually wiped or.rt
in Turkey.
a) eradicated c) left out
h) vacated d) undertaken
175. Aunt Petunia srniled serenelv at us and said nothing.
a) stupidly c) meaninglessly
b) cahnly d) knowingly
176. The lecturer on Bolivian literature was brilliant. He brought up a lot of interestine points,
but I'm atraid I couldn't take them all in.
a) accomplish c) adapt
b) adopt d) absorb
Complete the following sentences using the words in the box. Do not change the
form of the words. There are more words than you need.
dispose of susceptible prolong
findings innate inflict
nurture contract recording
endure integrate dilate
I . Whcn the body's natural resistance is low, a person is
different types o1' bactcria.
to inl'ection by
2. A balanced diet and regular excrcise are both thought to help ------ lif'c
3. According to the
of the study, children under the age of five who watch
violent T.V. programs are very likely to grow up to be violent teenagcrs.
1. In developing countries with inadequate rnedical facilities, patients ofien havc to
the pain ol'serious operations without the aid of anacsthctic or l.ruin-
killing drugs.
-5. Laws of physics are based on the fact that gilses - as telnperaturc falls.
(r. Chcrnical cornpanies polluting local rivcrs will bc firrced by new govcnllrcnt rcgulatiotts
thcir waste without damasins the environtnent.
1. l'hc basic level ol- intelligence in hunrans is ____ but thc ability to usc 1l'lrl
potcntial is ercatly inl'luencecl by cnvironmental I'actors.
Complete the following sentences using the words in the box. Do not change the
fbrm of the words. There are more words than you need.
diversity deliberate odour
coherent discriminate random
chilling demise flaw
thrive dilemma enrich
l. The only
in his character is that he loses his temper verv quicklv
2. I'm facing a serious
. I promised to go to my friend's wedding but I
fbrgot that it's on the same day as rny mother's birthday. and my farnily will be really upset
if I don't go out to dinner with them. What am I going to do'l
3. She gave a very
explanation of the government's current ecor.rornic
policy, so there was no need for the audience to ask her any questions at the enc.
4. It is strange that although he is very proud of his CD collection, he doesn't keep thern in
any order at all. He just leaves piles of
discs lvins on the floor.
5. The
of her uncle was an unexpected blow. He was old but had seemed
in perfect health.
6. It may seem old-fashioned, but reading books on a wide variety of subjects is the best way
to the mind.
7. We have very high expectations of our employees, so everyone who works for us ntust be
able to in a stressful environment.
Complete the following sentences using the words in the box. Do not change the form of
the words. There are more words than you need.
obsession violate deprive
ble condone
l. Although many governments favour the decriminalisation of drugs in principlc, thcy lcar
that it would the use of addictive substances.
2. In my work, a computer ts
. There's no way I could managc without it
3. American inspectors are regularly sent abroad to ensure that other countries dtt nttl
international agreements on chemical and nuclear weapons
4. Mark's interest in keeping fit has become a(n)
talkins about it.
. He just can't stop
Complete the following sentences with the correct word fiom the list below. Use each
word only once. There are more words than you need.
bad - tempered
I . Atn)
person is difficult to handle. You don't know where you arc wilh
2. He is so
that he thinks the world revolves around htm.
3. Mary likes people and going to places and hates to stay at home. In other words, she is
4. Such
behavior will land him in trouble with the police someday.
5. Leaders should be competent in their
of other people's characters.
6. You shouldn t talk to her like that. She is veryand easily gets hurt.
1. You can estimate a person's age fiom the
on his face.
Complete the following sentences with the correct word from the list below. Use each
word only once. There are more words than you need.
unwind roved responsive
lapsed bland soared
retard tossed dawned
core zest sedenta
l. The officials'
reaction to the situation disturbed many of us - after
all. we were in serious trouble and strict measures had to be taken at once
2. Recent studies have shown that
psychological disorders.
3. As soon as he entered his hotel room. he
work leads to physical as wcll as
his suitcase into a corner. and
rang the room service for something to eat.
4. You are wasting tirne discussing trivial matters. What you should actually do is get to the
of the problem.
5. As the sleeping pill began to take effect, sheinto heavy sleep.
6. With the invention of the printing press, a new era in human history
7. Sally is highlyto compliments. so you should praise her work now
and then to rnake her work better
Complete each of the following sentences with the correct word from the box below. Use
each word only once. There are more words than vou need.
cautious devastated withdrawn
tended stubborn embers
immature blaze inquisitive
adaptable stampeded balanced
l. l'he
that started at the drug tactory in the south o1'the city soon spread
to nearby buildings.
2. She was trying not to sound
but I could see that she was dvins to
learn all the details of the divorce case,
3. Don't worry about Kenneth taking the children for a drive - he is a very
4. The elephants, frightened by the noise of the explosion,
anything in their paths.
trampling on
-5. Those twin brothers look exactly alike but are so different in charactcr: Deniz is an
outgoing, lively boy while Cenk is overly sensitive and -
6. After her boyfriend stormed out of the room, she sat there for a long time. staring at the
of the fire.
Complete the following sentences by matching suitable verbs from box A with suitable
phrases from box B.
l. Paul lcft homc last month iind movcd tcl
a small tlat ncar his school as hc dicllt't
with his parents
2. I think you should try to
thc poerns ol- John Kcitts
. He is considercd to be one of the greatest English pocts.
3. For God's sake don't iust
! Sav what vor,r think about tltc
problcm. Your indiffercnce is so annoyll'lg
shrug put
see risk
your neck your foot down
your shoulders
bv heart
eye to eye
fbr Julie. That ignorant, two-l'rtccd girl is not
if he asks to borrow vour car acain. I'tn sttrc l'tc citlt
4. You shouldn't
worth it.
-5. You must
al-lord to buy at least a second-hand car.
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the box. Use each only once.
wipe out
+ The(l)
of diffbrent groups into a whole is necessary in e very society. It
requires the (2)
of Hercules on the part of the politicians along with
fbr the work they're doing.
* If people want democracy to (4)
, all should cooperate t0
ignorance and concentrate on the (6)of knowledge
x The (7)
danger of the warming up of the world may lead to the
of mankind.
I Taking enough proteins (9)the growth of infants; on the other hand. a
their srowth.
diet that lacks proteins (10)
* The (l 1)
of opinion on this issue makes it difficult for us to arrive at a
>F A new age of electronics has (12)
on the world. Nothine will ever be
the same again. Let's hope it (13)
better relationships among human
* Desprte inf-lation (14)
to a record-high, some bureaucrats are still
(15)dcl'ending thcmselvcs
x It rs when children ( l6)
the values of their immediate environment that
they beconte truly socialized.
Irill in each blank with the most appropriate word from the list. Use each only once.
| . The l'acts don't
his theory. So he should start all over again.
2. She is to be critical because her nrother used to critrcizc her a lot when she
was a child.
3. The cluestionnaire was given to a
sclcction of peoplc liolr dilllrcnt irge
4. lt is common 1'or the media to get away with
ol'the facts.
5. Do you have
evidcnce to provc your point'l
6. The conditions in which they live are
['ve never seen such Dovertv itt
my lif'e.
1 . Jack is the
8. I l'eel
suspect in the murder case.
irnd can't work today. I supposc'I still have.jet lag.
9. The outbreak of a fight at the I'ootball match caused panic and more than twenty people
10. The bombing of the bazaar caused a
destroying many shops.
which went on for several hours
victims used to be put together in camps or on remote islands in the
I 2. Snakes are
in the north of the countrv. but thev are common rn the
of the mountain and
13. What is your
for trying to separate her from her son'/
Fill in the blanks with the opposites of words in brackets by using prefixes.
I don't want to show ( I )
(respect) but your ideas are quite
(2)(relevant.l and (-1.1
(logical). We cannot possibly
accept a(n) (a)
(rnature) approach to such an important proJecl
Complete each sentence in the pair with the same word.
l. a) We may bc biased, but our students comparcd with their in othcr
universities appear to be more sophisticated.
b) My son is a very sensitive child. When I come home, he anxiouslY - at Iny
face to determine my mood.
2. a) Early historians were people who lived in the palace. They entered cvery cvcnt in
which they later used as the basis for their hrstory books.
b) I f-eel chilly. Could you please throw a f-cw more on the firc'l
3. a) My rnother used to every book and magazine that cantc to oltr htlttsc
before she would let us read them.
b) His latest play will be adapted fbr the If all goes well, he may bccomc a
famous man in Hollywood overnight.
4. a) If you go on like this in the same
understand mv side of the story.
of mind, you'll never
b) She put his picture in a
and hune it on the wall.
,5. a) Now proceed and
the program as we planned it.
a human being as a punishment
b) lt is a sad thing to
6. a) Marilvn Monree died at the
of her film carccr.
b) The mountaineers finally reached the
planted their natronal flag there.
Find the opposites for the following words using the correct prefix.
e.g. _in soluble
l. _ respect
2. _ legible
3. _ rational
4. _ behave
5. _ polite
Fill in each blank with only one word.
l. They have just been kicked out of their house because they couldn't pay the rent. Now,
thcy are lookingthe possibility of going back to their village
2. Whenever we do something wrong collectively, I am always
out and get
l. If you help rne in this matter, I'll write
your debts.
4. You'd betterto your own kind. Those new peoplc in your liI'e won't do
you any good.
5. His condition is getting worse; I think we should
6. I tried to put him at hisby telling him there was nothing to worry
about; the examination would be easy.
I . I personally believe that eating onions doesn't do anybody any
people say it has beneflcial effects.
8. They all wanted to pay her a
she was.
9. No one has made a
by telling her how clever and well-drcssed
to stop the government from passing that law
10. He yells and threatens everybody, yet no onehim seriously.
I l. Paul is crackingall the time, but nobody thinks they're funnv.
12. He always does whatever he wants to do and I cannot change his rvays. He is as
13. Thanks for pointing
my error. Otherwise, I would have made a fbol of
rnyself at the seminar.
14" Deborah cannot see anything at all without her glasses. She is as
{br his son irnrncdiately
Fill in each blank with the correct form of the words given in brackets.
Alex's self- 11.1
(confident) is really at its peak because of this recent
success. To his wife's (2)(amaze), he is even considering taking paft in a
TV 1-3)
(commerce). One cannot help but wonder how he is going to gct
over his (4)
Use the most suitable form of the word in brackets.
lt rs very normal for pre-school children to have (l)
(irnagine) friends.
To an untrained eye. these kids look as if they are talking to themsclves. My little niece has
such a friend. Guess who'l Michael Jackson! She does quite a (2)--_-_-_-_-_-
(vary) of things with hirn: f-eeds him, plays with him and even fights with him, which is not a
nrre 1-3;
(occur). When that happens. they break up and she gets
(increase) moody and eventually (5 )
(depress). Since Michael and her relationship with him is very real to her. nobody clares tcr
tcase her about it.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words in parentheses.
Therc was an enginc (l)
(fail) in thc plane. so our (2)-'-_-_-_-_--_------ (lly)
was cliverted to a small airport. Aftcr a rough (3)
(land). wc wcrc uskccl to
leavc the planc quickly 1or our own (zl) (salc).
Use the most suitable form of the word in brackets. Do not use the given word.
(addict) to that drug gradually changes onc's
(person). The person becomes (3)
(increase) afraid ol
thc world nround hirn and becornes (4)
(resent) towards people close by.
He prcfcrs to sit in a (5)
(dark) room by himself and hatcs to bc unclcr
F'ill in the blanks with the appropriate build-up of the underlined words,
I . Being a sportsman, I think your behaviour is totally incornpatible with
2. Don't be nervous please.
try to calm down.
in the exam won't get you anywhere. so
t) \
3. So you want
make difficulties over the
4. He was inrprisoned for stealing two eggs from a grocer's. The next day, the media made
a big issue out of his
me to p4y in cash. I don't think you should
of a 3O-dollar electric iron.
Fill each blank with a suitable form of the word in
l. Political parties frequently make
standards of the day.
2. He doesn't
degree in teaching
You'd better
(modify) in their policies to meet the
(qualification) to be a teacher because he doesn't havc a
(claril'ied) the meaning of what you've just said. Othcrwise
( specification) tirne'l
I won't speak
Do you have
to you agaln.
to eat at a
(horrify) o['the carthquake still remains in their minds
Complete the fbllowing sentences with the correct words from the list below. I)o not
forget to put the word you choose into its correct form where necessary. Use each word
only once. There are more words than you need.
The high rate of inflation led to the
busi nesses.
The memory o1'the terriblc inciclcnt began tcl
The olan vou have made to deal with the crisis is
you find a way of improving it, it is likely to result in failure.
Metaphors and cliches are commonly used by authors to
prece oI wntlng.
5. It is expected that economic development will
inefficient management.
6. This is the avenue where
7 . He started to
his way towards the door when he realised that
ol' mauy slnall
with tirne.
. Unlcss
nisht clubs and restaurants
due to
can be
he didn't have enough money to pay for the food he had ordered.
Use the correct form of the words given in brackets.
(intelligent) is a god-given gift fbr a human being
2. His approach to the role he played lacked
( sincere )
(apply) with care because they arc cpritc
(lonely) finally drove him to commit suicide.
4. Many social ills can be prevented by better
Fill each blank with a suitable form of the word in brackets.
I . He lifted the table with a touch of his hand; it was really
2. You must handle electrical
3. On some bananir
irrigation system
4. I don't have to get everybody's
(plant) in tropical countries they use a very conrplex
(approve) in ordcr to do whltt I wrrnt to
F'ill in the blanks with a suitable form of the words in brackets.
1. His mental
(secure) rnakes lif'e dil'{'icult fbr hirn and othcrs
2. Your help in this project was
(valuc). I cannot possibly pay you back
3. Going therc and shaking
spcrrding the evening.
(count) hands is not rny favorite wav ol
1. Thc three companies made an agreement to(solid) their power.
Fill in the blanks with ONE word only to complete the following texts. Contractions (eg.
isn't, they're) count as one word.
pets, s1x
in all, including my father's temperamental
My family and
had a fabulous
nrountain (2)
all therr
up (1)
Mount Nemrut this year
parrot "Huylu",
A holidav at a
was a new experience for the family
to have our holidays in my dad's little village
Turkey. It was just wonderl'ul! We
swimming, playing and building sand caslles
village became a major tourist attrrrction. wc
this year.
any new
this ncw
When I
on the
was a child
we (3)
spend hours hy thc sel:
with all our cousins. Later, when our peaceful
stopped going there because the traffic becante
a serious danger (6)
younger kids in the lamily.
It was my ever-wise mom who came up with the brilliantidea to try the mcluntarns
to resist alnrost
My ftrther who is a person set in his ways. (7)
idea. As always, hc nradc all kinds of excuses before he reluctantly agreed to
" advetrture".
"Wasn't it wonderful'J". Huvlu. sccrctlv
You won't belicvc this. but whenever
tlrtored by rny father, replies, "Yes. lt
improvcmcnt.". That parrot is (9)
How long do you
In Sweden, you
arc (2)
education (3)
Swc'den is 14)
is rrlwuys rtlorn (8)___
anybody asks,
was but there
gettlng on everybody's nervcs
go to school if you
in Sweden. As long as you wishl
too old to lcarn sorncthins ncw. While adult
become more popular in many countries around the world,
a leader in this area of education. Maybc it is those
Swedish winters. More than three generations ago, Swedish adults,
with endless cold nights, began forming stud v- t'irt'les.
gathered informally to talk about subjects ranging
Egyptian art to foreign languages. Later. during the 1930's
attracted enough popular support, the study circle became
issue of national policy. In other words, the se Swcde s
not just created a society (.12;
liberal arts
students. Todav. Swedish adult education is (13)
concerned with jobs and
from one week for an
there are special training courses that (14)
desktop publishing, to 28 weeks for business econontics.
( l0)
introduction (15)
( l6)
khohn. (18)
I sometimes wondcr
hygienic wrappings
sealecl clr
otherwisc rnade inercces
are offbred at 100 sovernment
Waldemar Sandberg attends a course at such a
center in
his job
thc wholc
so long
open sacks lnd
wc were
our time bel'urc we
the age of 52, Sandberg had lost
of Europe's recession, but he is not (20)
worried yet. The
28 weeks -- (22)
government is paying (21)
tuition --about S 12600 for
Sandberg can learn modern accounting and computer
skills. (23)
he needs peace of mind to benefit (24)
the program, the government also pays Sandberg a respectable living allowancc. He hopes
training will (25)
him get a job as a finance dircctor
a Swedish company. "It is a cost for the governtnenl.
it is also an investment for society and if you rnake an overall
calculation the governme nt rnight even (28)
dcc I ares.
a profit." Sandberg
The Swedes insist that they are making a smartdecision about (29)_ ______ to
spend lirnited funds. The country (30)
spend very rnuch cash on bcncf its
tbr (31)
unemploycd. but it lavishes money on training programs and
grants for trainees. "We recognize we have to take (32)
of'the people in
our society, but they rnight as well do something (33)
" says Bcrit
Rollcn, Director of Sweden's National Employment Training Board.
if other people
get as irritated as I ( I )
by the so-callcd
oi (2)
household iterns sold irr thc shops tocluv.
the most insignificant itcrns are so (4)_____
sible (5)
onc would imagine
keeping them permanently on
than selling them tothe customers. Once, (B)
ago, we were
ableto (9)
barrels.( l0)
biscuits and rice fiorn
could see,touch and smell (l l)
buying. Therewas never any hurry; we
our minds.
rnade ( l3)
with the friendly
( 15)
( l6)
happened to walk in.
Ourpurchases (18)
usually ( l2)
We often used to have a (14)
or exchange a few pieces
of gossip
theneighbour fromthe next street who ( 17')
carefully weighed and then put (19)
a wrapping the shopkeeper tied up
with a (20)
movement of his fingers. It
ls notthat (21)
or a clrt. go to the
faceless individuals
just as (24)
a recording. Then you (27)
There (28)
rnanulacturers was
to prevent you (30)
secs sorreone bcating another person. He
childhood anyrnore but finds it hard
improvements in
by friends.
encouragement is givcn
People do not analyze
solution I'rom the lasl time
(l )- of other
thinking; they try
when all these
There are sixstages in (7)
First, the person must (8)
if ( r0)
every problern they meet. Sometimes they try
they had a sirnilar problern. They often accept
people. Other times they (2)
find a solution by trial and (4)
fail, (5)
person with a
whatever you're
buyin-e in a
manned by
opening them.I must adrnit that
that I can
Will there be anv roonl
to remenrber a
the opinions or
to act without
a problen.
has to
You just stuff
check-out (23)
wrapped asthe items you're getting,
the fiiendliness ofmay or may not say
"hello" t26)
horne with your ingeniously packed purchases
think thatthe sole purpose (29)__ the
tned knives, scissors and any sharp
lay my hands on, I am frequently reduced to (33)
things with mv teeth.
When Gerald was a child. his father ( 1)
to beat him fiequently. This
gradually caused him to lose confidence in (2)
and in his farnily.
they moved to Liverpool, he couldn't (4)
used to
city lite easily. He developed a stutter which lasted ten years. He received speech therapy fbr
several years. He (-5)
often read lons texts aloud 1or hours and hours to
overcorne this speech def'ect. I-lc still (6)
thinkins about his childhood
and cannot easily lorgive his l'athcr. He (7)
to get nervous whenever hc
tnes not to
not to do
his Iife'j
Sam's bicycle is broken, and he (10)
does. Sam must see that there ( l2)
Next, ( l3)
( l6)
he must ( l5)
that there is a problem.
ride it to class as
a problem with his
For (9)
he t I l)________
( t4)
why it doesnot
thinker must define the
problem. Before
the reason
. Fordetermine if \11)
repair his
instance. he must
problern is
the gears, the (18)
problem more specific.
Now (20)
make the problem
clearer and lead (22)
suppose Sam (23)
the tires, or the frame. He (19)
person must look for information that (21)
make his
possible solutions. For instance.
something wrong with
(26)_ in his
talk to (28)
Buy only the
extra food. First.
bicycle repair
friends at the
the (25)
that his bike does
not work (24)
there is
wheels. At this time. he can
about gears. He canbook and
bike shop.He (29)
After (30)
problem, the person
should have (31 )
suggestions for a
possible solution.
Take (32)
as an illustrationagain. His
wheels and
suggestions (33)
be: put oil on the gear wheels; buy new gear
replace the old ones; tighten or loosen the gear wheels.
Eventually, onc suggestion seems to be the solution to the problem. Sometimes the final
idea comes very suddenly because the thinkcr suddenly sces something new or sccs
something in a new way. Sam, for example, suddenly sees that there is a piece of chewrng
gum between thc gear wheels. He immediately realizes the solr"rtion to his problem: hc Inust
clcirn lhe gcur whcels.
Finally, the solution is testcd. Sam cleans the gear wheels and finds that alierwards his
bicycle works pcriectly. In short, he has solved the problem.
Thc average family spends about one-sixth of its income on food. Because food is
expensive. it is important to spend money wisely when you shop. A careful shopper can
prepare nutritious and delicious meals inexpensively. Here are some hints to help you shop
look at his gears
Thereare several ways to avoid ( l)
before you go to the store
your- list carefully
shopping if you
Are hungry. When
are hungry, fbods look very delicious (7)
you want to buy
can. [f
need. Finally, go shopping alone if (9)
, they often ask you to buy ( 1 I )
lbod that you need.
make a shopping
Furthermore, do not (5)
more than (8)
you shop with young (10)
when you are althe store, (4)
unnecessary food like candy.
adverl.isements in thcnewspaper to (17)
no tlR\
..b \. "/
are in the
store, you (20)
Sometimes you save money
sometimes, however. Q3)
A product or a
more expensive
more healthful than (26\
selection. choosethe least expensive
to remember whenthree (14)
for example.First, look ( l6)
if your local supermarket is
check the price per pound of
if you (|2)_ the larger size
do not. Third. remember that a
When you (12)
buy a (15)
product. There are
of tomatoes,
"special" on cannedtomatoes. In addition. ( l9)
is not necessarily
or less expensive product.
canned tomatoesA tomatoes
may look better, but
have the same nutrients.
seem to have special difflculties when (30)
fl-csh fr-uits and
vegetables. There (31)
several thingsto consider whcrr
buying (32)
fbods. Because fiesh foods spoil i1-(33)
are not
used, you have to buy the correct amount for the number of people you arc scrving.
Remember that a pound of somc vegetables scrves more people than a pound ol- other
vegetables. For instancc. a pound of string beans is enough for six servings. In addition. plan
to usc fresh foods that are in season because fiesh fbods are generally less cxpcnsive wherr
thcy are in season. Finally, choose fiuits and vegetables that have a bright. fresh color. A good
color is oftcn a sign that thc food has a lot of vitamins. Caretul shoppers try to get as nrany
nutrients as they can fbr each dollar.
People of unusual habits have always attracted me. By this I do not imply hippies and
clropouts fbr ( I )___ rnodern society has very little respect. No. I lnean thosc orderly
people (2)____ otherwise dull lives are enriched by unlikely routines t'rr- rlanias
(3)__ arc totally harmless to others. There is, for example, a bank clerk I know,
(4)_ will not eat his breakfast toast (5)_ the sun rises and he actually sees the
early rays of the sun. Since he lives in London, (6)- he enjoys a reluctant sun. he
liequently goes without breakfast. Another couple I know has a neat little bungalow in
(7)_ they keep two dogs and a cat, (8)_ they themselves live in a tree house
because they are convinced it is more natural. No matter (9)_ hard their neighbours
try, they haven't been able to persuade them to live like ordinary people. Life, I arl sure,
would be very much poorer without such people. Sometimes I feel I am lacking in
personality, since I have none of these strange habits (10)_, of course, you count the
fact that I keep a hamster in my desk drawer at the office.
"Parachuting Changed My Life!"
When Su Woods stepped onto the tarmac of Thruxton airfield one sunny afternoon to make her
flrst parachute jump, she
come true, but she was (2)
ambitron was to transform
parachute club (3)
"Parachuting has
club's ours. I've madc 100 jumps now, (6)
of it. You
own parachute. Thcrc's not
sometimcs to fecl afraid at
rlctrcs I
"No nrlttcr ( l4)
you matke
was not only about to ( l)
leaving her old life for a new one. Achieving hel
her life. Eight years later, Su and her husband Dennis now own the
Su made her first jump and the couple first rnet.
changed my lif'e enormously," Su says. "When I think back to the first day
her childhood drearrr
and fecling anxious
telling mysclf that thc
lot. but there irre ple nty
(-5 )
came, watching all the experienced jumpers
my own jump before take-oll', I have to keep
ls clulte a
of mernbers here who are much more advanced than I am.
"lr's (7)
exciting being up in thc air that you just don't get frightened.
Besides, everything
to do with parachutingis highly regulated - you can't -iust go r-rp in a planc
must havc proper training. Salcty pt-ecalltions ltrc
and jurnp {t3)
strictly enfbrced. At (9)
, you havc a rope attached to your parachutc linking
it to the acroplane
As you lall fiee. (10)
rope pulls the parachutc ope n. It's
you've rcached a certilln
really any danger at all.
standard that you're allowccl to opcn yoLlr
( l2)
rt's only natural
a planc at 7-50
the thought (13)_
jumping lionr
experienced you are. yoLl alrvavs get ncrvous
a jump. You step out onto thc platf'onn. thc ittstructor silys
suddenly you're in the air. Corning down is wondcrful. uncl
you don't remernber ( l7)
you wcre afraid of."
Balancing her career ( | 8)
thc cditor of a local ncwspaper with sorlinc
out a new housc, rnanaging thc parachute club and pursuing her favourite hobby nteans that
things ( l9)
housework and washing up can get badly neglected. "But thcn,"
Su says, "it's a question ol'priorities. I'd much rather parachutc (20)
Saturdays cleaning the housc. "
Speaking in fiont of large numbers of people is a skill which most people will need at
some time in their lives. lt is something which everyone can do. but is difficult to do well.
Diff-erent speakers, of course, have different styles. However, there are certain common
principles which will help you give your speech or presentation more professionally.
First of all, before your speech, it is essential that you be well prepared. Do lots of research
and prepare your materials carefully. Make sure you have enough to say to fill the tirne
provided. If you don't know enough about your subject, you will be (1)
serious disadvantage, especially when it comes to answering questions. If you find that you
have too much material, give (2)
to your main points - you can go into more
detail later if you have time. Don't memorise your speech, but be farniliar with it so that you
will be able to use just a f'ew notes. On the big day, arrive early. If you only .iusl
it in time, you won't be able to get everything ready. You are responsible
ensuring that any visual aids are scl up and working properly. Whert
cverything is ready. havc a chat with members of the audience. This will help you relax and get
to know the people you will speak to.
As you begin your speech, first introduce yourself and thank people 1'or coming. If' you
wish. you can (-5)_
alnusing comments tobreak the ice
your audience (and yourself) at ease by rnaking a 1'ew
However, don't start cracking jokes; al'ter itll, you want
your audicnce to (6)you seriously. Introduce thc sub.iect and oullinc your
main points. Thcn, go through cach point clearly and carefully. Look around at the audicltcc
and assess its reactiort: it is surprising how many speakers are unaware (7)-----
what the audience is doing. Are thcy listening to you'i Stay in control. Stick to the point and
don't let yourscll' be distracted (8)
questions. Nine tirlcs
o1'ten, the inlormation the person is asking lbr will be givcn latct'in your
speech. Don't speak ( l0)
an aggressive manner, though. Just politely siry yoll
will accept all questions a1 the end. In addition, remember that nobody's perl-ect: r'nistakcs occur
even when thc bcst speakers are pc:rforming. Apologise, but don't try to ( I I )
any cxcuses - it leavcs a bad impression. When you comc to the end ol' your
sumrnarisc your rnain points and ( l2)an explanation 1-or any
you reach becausc. without justification, your opinions are worthless. Finally.
(lucsti()n-rnd-lltswer scssit)tt.
After it's all over, evaluate your performance. Ask yourself in which areas you could
improve. Don't worry if you were nervous and it didn't go very well. Just put it down tcr
( l-r)
. Don't be afrard to try again. lt will (14)
possible. In this way, you will overcome
you eood to
practise as olien as
come to enjoy it.
your nerves, and you may even
prese Ittittl ()n.
conc:lusiolr s
therc is the
individuals when we identifywith the system, acceptingits values.
cannot easily isolate
ourselves from the (2)
We become mass
However, ( I )
because it pervades every aspect of (3)
culture. We buvmass-produced
just (4)
We read
they are cheaper although they aren't (5)
to (9)
(l l)
individuality (11it
which the system
the local newspapers (6)
anything to our sense of well-being. (8)
without a radio or television set, (10)
though we seldom feel that they
if we do not want
choice of programs.
should at least be
must choose
by the constant
us in fivor
andadvertising ( 14)
( 15)
if we want toavoid being (13)
the system. We can only
not let ourselves
offers to 119)
hurled al
do t l6t
if we guard our true
be seduced by (18)
appears so. Those individuals who risc
arc considered to be thc
so on. 'l-hcrc arc
system does (20)
the show. or at least (25)
who achieve success.
opportunities for the aggressive individual
one of the actors in the (22)
and not remain part
unscen and unheard audience. Someone has (24)
the top in the hierarchy of (21)
successful (28)
. The rc arc hierarchies in e veryfield (29)
cndeavor: busincss. education, politics, society, art, (30)
power hierarchies (3 I )
each segment of the field also.
organized activity creates a
or small, the person who is
those lower on the scale.
hierarchy o1- power. (33)
each hicrarchy. largc
at the top and wields the greater power is regarded as a success by
Yct no one truly runs thc show; no one really wields the power. Those at thc top are as rnuch
part of the system as the lowest man on the totem pole. They can be replaced as casily as onc
o1' thcir subordinertcs. They are not creative peoplc whose work bears thL- sti-rmp o1' thcir
individuality. Their function, like that of each mass individual. is to keep the show uoing, tcr
keep the system operating to keep the machinc running.
How should we measure the cost oi anything - of a new motorcycle, a new f-reeway, or a rapid-
transrt system? Econornists use a concept called opportunity cost.
To determineopportunlty cost, we measure ( l)
value of the next opporlLrnity
of action we have
we (2)
sacrifice in order to take the (3)
selected. When (4)
go to class or decide to (5)
in the library,
you give up (6)
opportunity to watch television
home. (.71
opportunrty cost
of attending class or (8)
place on the television program you (10)
the library is the value
what is the cost of ( 1 I )
( 1,1)
with ( 16)
itsell'. The cost is ( I B)
( l9)
price is (2 I )
the value of
how much
( 23)
the price. The opportunity cost to (13)
, but the value of the product (15)
$1,000. Notice that the money (price) is (17)
evaluation of the "real" thinss sacrificed.
money is a means of getting (20)
$ 1 ,000
motorcycle you want'l It is
if you buy it is not
you nright have bought
the cost
measure of how much monev is (22)
we give up. The question economists (24)
services must be sacrificed for whatever
opportunity cost of any dccision that
, but afier about ten days we
time. We sat down
to rush away to
programs, though. I
that we want.
. and cost is
in actual products (25)
being considered - a dam, hospital, school, (27)
s atellite.
been made. However. one of the (30)
fre c1r-rcn tlv
under-cstimated costs is the cost (31)
A war. The nrost obvious costs
lost livcs, destroyed property, ruirtcd careers, (33)
wasted resources in the form of tanks, helrcopters, guns, bullets, uniforrns, and othcr rnilitary
ccluipment. Less obvious costs are the slum clearance, anti-pollution, public health, and
wclfare projects that rnight otherwise have been undertaken. Consider also the costs irr
hospitals, doctors. medicine, and equipment devoted to veterans' care long afier the war is over.
as well as the costs of the benefits paid to depcndents. For instance, in 1967 more than 1,300
dependents of veterans o1'the American Civil War - a war that ended 102 years bclore -
received annual benefits totaling more than $1 million. Veterans'benellts lbr the Spanish-
American War amounted to $5.3 billion, or twelve times the original cost of that war.
The Carter family are television addicts and can't imagine life without one. We asked this
family to take part in an experiment. We took the Carters' television away from them for
a month. This was the result.
George Carter (father): At f irst, we all went into (I )
living room as usual,
in the room
but we (2)
know what to do. All the (3)
have always faced
talking about the
TV. ln the first week. we (5)
couldn't (6)
rocket. etc.
Wc can look al
programs we
to think
of ways of filling (8)
ther fbr (9)
instead of eating in front of (10)
other ( I
a program.
talked to each
l)_ nobody had
prefer havrng a (14)
miss my
much we watch in future.
we can try to (15)
countries looking tor work (2)
agriculture. 'Ihe pay (-5)
abroncl for the thrill of'(7)
on a fnmily campsite. entertain (9)
( l0)
Bur it (12)
"( l4)
hr' ( l6t
vacation work fbr ( I il)
Italy. (20)
because (.20)
night before.
of course you'll have to (21 )
Italiirn. Whcn yor-r
Carter (daughter, I5):
and I used to
I love watchingTV.We've got
watch MTV (17)
evening. I
crazy to take part in this (19)
talks about whatthey selw on
play games
We were more relaxed as a
homework and I evcn
TV for the next f'ew months.
of' students travel ( I )
adventure. Most
of' theopportLil.l l ucs
tourisrn ancl
usually poor, but most people (6)
. You can pick -qrapes in Francc, (B)
( l6)
and Dad ( I
difficult at
(21)But we started (22)
chess. cards, board (231
. I had more time to do (25)
started taking piano lessons. Actually, I think I'd rather not have at
If it's there, I watch it, and I've got my exams in two months' time.
E,vcry summer, hundreds ol' thousands
in seasonal work, maittly connected (4)
c0urse, thcre are always jobs ( I I )
on Amcriciln summt: r car.nps, ancl,
hotels and restaurants.
not as easy as it (13)____ to bc to find work.
you speak the language of (l-5)
counlry wcll, thcrer will
f-ew openings," says Anthea Ellis, ( l7)adviscl on
" ll- yorr work as a( I 9 )
____ with a {'ulrily irr
arrivc Io (22)
cxpect you to (24)
lan-{uagc iidvantagc
Not everyone
courier responsible
e hild lost his t32)
home: four children were lost in
one hotel because of the noise
evening ol the cntire trip.
dishes in a restaurant in Paris. (23) owncr r.vill
French. British students onlv have (2-5 )
for jobs in (26)
the experience.Sarah James was (28)_
for fbrty American (29)
in E,urope. The two teachers
accompanied the children had never (31)
abroacl. One
another became seriouslv ill and (33)
Madrid for a whole day; the whole group wlls thrown out ol
they made, and Sarah herself was mugged on her onlv free
USA and Australia."
Somehow it
her. but for
seems to happen again and again. I meet a nice woman and fall in love wrth
some reason or other, it doesn't work out. Take Maria, for example. She was
an intelligent. beautiful and lively girl that I f'ell in love with
her the moment I ntet her.
eventually had to face up (2)
But unfortunately. she didn't share my religious views- I
thc fact that our relationship was
bounci to 1-ail. Well, I cxpect the woman I finally marry to agree with me on basic things likc
that. Does that sound old-l'ashioned'l
take Cynthia. I think
I really loved her deeply. but we had to
between us. We uscd to have quarrcls all the
in the end. but the whole thing
fight everything
timc. Of coursc.
was rathcr nerve-
we always rnade (4)
And there wcrc
Will I ever rreet
others, but (5)
a wornan to marry'?
Somehow. I'm bcginning to doubt it.
of them was thc ri-qht wotran
A trcmcndous storttt hit south-eastern
dcstruction evcrywhcrc. The city was ( I )
Florida at about 9:30 altt yt:stcfday, causirtg
conrplete chaos 1or a long tirrtc
due to winds that blew up to ll0 rniles an hour. Although rescue workcrs irnmediately
nroved (2)
action, torrential rain flooded a big part o1-the city and rrrotorists
who were stranded (3)traffic had to spend thc wholc day irt thetr cars.
waiting lor the roads to be clcared. By late al'ternoon, the storm wlts ovcr, lcaving bchirltl
thousands of homeless people and completely ruined orange and grapcl'ruit crops. 'l'ltc
pe oplc who lost thcir homes wcre lurious, claiming that they hadn't bee n warncd
thc storm on time. Here is what a meteorologist front the Nationitl
Weather Centre said to our reporter ycsterday evening :
"Storms like the one we had yesterday used to occur once (5)
200 years
and yet we have had at least three major storrns with rvinds of over 100 rniles per hour stllce
1993, which is quite utrusual. We have teams (6)stand-by 24 hours a clay
and we are going to set up mobile unlts fitted (7)
hi-tech ecluiptrent. whiclr
will certainly enable us to take more eff'ective measures. Howevcr-. we arc
no illusions that we will be able to avoid the destructive eflects o1'sucl-t
storms completely - we can only hope to reduce the damage to a nlinimum."
I received your letter
inviting me to spend a (l)
started preparing (2)
to meet me at the airport. (4)
forward to meetins them
and, (5)
Dear Juliet,
As soon as
England, I
able to (8;
I was very excited ( l0)
( l7)
( l9)
against you and
your (21)
won't fbrget my
It's very good
July and will be
pastlme acttvltres. so itwould be
I'm planning to go to univcrsity
my tennis rackct.
hut yoll rnllsl
I can nlav
telling mc in
I rcmember you
weeks in
the journey.
Thank your parents fbr
course, your brother
that he will be on holiday (7)
to Oxford and show us (9)
I read about
planning lor my visit
to England. (121
theatre is oneof my (13)
to see
to go to Brighton ( l6)
rerninded me to
a play in London.
And ( l5)
next year.
( l8)
a good partner fbr me so
your letters thathe plays (23)
well. I
also to your brother
swimsuit, (24)
to swim
England. do you thinkwe (21)
know July (28)
in the Enslish Channel.
I hope it won't bc too
also visit Stratford'l
to (30)
tounst seirson
for July 7th. I can (31)
it's high rime I
peak. but I somehow
any change in the plan. My
now. Write and tell mc if
kindest regards to yoLlr parents, and
Jennrfer got off the
flat she shared
bus from the universitvand (l )
(-r)some food, she entered a shop (4)
Although the (5)
further down the street.she
shopping there. The vegetabwere (B)
she (9)
anywhere else.
Jennifer pickedup (10)
by an Asian
higher thanthose in the
and they had various things
and walked
the shelf
and the
another student.
walking towards the
As she had to
both of
was g0lng
for (12)(l1.1
owner of theshop, ( I 3)
( l-s;
things were quitc popular
Mr. Patel, the clwncr, was
the rice waskept. Except
were wearing
ridiculous in thc
with the t l7)
were two teenagc boys,
long, old-fashioned overcoats
big overcoats, but (16)
any attention to them. Hc
( le)
in the overcoats taking (21)
coal mine, (4)
the stock listJust then Jennit'er (20)
of biscuits frorn the shelves. bul
of putting thernin their shopping t2.31
all the other men there.
to work
butwe didn't consider ourselves
wcrc dropping the goodsinto (24)
inside pockets of their
overcoats. "(2-5)
get out of here," she heard (26)
her. She
them say. They moved away (27)
could no lorrger sec
were doing.
Jenn ifer
boys wcrc in
for the
of her. She watched them (31)
f-ew things thcy had (32)
their basket. Mr. Patel wasn't suspicious.
I.le (33)
srniled at them. Jennif-er onened her mouth and said ...
Irene Charlton, Professor of Psychology
at Oxford University, is talking about the past.
Things were very diffbrent then. In ( l)
days, we lived in a villagc
the North of EnslandMy father (3)
therill ,
the evenings, the whole (1)
My father would
snore loudly.
would sit inthe living room,
fiont of the fire ( l0)
to the radio.
asleep in
from five to eleven, allof (14)
terribly( 1s)
stove that gave out
a (17)
When I was eleven. I
started ( l9)
( 20)
was (23)
higher education. Peoplc
like rnc (25)
then. (26)
ro go back to (28 )
(32 )
(33 )
one teacher with about thirty
I started
primary school (ll)
the age of
children ( 13)
eyes are deceiving you.
five. Therc wils
studied in the same rooln.It
cold in winter
We had (16)
were girls. It was (27)
villagc afterthat.
I sornchow lclt
was a kind oI invisiblc wall (30)
rnysclf' and
my family. Myl'uthe r'. itt plrt lie ulltt.
understand why I wanted an eclucation. tlc
asking nre when I intcndcd to get married ancl havc chilclrcn.
Last summer, Frank Cruise, a -5-5-ycar-old rnillionaire.
wcnt to ahousc-warming party rrr
Glasgow, and thcrc. in a crowded room, he was ( I )
to a youn.g
encouragement, I went to (22)
old liicnds. and (31)
flrst personirr the village to (24)
. Iwasa
bright student and
deal of smoke but only a
secondary school in thenearest
, where I studied psychology. I
used to continuc their education
be serious. You'rc so
I'm 9l years of age."
worlrrn sitting hv the fire. Frank thought hcr clothes were (2)
poor tastc. but shc certainly wils vcry bear"rtil'Lrl.
'fhey chatted for sornc time, and Frank complimctttccl her (3)
good looks, which pleascd the woman very much. After a while, the wornttn said. "l'rrt irfl-rritl I
have to lcavc now. My great -erandson is getting married tomorrow. ancl I'd
"You have a
young ! "
get sorxc slccp."
grcat grandsonI You (-5)
The lady srniled. "You are most kind, but your
'9ll" Frank was incredulous. "But that's quite
"I can sec fiom your face that you don't (6)
You think I'rn joking. but I'm not."
The woman mlde a i7.)
mv words seriouslv
her. Tell me your secret then," he said.
to get up from her chair, but Frank stopped
The woman
"This is the
will be l8
took (8)
blue water of
again, just
a small bottle from her handbae and said.
eternal youth. Take one sip of the contents of this bottle and you
like me. I'm the only person in the whole world who
the secrets of this bottle, and the recipe has a price. If you are
we can get (10)
to business. sir."
pay you. Just tell me what you want."
deep into his eyes.
interested in my youth potion,
"All right," Frank replied. "I'll
'Two million pounds," the woman said, (11)
"And in cash, please."
"But that's ridiculous! I can't afl-ord that much."
The woman took a small mirrorliom her pocket,and
yourscll'. sir." she said (12)
longer young. You arc a rich man, but it's no (13)
body is old, is it? Believe me this potion will
( l4)
good. Hcre's my phone numbcr. If you (l-5)
And with that the worlan turned and walked away
It would be interestins to know what (l)
Hcarts coluntt'ts in ntaqazines. (?)
in an editorial o{fice must arise (4)
Inovcs trlrvellers i51_
held it in front
an aggressive
of his [rce. "Look rl
manncr. "You rrc nrt
being rich if your
you a lot of
your nrind. call me."
of a person writes to thc Lonely
your most intimate
prohlcnts to l'lrecless
llrc sirrrrc irrstirrt't tlrlrt
strangcrs. This isn't asbad as it seems (7)
confide the stories of their lives to (6)
the chances are thitt you will
this travcller again as long as you
As you talk. it is
live. (9)
never (8)
e vcn rnore t |3;
their hearts out ( 14)
doesn't listen to
you very (10)
likelythan not he is waiting for his ( l2)
to tell you iur
story than yours. As a matter of fact, people who want to talk
better in pubs. The minute they walk in, they
out as a drinking companion the most sympathetic looking customer
they rnay look for the drunkest individual with (17)
their secrets will be safe forever. E,verybody (18)
that lt is the unwritten
Iaw of the pubs that whatever ( l9)
said in a pub remains there.
( l0)
. when one writes to a Lonely Hearts column, his (21)-
ere for all to see ]n (22)
and white. Not only is the problern laid out on
there is also an attendant answer
page there, (23)
hope and encouragement or sometimes a (25)
( l5)
( l6)
is th
r )4\
some other instinct? Since it is (30)
any serious solution to a person's troubles can be (31)
answers, these people must (32)
seeing their own words in print.
The belief that children will "go wrong" if discipline
of faith in human nature. Children are not inherently
become so when parents are hostile (2)
eyes (3)
a child, such a parent is (4)
be opposed
parent. It is astonishing (7)
his own methods. Thus. a child (6)
reprimand from AuntMartha or Mary Wrse
desperate or, as one
these letters
loneliness in
parent is his ( l0)
child. It is
or Gtizin Abla. Are these advice seekers
sometimes wonders, only exhibitionists'l Do
such tragic simplicity reveal the inner
these people apparently live, or do these letters
to imagine
in these cliched
writing to these columns for the sake
is not imposed upon them denotes a lack
monsters, but they ( I )__
suppress their independence. In the
monster who can only
likc his
easily people forgetthc l-undamentlrl llw
reproduction. that'like begets like'. The (9)
quulity in l
of respect for the individuality of (l l)
inhuman for a
not to accept his child as
is but to try
to mould (14)
into some iniage thc parent
should be.
( ls)
his own mind of what his ( l6)
All children go through (11)
negative phase in the coLrrsc of
( l8)_-- development.
Between eightecn months and two (19)
of age they will say no (20)
many parental demands and ol'f'erings. This
child's growing consciousness that"(21)
" expresses the
can think for himself. It is (23)
so spontaneous that
the child may (24)
say no to something he likes. (25)
recall offering my young son one (26)
his favourite cookies. Bcl'ore he cven
it, he turned his head away (28)
a gcsturc of' re' jeet itrn.
A quick (29)
, however, convinced himthat it was 130.1
desired obiect. and hereached for (31)
Any insistence on my part.
however, (32)
have firmed his initial refusal.
should permit a child to make his own chorce in uny situatiorr
Whether (33.1
depends on the circumstances of the situation. In principle we must always respect a child's
right to say no. In practice it is advisable to let the child have his own way whenever
possible. This allows a child to develop a sense of responsibility for his own behaviour,
which is a natural tendencv in all organisms.
in the sense that its acquisition (2)
unlikely to serve any
which is
is also factual material of a (4)
interests (5)
we still don't memorize
such material.
know where to
is because
we are satisfied merelY (7)
it is needed. We feel that (9)
able to
reconstruct ( 1 0)
material from nremorY does not
effort in trying to
memorise it. (12)
it is the
of (l 3)
people that they have difficulty itr
themselves to memorise material which they (15)
. In more general terms, if they (11)_----
an accomplishmcnt as
useless, then they (18)
unwilling to make thc effbrt
familiar phcnotnct.tolt citll
necessary ( I 9)
its acquisition
various terms.
In everyday life.
of this material
(l )
future use.
relevant to
find the material
advantage of being
justify (11)
common experlencs
( 14) .-__
bc ol' no valuc to ( l6)
Interest in Learning
we all encounter rnaterial which we could
is, we feel, not worth memorising.
memorise if we wished. But rnuch
It does not medn ilnYthing lo
our expencnce
my diet book everywhere
lunch -- and look up thc
I eat it. To tell the truth.
described in
we fack motive, ot (22)
We say, (21)
, or will, or concentratlon, or lnccntlvc'
this lack (25)
learnins. The studenl
will rcmember that
those occasions when
he couldn't build (27)
of enthusiasm
for study, it (28)
hardly worth
his effort to continue
too are aware
of the difference (30)
makes r1- their
students are interested (31)
a lesson or can be rnade (32)
want to learn about it. PeoPle (33)
claim to be just no good' with. saY.
mathematics or car repairing or essay writing often mean. in fact, that they have nevcr been
sulficieltly interested in these activities to learn the necessary skills and knowledge. And
thore scems to be no truth whatever in the clarm that people who arc sound aslcep cltn
rremorise words ptayed over to them through earphones'
intention to
learn. And we know (24)
remembering things, I take
restaurant (2)
I usually have
Since I'rn hopeless ( | )
I go -- even to the
cholesterol content
I'rn tired (4)
king attractive.
of everything I want to eat (3)
doine this, but it's my doctor's advice and I will follow it
I've lost enough weight. I'm not too interested (6)
What bothers me is my poor health, which the doctor says is partly
ro my bad eating habits. According to him, it is these habits that are
the extra kilos I've had for years and keep complaining
ponsible (8)
1. 2. 3.
l. are going 1. are always finding 1 . stood
2. always has / drinks 2. is writing 2. knocked
3. likes / enjoys / prefers 3. feels 3. was watching
4. ends / finishes 4. am having 4. was sitting
5. closes (clown) 5- collaPsed
6. is always complaining 6. Wasn't ..- living
1. seems 1. got
8. became
9. found
4. 5.
l. were skring l. are always criticizing
2. was shining 2. to join
3. was mclting 3. will be (fact)
4. didn't rneet 4. is having (prearranged event)
5. set 5. starts (scheduled event)
6. disappeared 6. will certainly run (prediction)
1. becarne 1. will not be / won't be (prediction)
tt. was falling B. will have created
9. was beginning
10. heard
6. 7.
l. are going to crash 1. to sPend
2. will get 2. had been / were invited
3. takes / will take / is going to take 3. would arrive / would be arriving
4. is giving / rs going to give / will give 4. had drawn
5. will be sailing 5. didn't find
6. had been searchins
1. discovered
B. were sleeping
9. were sitting
10. had broken
l. the
3. the
4. the
5. the
6, the/a
1. a
8. an
10. rhe
l. in
2. off
3. from
4. in
5. for
6. at
1. about
8. on
9. with i by
10. of
l. in
2. for
3. with / by
4. for
5. in
I lJ
1. bv
2. into
3. of
4. with
5. in
6. under
7. in
8. bv
l. on
2. from
3. close to
4. in
5. into
l. off
2. at
3. about
4. in
5. of
6. for
14. 15.
l. up l. in/on
2. at 2. ar 13. on
3. for 3. ro 14. in
4. X 4. at l_5. on
5. on 5. on / onto 16. in
6. on / X 6. off/ out of 17. on
7. into 1 . towards 18. in
8. through 8. at 19. in
9. across / past / round / through 9. on 20. on
10. about / X 10. in 2l . trt
ll.on/at ll.on
12. out
l. of 5. with
2. in 6. out
3. in l. for
4. on 8. to
l. where
2. Jacques-Yves Cousteau, whose films made the strange underwater world
marvelously familiar, had a rare enthusiasm fbr nature.
3. Sebastian's oldest brother, who is an army officer, will not be able to attend hrs
4. After he was put in jail, Mr. Gullible was criticized by a lot of people, many of
whom were his old accomplices.
5. , which
l. people involved
2. occasional rain
l. rather 5. as
2. quite 6. like
3. rather 7. as
4. quite
a better bike than / as good a bike as
more attractive than
the easiest
as stable as
less comfortable than
I . having
2. to visit
3. used to live / had lived
4. to maintain
5. would spend / used to spend / had spent
6. imagining
1. bending
8. to keep
9. buying
10. to think
to hear
to inform
l. to become
2. fbr wearing
3. having
4. to achieve
5. to win
6. of using
7 " to understand
8. competing
l. was studying
2. developed
3. graduated
4. had already decided
5. wanted
6. got
1. opened
8. has always been
9. a) would have made
a) would make
10. a) had had
6. having
7. to sort
8. buying
9. to win
I0. rnaintain
l. pulling
2. to warn
3. marrying
4. to live
5. being
6. sharing
b) had been
b) were / was
b) would be running
l t-7
l. had been decorating / (had) decorated / were decorating
2. were you doing
3. are not / aren't
4. was peeling
5. caught
6. have always had
1. went
8. had already madc
9. arrived
10. (had) decided
I 1. having already paid
12. zt) had known b) would never have done
13. was standing
14. Being
l-5. was hardly expectrng / hardly expected
| 6. a) would you be b) had not covered
17. a) hadn't seen b) I would be dancing
I . Having lived 1 . has Passed
2. was working 8. still remember
3. struck 9. saw
4. hacl never seen 10. was always claiming / had always claimcd
-5. werc begging / would beg I l. proved
6. Promising / Having promised
l. decided
2. have been thinking
3. was watching
1. was attracted
5. will be living
6. the most difficult
1. didn't grow
8. have spent
9. (much) cluieter
10. has already been sold
I l. will have had
l. has been 1 . was going / went
2. take/are taking 8. used to be
3. warned 9. would also put
4. had taken / had been taking / was taking 10. started
5. felt I l. haven't touched
6. occurred 12. will ever change
I . calls ... give
2. has ... brings
3. would be ... burned
4. talk ... will be
33. 34.
1" was looking I . be divided
2. came Z. wept
3. lwho was) living 3. was announced
4. more difficult than 4. her to keep
-5. drdn't have 5. a) hadn't trusted b) wouldn't be
6. was shown 6. wouldn't / didn't split
1. brought 7. had lent
B. was discovered 8. will retire / will be rctiring / is retiring / is
(). has lcd / hrrs hcert lcading goiltg to relirc
10. rnost popular 9. us to realisc
I l. (she) is invited 10. to be completed
12. will have lived / will have been living
13. plan / are planning
14. to be
1. started
2. was/is
3. gave
5. is painting
6. has never made
1. wasn't
8. didn't have
f . is doing
10. loves
l. was doing
2. wasn't wearing
3. was thrown
4. was lying
5. always took
6. rarely shot
l. had been working
2. decided
3. walked
4. had left
5. bent
6. was washing
1. saw
l. a) had been
2. a) wouldn't be lying
1. hadn't seen
2. wouldn'Vcouldn't have recognized
3. had changed
4. kissed
5. would mean
6. had never experienced
l. will have puslished
2. will be given
3. will be watching
4. is going to faint
8. ran
9. hit
10. had managed
I l. was trying
12. was sent
13. realised
14. had done
b) would have stayed
b) hadn't thought
1. have ever known
2. a) do not / don't change b) have
2. a) have never changed b) had
3. bought
4. had sold
5. a) would not have bought b) had not increased
6. a) hadn't sold b) would be
7 . has been married
B. a) hadn't made b) would still be living
9. a) were b) would be
10. a) had b) could / would go
10. a) had had b) could have gone / would have gone
| . has been attending 6. broke
2. has 1. took
3. has tried 8. has alrcady arranged
4. was sculpting f. is going to work / will be working / will work
5. f-ell 10. produces
l. was climbing
2. stood
3. demanded
4. had never met
5. was
6. giving
1 . reflected
B. handed
9. would be
10. win
I l. will give
12. was taken
13. have been hired / was hired
14. fbund
15. had been trying / had tried
16. saw
17. to check
18. didn't mean
19. had met
20. wouldn't have caused
41. 42.
I . shouldn't / mustn't miss l. must throw
2. Can / May / Could I ask 2. hasn't been able to come
3. don't have to / don't need to / needn't go 3. may / might i could be having
4. had to / needed to buy 4. can fix / is able to fix
5. needn't have wasted 5. could have sortbd
6. shouldn't have let
43. 44.
l. can't be 1. may / might not have got(ten)
2. was able to beat him / win 2. can't be
3. may / might / could come / join you 3. must be joking
4. could have been / become 4. Were you able to find
5. must have sone
45. 46.
1. needn't / don't need to / don't have to 1. can / may leave
drive 2. needn't have gone
2. can / will be able to find 3. should / ought to have informed
3. may / can / might / could I borrow 4. will be able to make / will be allowed
4. have to / must post to make / can make
5. needn't have washed
6. must be having
7. must have been
B. shouldn't have lost
47. 48.
| . is respected 1. were told
2. has lately been promoted 2. have been paid
3. will be allowed 3. deserve
4. to be settled 4. are often blamed
5. (will) have to be persuaded 5. being distracted
6. had been treated / were treated 6. given
1. given 7. to be Promoted
8. will be criticized B. is being made
9. will still be forced
l. keeps folding my sweaters
2. don't often write letters
l. you put on your gloves, you can play in snow
2. you hadn't put the fishbowl on the floor, the cat wouldn't / couldn't have eaten the gold
3. my sister weren't / wasn't afraid of closed spaces, she would get on lifis
4. you go to England or the States, you won't improve your English
5. I had remembered / hadn't forgotten to take my camera, I would / could have taken somc
6. You can solve your problems ... you consult a psychologist
1. she were / was satisfied with the present situation, she wouldn't be complaining /
wouldn't complain so much
8. as good a tennis player as Liam
a tennis player as good as Liam
9. Jane is nearly / almost twice as tall as her little sister
10. produce such high quality work that they can set their own prices
I l. in spite of the teacher's repeated warnings / in spite of the repeated warnings of the
teacher / in spite of being repeatedly warned by the teacher / in spite of the teacher's
warning (having warned) him repeatedly
12. is too impatient to become a good scientist
13. had / had better not stay up all night I had I had better go to bed early tonight
14. I had been trained in first-aid procedures so that i then I could have helped
15. would / had rather be at home reading a book than / instead of
16. had I taken a bite out of my steak / it when the cat snatched it / my steak
17. as good a singer as Melody
I 8. eats like a horse
19. did we visit the historical places, but we (also) did lots of shopping
20. hadl got ldid I get in bed than the phone rang
21. to get used to his new dentures. / (that) he will get used to his new dentures
22. is used to taking care
23. had the firemen left the building when it collapsed with a deaf'ening noise
24. about / nearly half as many cigarettes as Gina (does)
25. had I entered the building than I heard an explosion
26. played the game as I (had) instructed him
27. nearly twice as many hours as George (does)
28. how tired I am, I read a few pages before I go to bed
l. didn't use my belongings
2. could live / livcd in a house with a swimming pool
had a house with a swimming pool
3. hadn't spent all my money on a leather jacket
4. bought a new one / washing machine
replaced it / the (old) washing machine with a new one
5. were very rich
had a lot of money
6. he didn't g0 clut cvery evening.
he stayed home this cvcning
1. she noticed me
B. I hadn't talked to hirn so severely yesterday
I . have the childre n done/eaten
2. is she sleeping in her sister's room
3. gavc them a farewell dinner
4. did Bill come to school vesterdav
l. Due to i Owing to / Because of / As a result of
2. until / till / before
3. so (that) / in order that
4. in cerse
5. so (that) / in order that
6. due to / as a result of / because of / owins to
1. before
8. so ... that
9. Because / As / Srnce
10. Hardly / Scarcely ... when
No sooner ... than
--) .
l. what you say / do, who You are etc.
2. (simple present or present perfect should be used')
you can / you arrive / you've finished typing the letter etc'
3. (simple present or present perfect should be used')
yo, puy my salary / you give me your answer / you've told me the truth / etc
1. (present tense should be used)
we reach / he goes / they arrive / she gets there
is going to faint / pass out / regurgitate / puke / throw up
will have heard
Shall ... run / go
will go
are going to miss
aren't going to catch / get
6. will have read / finished (reading)
7. will give
8. will be having
9. Shall I carry
10. will phone / ring / call
1 l. will be
will be
Shall ... call
a) will be
is going to mug
b) are gotng
about going
of cheating
for making
on catching
on wearing
Afier completing / finishing
1. shall we
2. will you
3. were they
4. aren't I
5. didn't we
6. have you
Suggested answers
l. who damage books
who return books late
2. , which contain millions of plant and animal species,
, which help prevent global warming,
3. where we had dinner last night
that has just opened in the city centre
4. , which meant I was late for school
, which really annoyed me
5. who did well in the exam
(who are) on the basketball team
I l-)
6. , which was a stupid thing to do
, which was really painful
1 . , where we have most of our sailing competitions
, which is within the campus grounds
8. , who is a famous soprano,
. who is a magician.
9. which sank
10. whose works / cornpositions / symphonies / concerts etc.
I 1. who spent / lived
12. (why) s/he / they left
l. typed by
2. done to
3. shown at
4. brought up / raised / reared by
Suggested answers
I . you hadn't given / lent / offered / handed
2. Why hlvc you been going
3. (bcforc) has there becn
(before) has anyonc seen / heard of
(before) have I / we seen / heard of
4. some / others / other people (prefer to) spend their
I I we I s(he) spend(s) my I our I his / her
5. they had offbred (me)
I had been offered
6. were traveling without / with no / without having bought
didn't have / hadn't bought
had failed / forgotten to buy / get
7. The faster / more quickly you write
The more tired / hurried / nervous i excited you are
The less time you have to write something
8. to pay for / to compensate for
9. would it take (rne) to lose
would it be before I lost
10. the game / match / concert had been canceled / postponed / put off / rescheduled
I L can work abroad
are willing to work outside the country
can speak German fluently
12. the waiter serves us
we are served
we can get a table
they take our order
we can give our order
13. how hard / how much I study
how regularly I attend classes
how much I try
14. we / you answer it
15. anyone / anybody came / went
16. anything he doesn't know
anyone who knows more (than him)
l. widely
2. hardly
3. rather
4. flatly
5. lately
6. f'lat
l. unless
| . unless
2. As long as
3. so
1. all
2. either
3. none
4. both
5. Neither
I . collccting
2. listening
3. recording
4. spending
-5. to buy
6. to control
1. to realisc
l. No sooner
2.. in other words 2. than
3. Although
3. until
1. On the contrary 4. so as to / to
.5. provided that
6. however
1. since
8. for instance
9. such as
10. due to
I 1. 'lherefore
12. Otherwise
l. Each
2. neither
3. either
1. none
5. such
6. that
1. As soon as
8. Finally
9. to/soasto
10. then
I l. when / as soon a.
12. So
13. in case
14. since
l. ncither
2. all
3. evcry
4. both
5. Either
6. each
1. none
l. recommended by
2. fifted wirh
3. written in
4. Ieft in
-5. drawn by
6. taken l'ron'r
l. had to migrate
2. couldn't have been / can't have been
3. might not be able to / wouldn't be able to learn / might not learn
4. didn't let / wouldn't let Vincenzo speak
5. needn't have worried
6. might lose
1. was / has been able to combine
B. should / must / would have to see / have to see
9. must have been
10. should / must talk
I l. can really understand / will / would really be able to understand
11. 12.
L had to wear 1. need to
2. must be feeling /must feel 2. mustn't
3. shouldn't f'eel 3. needn't / don't have ro
4. doesn't let him drive /won't let him drive 4. have to
5. should have stopped 5. must
6. can't / cannot accept 6. don't have to
1. mustn't / shouldn't even hint
l. strandcd
2. in
3. sent
4. bv
5. darnaged
6. by/on
1. written
8. in
9. left
r0. in
l. wound
2. ground
3. laid
4. shrunk
,5. flung
6. struck
1 . trodden
l. across
2. along
3. into
4. past / round
-5. through
l. incrcasc 8. routcs
2. in 9. warn
3. admission I 0. against / about
4. of I l. cleared
-5. inro 12. of
6. action 13. under
1 . on 14. illusions
t. David invited Tony and his wif'e to dinner (fbr) the fbllowing / next evening
2. Tony accepted the invitation and insisted on bringing the drinks / insisted that David
lct him bring the drinks
3. David warned Tony that he might have to spend more than he
1. Tony promised (that) he would bring enough becr fbr an army
Tony prornised to bring enough beer for an arrny
5. David reminded Tony (him) to bring the rock 'n' roll album hc had boLrght thc
previous day / other day
L He advised me to go and apologise to her imrnediately
He advised that I (should) go and apologise to her immediarely
2. She confirmed (that) she would be flying to New York next week / the followrne
3. My daughter complained that her English teacher had given her a lot of extra
homework the day before
l. confirmed that the concert started
2. boasted that he had always got(ten)
3. warned her not to touch
l. home-made
2. 500-page
l. well-knownpolitician
2. well-dressed woman
3. red-haired girl
4. three-car l-amily
I . The more tired you are. the easier it is to make mistakes
2. The harder o1e works, the further one (he) goes / tends to go in one's (his) career
3. The farther / further we went into the forest. the less hope of survival we had
l. Thc severe drought caused the crops to fail
2. I won't speak to him until he apologises / has apologised
3. Even though he was injured in the first ten minutes, he carried on playing to the encl
Hc carried on playing to the end even though he was injured in the l'irst ten minutes
4. Despite not eating salty fbod, he sulfers fiom hypertension
Despite the fact that he doesn't eat salty fbod, he suffers fiom hypertension
5. a) Because of (using) cellular phones, some nervous disorders may be caused in the
human body
b) Using cellular phones may result in nervous disorders in the human body
6. a) In izrnir. heavy rains frequently bring floods due to an inadequate drainage systcnr
b) An inadequate drainage slstern 1in izrnir) is responsibls fopfisavy--rai.n+@+y
{+o-tzr$iF) {i=*1''.-\- $*.\ b,<*Ct\ SJ r-<alll F-G\ru-}
i . a) Venice will sink under witer someday because of the gradual rise in sea levels
b) Sea levels will rise gradually. As a result. Venice will sink underwater
8. a) Duc to the migration of people from rural areas, there is social chaos in big cities /
social chaos in big cities happens / follows / occurs
b) People migrate from rural areas (to cities), resulting in social chaos in cities
9. a) In view of l'aster and easier communication, banking and trade can aim at globalization.
b) Communication is so much faster and easier that banking and trade can aim at
Communication is so fast and easy that banking and trade can aim at globalization
l. Not being very interested, he rejected their offer
2. Knowing that this would happen, I took the necessary precautions
l. but you don't have to / you needn't
2. We must obey whatever
3. Do you need / have to leave us
L a) Due to the great potential of nanotechnology, /Due to nanotechnologl"s great potential.
many respectable research institutions have been allocating large sums of money for its
b) The great potential of nanotechnology/I\anotechnology's great potential has led rnany
respectable research institutions to allocate large sums of money for its development
2. a) Some people may suffer tiom problems like anorexia and other mental disorders as a
result of dieting for extended periods of time / as a result of overextended diets. As a
result of dieting for extended periods of time / As a result of overextended diets. people
may suffer fiom problems like anorexia and other mental disorders
b) Some people diet for such extended periods of time that they may sulfcr fronr
problems like anorexia and other mental disorders
c) Some people diet for extended periods of time; hence, they may suffer from problems
like anorexia and other mental disorders
l. a) Because of space travel, there will be dramirtic effbcts on philosophy and rclision
b) Dramatic eff-ects on philosophy and religion will fbllow liom space travcl
2. a) The destruction of rain fbrests will set previously unknown bacteria and viruses ll-cc.
leading to the contamination of the world
b) The contamination of the world will be due to the destruction ol' rain fbrcsts, settinc
the previously unknown bacteria and viruses fiee
3. a) Car accidents occur / happen as a result of faulty road conditions
l. I have I hardly any money / anything in my bank account
There is I
2. If he hadn't been wearing his seat belt (when the accident happened), he would / could /
might have been hurt seriously
3. Fred and Bill are so alike (that) most people mistake them for each orher
4. Jessica's father didn't let her go out that night even though she (had) begged him
-5. Even if Sheila / she had had the proper equrpment with her, she wouldn't have climbed that
6. I would rather you didn't listen to loud music in this house
1 " Partial memory loss may result from excessive drinking
8. Parents whose children are studying for the university exam are having a hard time
Yesterday we had a busy day at home. (No change) The garage door was mepded by ry
father. The carpets were cleaned by my mother. Our cat Samantha jumped from one
place to another (No change) The woodwork was polished by my sister and I. In
our house, such things are usually done collectively on a particular day of the week. (No
asent needed)
l -1.
"'l /1
-'t L.
49. d
50. a
5r. d
52. c
53. b
54. c
55. b
56. c
51. a
58. c
59. c
60. b
61. c
62. b
63. d
64. a
65. b
66. d
61. a
68. b
69. c
10. d
ll. c
17. b
13. a
14. b
15. a
16. d
11. c
7tt. d
19. b
u0. a
81. b
82. c
83. a
it4. d
85. c
86. d
87. a
88. b
89. c
90. b
91. c
92. a
93. d
94. c
9s. b
96. a
91. b
98. c
99. a
100. d
l0l. c
102. c
103. d
104. a
105. a
106. d
107. b
r0B. b
r09. b
ll0. c
ll1. a
112. a
ll3. c
l14. d
I l-5. b
il6. d
I17. b
lt8. d
ll9. a
120. c
121. c
122. b
123. d
124. c
125. a
126. Y)
121. c
128. d
129. d
130. a
l3l. b
t -)2. c
133. c
134. b
135. b
r36 d
137. a
138. c
139. a
140. d
141. d
142. b
143. d
144. a
145. c
146. d
141. c
148. c
149. a
150. c
151. a
152. a
153. b
154. b
l5-5. d
156. c
157. a
r58. b
r59. b
160. c
l6r. d
162. a
163. a
164. d
165. c
t66. b
161. b
168. d
169. b
170. c
17l. c
t72. d
113. b
ll4. c
l7-5. d
176. a
ll7. a
178. c
119. b
180. c
l8l. d
r82. b
183. a
184. c
185. d
186. c
187. b
188. a
189. c
190. c
191. d
192. b
193. a
194. c
r95. d
196. d
191. b
198. c
r99. d
200. a
201. c
20?_. c
203. c
204. c
20-s. b
206. d
201. c
208. b
209. c
210. b
2ll. c
212. l)
213. d
214. c
2l-5. d
216. b
2t1. d
2r8. b
219. d
220. a
221. d
222. a
'l-\. '.1
224. b
225. l)
226. d
227. c
228. a
229. c
230. b
231. a
/.-11. c
233. b
234. d
235. b
236. c
z-1 /. t)
238. d
239. b
240. d
241. c
242. d
243. b
244. c
245. c
246. a
241. c
248. b
249. c
250. d
251. b
252. c
253. b
254. b
l. c
3. d
7. a
9. b
r0. d
ll. c
t2. d
13. a
14. c
15. a
16. b
17. c
lB. d
19. b
20. a
21. c
22. d
23. d
24. a
25. a
21. d
28. c
29. b
30. c
31. a
255. b
256. c
251. b
258. b
259. d
260. c
261. c
262. b
263. c
264. b
265. c
266. b
267. b
268. a
269. d
270. d
271. c
272. d
273. b
274. b
275. a
276. a
217. c
278. c
279. c
280. d
281. a
282. b
283. d
284. c
285. b
286. a
287. b
288. c
289. a
290. c
291. c
292. b
293. d
294. d
295. a
296. b
291. d
298. a
299. c
300. c
301. c
302. b
303. d
304. c
305. b
306. c
307. d
308. b
| -).
94. c
95. a
96. c
97. a
98. a
99. c
100. d
r01. b
t02. b
103. c
104. c
105. d
106. a
101. c
108. b
109 d
110. c
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l14. a
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tt7. d
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125. d
126. d
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136. c
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139 ir
140. b
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143 b
141. c
14,5. d
146. b
147. a
148. a
149" a
I)tJ. c
l5t. d
152. c
153. b
154. b
155. d
156. b
157. a
158. c
dispose of
bad-tempered / aggressive
see eye to eye
learn... by heart
shrug your shoulders
risk your neck
put your foot down
wipe out
facilitates / fbsters
(provided it is not used in
I . blaze
2. inquisitive
3. cautious
4. stampeded
5. withdrawn
6. embers
12. dawned
I 3. fosters
14. soaring
1 5. craftily
16. internalize
I 60.
I 63.
I 65.
r 68.
l 69.
t71 .
-1 .
10. retards
I 1. diversity
B. disorientated
9. trampled
10. blaze
I l. Leprosy
12. scarce
13. motive
14. rage
l. disrespect
2. irrelevant
3. illogical
4. immature
l. peers
2. logs
3. screen
4. frame
5. execute
6. peak
6. ease
7. good
8. compliment
9. move
10. takes
1. disrespect
2. illegible
3. irrational
4. misbehave
5. impolite
I l. jokes
12. stubborn ... mule
13. out
14. blind ... bat
l. into
2. singled
3. off
4. stick
5. send
l. confidence
2. amazement
3. commercial
4. shyness
f . insecurity
2. invaluable
3. countless
4. solidify
1. failure
2. flight
3. landing
4. safety
moclillcation(s )
specified / specific
l. Intelligence
2. sincerity
3. Loneliness
4. education
l. miraculous
2. appliances
3. plantations
4. approval
l. on
2. resort / camp i village
3. used
4. coast
5. would
6. for / to
1. tends / attempts
8. for
9. always / forever / constantly
l. live/reside
2. never / not
3. has
4. certainly / definitely / really / considered / becoming
-5. long / cold / boring / tiresorne / dark / depressing / horrible
6. bored
1. They / Thesc
8. fiom
9. having
10. an
I l. had / have
12. of
13. generally / basically / mostly / also
14. range I rtn I last / go
15. to
16. Thcse / The
17. centres / schools / institutions
lB. Ar
I 9. because
20. too I very / rcally
21. his/the/for
22. so
23. Realising / Seeing / Understanding / Since / Because / As
24. fiom
25. help
26. of latlin
21. but I however
28. make
29. how
30. can't / doesn't
3l . the
32. care
33. useful / beneficial / worthwhile / productive / too
most/some/m any/al l/the
tightly/careful ly/meticulously/badly/well
buy/get/take/pu rch ase/l ift/choo se
what/thin gs/goods/i tems/products/commodi ties/whatever
shopkeeper/grocer/clerk/assi stanUowner
ski I ful/quick/rapid/casual/swi f t/f un nylstran ge/pecul i ar
come/return I go I getl ar el head
obj ect/i n strument/thi ngiitem/gadget/tool/appliance
opening/tearing/rippi ng
used / tended
When / After
enough / some / considerable / constant
1. ideas / suggestions / recommendations /
2. begin / start / tend
3. to / and
4. error
5. the /a
6. begin / start / try / do
1 . analysing
8. recognise / realise I see I acknowledge /
9. example / instance
10. can't / cannot
I l. usually / often / normally / generally /
12. is
13. the I our I a
14. Sam / he
15. find / detect I earn I see / uncover / determine
16. work / function
l. buying / getting
2. list
3. Then / Next
1. lollow / read
5. go
6. you
1. and / so
tt. you
(). you
10. children i kids
I 1. them
I 2. have
13. brand
14. points i things
15. can/tin
16. at
17. see / learn
l. whom
2. whose
3. which / that
4. who
5. until / before
17. the
I 8. brakes i pedals
19. must / should
20. the
21. will I can lcould / may / might
22. to
23. decided / concluded / understood /
discovered / thought / earned / realised
decides / concludes / understands / discovers
/ thinks / earns / realises
24. because / for / since / as
25. gear
26. look
2J. read / learn
28. his / some / several
29. can / should
30. studying / analysing / deterrnining
31. several/some/good
32. Sani
33. might I may lcan / could
18. a
19. when / while
20. should / must / can
21. tomatoes
22. buy
23. you
24. grade
25. product / one
26. a
21. Grade
28. all
29. Shoppers / People / You / We
30. they / you / we
31. are
32. fresh
33. they
6. where
1. which
8. while
9. how
10. unless
1. make
2. also
3" where
4. I
5. about
6. which
1. so
B. out
9. first
10. the / this / that
2. system
3. our / the
4. because
5. better
6. even / sometime.
1. add/contribute
u. And / Even
9. be
10. we
I l. our
12. carefully / well
13. brainwashed / overwhelmed / bombarded
14. that / which
15. of
16. this
| 7. and
l. the
2- must / will / can
3" course
4. you
5. study / work
6. the
1. The
8. studying / working
9- you
1 1. until
12. However / Nevertheless / Nonetheless /
13. of
14. how
15. befbre / when / as
16. and
17. what
18. as
19. like
20. than
8. bv
9. out
10. in
I l. nrake
12. give / offbr / provide
I 3. experience
14. do
18. the
19. those
20. provide / allow
21. become/be
22. drama I play
23. the
24. to
25. it
26. to
27. power
28. ones
29. of
30. and
31. within / in
32. Every / Each / Any
33. In
10. miss(ed)
I l. the
12. not
I 3. you
r4. $ r ,000
15. that
16. that / the
17. not
I 8. your
19. Therefore / Thus
20. the
21. the I a
22. needed / required / necessary
23. what
24. ask
2-5. and I or
26. is
l. the
2. didn't
3. chairs
1" the
-5. kept / continued
6. see I watch
1. started / began
it. our/thc
9. meals / dinner / supper
10. the
I l. because / fbr / as / since
12. see / watch
13. I'avourite
l. to/in
2. and / or
3. are
,1. with
-5. is
6. work I go
1. travel / travelling / it
8. work
9. kids / childrcn / people
10. of
ll. in
12. is
13. used / seems / appears
14. Unless / lf. Treat it accordingly with no
l-5. rhe
16. very / a (paired with 'If')
17" an
l. such
2. to
3. out
4. up
-5. none
14. TV / television
1,5. control / check/ limit
16. TV / television
11. all / every / each
18. were
19. experiment
20. everyone / everybody
21. TV / television
22. to
23. games
21. family
25. my
2J. weather
28. the
29. has
30. most
31. of
32. are
33. and
I 8. students
19. nanny / maid
20. then
2 l. speak
22. wash
23. the
24. speak
25. a
26. the
27. enjoys / likes
28. tt
29. children / kids
30. who / that
3 1. been
32. passport / bag / things /
suitcase / money
33. was
berggage /
l. in
2. into
3. in
4. against / about
l -).
offering / arranging / agreeing
in / during
take / drive
you re
great I wonderful / terrific / fantastic /
l. started/began
2. with
3. buy / get
4- owned / run
5. prices
6. shop(s) / market(s)/supermarket(s)
1. did
8. fresh(er)
9. couldn't
10. a
I l. where
12. her / Jennifer
13. there
14. whom
15. looked
| 6. such
I 7. teenagers / young
5. in / every
6. on
7. with
8. under
11. there
18. bring
19. find
20. that
21. brother
22. one
23. very lreally
24. either
25. cold
26. While
21. could / can
28. is
29. its
30. book / reserve / arrang.'
31 . hardly
32. stopped
33. there's
18. paying
19. through / over
20. saw / noticed
21. packets/tins
22. instead
23. basket(s)
24. the
25. Let's
26. one
27. from
28. what
29. to
30. front
3 1. pay
32. in
33. even
1. those
2. in
3. used
4. like
5. weren't
6. poor
1. family
8. listening
9. fall
10. and
1 1. at / before
12. only / just
13. aged / ranging
14. whom
l-5. got / was / became
16. an
17. great
l. introduced
2. in
3. on
4. better
5. can't
6. take
1. move
8. out
l. kind/sort/type
2. Revealing / Telling / Writing / Admitting / Divulging / Disclosing / Presenting /
3. people / individuals / journalists / staff / writers / persons / strangers
4. fiorn
5. to
6. total / complete
1. since / because/ as / considering/ knowing/thinking/ believing /given
8. see / meet I find lencounter
9. Besides / Moreover / Furthermore / Additionally
10. attentively / carefully / closely / seriously
I l. more
12. turn / opportunity / chance / moment
13. interesting / dramatic / tragic i depressing/exciting / moving/ heartbreaking / boring /
sordid / intimate
14. do I fare
15. single / seek
16. or
17. whom
18. knows / says / thinks
18. little
19. attending
20. town / city
21. with
22. university / college
23. the
24. get / receive
25. never / rarely / seldom
26. especially / particularly
21. difficult/ impossible
28. the / my
29. there
30. between
31. even/also
32. didn't / couldn't
33. kept
9. knows / has
10. down
I l. looking / staring
12. in
13. good / use
14. do
15. change
19. is / you
20. However
21. problem / story / secret / trouble lpain ltragedy
22. black
23. but
24. of / offering / providing / supplying / furnishing / giving / with
25. light / slight / gentle / harsh / severe / sharp / cutting
26. really / truly i genurnely / so / this / that
27. with
28. which
29. reflect / show / indicate / display / reveal / represent
30. irnpossible / hard / difficult / ridiculous / absurd
31. fbund / given / contained
32. be
33. of
l. can / could I may I rnight / will
2. and / or
3. of
5. with / by / through / using
6. becomes / acts / bchaves
t how
U. of
9. monstrous / worst / best / essential / major / necessary / reclurred
10. lack (i1'the answer to 9 is monstrous or worst) / feeling / sense / attitudc
I l. his
I 2. parent
13. he/she
1,1. him / her
15. in
16. child
17. tr
I t3. their
I 9. years
20. to
2l. "no"
22. he
2-1. often / usually / sornctirncs
24. actually / even / sometimes (provided the answer to 23 is not thc samc)
25, I
26. of
27. recognised / saw / tasted (if the answer to 29 is "explanation")
28. in / as
29. look / glance I explanation
30. a
31" ir
32. would / could / might
33. we
l. us
2. seems I is / appears
3. There
4. kind / sort
5. but
6. This / That
7. to
B" if / when
9" the
10. the
I l. our I the / any
12. Now / Nowadays / Therefore / Thus / Hence
13. rnost / many
14. bringing / fbrcing / getting / disciplining
15. feel / think / know
16. them
| 7. rcgurd / sec / pcrceive
18. are
19. fbr
20. be
21 . fbr
?2. interest
23. or
24. frorn
2-5. obstructs / prcvents / hinders / inhibits / afl'ccts / discourages
26. on
27 up
2tl. was
29. Teachers / Instructors
30" it
31. in
32. to
33. who
l. at
2. where
3. before
4. of
5. until
6. in
1. due
B. fbr
9. about
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