Реферат. На тему "ДЕНЬ ПОБЕДЫ" Выполнила работу Ученица 9а класс Чешенок Алёна. Преподаватель: Аршава Татьяна Васильевна. The great Patriotic war 1941 - 1945. On June 22, 1941, we remember as one of the most tragic days in the history of the country. In this day Nazi Germany without declaring war attacked the USSR. Over our Homeland was in mortal danger. The red Army bravely met the enemy. Thousands of soldiers and commanders of the cost of his life trying to hold back the onslaught of the Nazis. But the forces were unequal. In the first days of the war the Germans managed to destroy many of our aircraft. Many commanders and political workers have only recently started to command regiments, battalions and divisions. And experienced, the most prepared by the commanders of the red Army, loyal to his country, Stalin declared enemies of the people. They were slandered and shot. Of the five marshals of the Soviet Union, three - And. And. Egorov, In. To. Blucher, M. Mr.. Tukhachevsky - were destroyed. Extensive damage to the defence of the country caused the erroneous assessment of the government of the nature of future war. Then the cavalry continued to be considered as the main military force and formed part of the cavalry. The first fights have shown, that the horse can not resist the terrible tank, and a saber - machine. In the red Army in the armed not enough new types of equipment: tanks, aircraft, artillery guns, automatic rifles. The Soviet Union just started retooling of our army and Navy. For these and some other reasons, the Soviet troops were carrying huge, unjustified losses. The plan of Hitler's generals war was supposed to last only two-three months. Before the attack on the USSR, Germany took all the tanks, planes, guns, factories and labour conquered Europe. The enemy was cruel and strong. The entire Soviet people, stood up in defence of their Motherland. Thousands of volunteers have gone into the Red Army and partisan detachments, the people's militia. The country became a militant camp; the efforts of the front and rear merged into one. Instead of retiring at the war of men in factories, workshops to machines stood, women, children, adolescents and the elderly. One of the first battles of the war happened at the border of the Brest fortress. Its defenders about a month waged a continuous fight. It was hard to restrain the Nazis and the other sectors of the front. Many soldiers of the red Army were captured, were killed. By the autumn of 1941, the battle of Smolensk, the city Ельни, Soviet troops for the first time managed to two months to stop the Germans, to make them move to defense. Do not let the enemy to the capital, heroically fought the Soviet soldiers and commanders in the walls of the city of Smolensk. The bravest of the participants of the battle - four divisions - the first in the red Army were awarded the title of guardsmen. Despite the losses, the Germans continued to advance into the interior of the country. They seized Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldavia, many areas of Ukraine, approach Leningrad, went out on the approaches to the city of Odessa, Kiev and other important centres of the country. Unprecedented in the history of the heroism and fortitude was the 900-day Leningrad defense. It was autumn, when the Nazis came to Moscow. They were sure that вотвот will be included in it and the war will be over. But to help the defenders of Moscow troops marched from Siberia, the Urals, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, the Far East. The enemy has had a devastating blow and fled from the capital. Before this he had never suffered such a defeat, never lost so many soldiers, tanks, aircraft, and weapons. In the battle for Moscow Soviet troops commanded the famous commander Str. To. Beetles. In January 1942, the offensive in the battle of Moscow has developed into the General offensive of the red Army. However, until the victory was still far away. In the summer of 1942, the Nazi forces launched a new offensive in the direction of the Caucasus and Stalingrad. In difficult battles in the mountains of the Red Army was able to defend the Caucasus and not to allow the enemy to the reserves of oil. In August 1942, began a giant, more than six-month-old battle of Stalingrad. Were surrounded and captured over 330 thousand Nazis. The battle of Stalingrad changed the course of the entire war. The Soviet army drove the enemy from their native land. Seeking to change the tide of the war in their favor and take revenge for the defeat at Stalingrad, the Germans began a new offensive in the area of the city of Kursk. They wanted to encircle here and kill our troops. But the Soviet command revealed the plans of the enemy and prepared for battle. The Nazis moved in the battle of new heavy tanks, the "tiger" and "Panther". 12 July near the village of Prokhorovka was developed unprecedented tank battle in history. It was attended by 1200 machines. The battle under Kursk ended with the victory of the red Army. After the battle of Kursk the mass expulsion of the invaders. However, the enemy still remained a strong and without a fight did not leave a single position. But fierce resistance could not save it from destruction. The Soviet troops, leading bloody battles, in 1944, was fully liberated from the Nazis Ukraine, Moldova, Baltic States. Partisans and underground fighters helped the red Army to liberate their native land. In the years of the war, more than a million people with a weapon in the hands of the fighting in the enemy's rear. Liberating the Homeland, the Soviet troops came to the aid of the peoples of Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Czechoslovakia and other captured invaders countries of Europe. In early 1945, the Soviet troops from the East entered the territory of Germany. To meet them, moved troops of the allies - the United States, England, France, which encountered little resistance. In the night from 8 to 9 may signed an Act of unconditional surrender of the armed forces of Nazi Germany. on may 9 we note as a holiday of the Victory. But the war was still going on in Czechoslovakia. The Soviet soldiers came to the rescue in Prague. 9 may in Prague entered the Soviet units and thus saved the city from destruction, who prepared the Nazis. With the fall of Germany the war in Europe was over, but she continued in the far East and the Pacific ocean. In the execution of his duty as allies, on August 9, 1945. The red Army against Japan, which fought on the side of Germany, and for 23 days defeated the strongest of the Japanese Квантунскую army. The Soviet armies released the North-East China, North Korea, South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands from the invaders. on September 2, 1945. Japan surrendered. Was liquidated dangerous hotbed of aggression in the far East. The victory of our people went to high cost. The war claimed nearly 27 million Soviet lives of people. But the Soviet Union did not only survive in this cruel war, but also defeated fascism because the war was popular. To defend the homeland climbed all: men and women, and old men, and young people, all the Nations and peoples of the country. Incredible firmness and heroism on battle fields, courageous struggle of the partisans and underground fighters in the front, almost hour tireless work in the rear - this was conquered by this victory. During the Great Patriotic war with all the strength manifested talent coming from the people of the generals: D. To. Zhukov, To. To. Rokossovsky, And. M. Vasilevsky, And. With. Koneva, And. X. Baghramyan, N. F. Vatutina, And. Dr.. Chernyakhovsky, L. A. Govorova, P. I. Malinowski, To. A. Meretskov, With. To. Tymoshenko, And. And. Eremenko, A. And. Antonov and others. Over 11 thousand soldiers of all nationalities were awarded the title of Heroes of the Soviet Union. More than 300 times in the years of the war was repeated immortal feat of Alexander Matrosov, closed the embrasure of the enemy firing points. The heroic defense and resistance of the title "hero-city" are Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev, Volgograd, Minsk, Odessa, Sevastopol, Novorossiysk, Kerch, Tula, Smolensk, Murmansk. The Brest fortress was awarded the title "hero-fortress".