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50.Grammar Companion

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство сельского хозяйства РФ
ФГБОУ ВПО «Самарская государственная
сельскохозяйственная академия»
Кафедра «Иностранные языки»
О.А. Брумина
GRAMMAR COMPANION
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
по грамматике английского языка
для студентов, обучающихся по направлению
100800.62 «Товароведение»
Кинель
РИЦ СГСХА
2011
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УДК 811.11 (07)
ББК 81.2 Англ Р
Б-89
Брумина, О.А.
Б-89 Grammar Companion : методические указания. – Кинель:
РИЦ СГСХА, 2011. – 67 с.
В данные методические указания включены упражнения и тесты по
грамматике, которые являются интегративной частью издания по курсу
«Английский язык специальности».
Издание
предназначено
для студентов, обучающихся по
направлению 100800.62 «Товароведение», профиль подготовки –
«Товароведение и экспертиза в сфере производства и обращения
сельскохозяйственного сырья и продовольственных товаров».
© ФГБОУ ВПО Самарская ГСХА, 2011
© Брумина О.А., 2011
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Contents
I. The Active Tenses (Видовременные формы глагола в
действительном залоге) …………….………………………..……
1. The Simple Tenses (Времена группы Simple)…..………….….
1.1. The Present Simple Tense (Настоящее простое время)...….....
1.2. The Past Simple Tense (Прошедшее простое время)…………
1.3. The Future Simple Tense (Будущее простое время)…...….....
2. Continuous Tenses (Времена группы Continuous)……..……...
2.1. The Present Continuous Tense (Настоящее длительное
время)………………………………………………………………….
2.2. The Past Continuous tense (Прошедшее длительное время)…
2.3. The Future Continuous Tense (Будущее длительное время)…
3. The Perfect Tenses (Времена группы Perfect)………………….
3.1. The Present Perfect Tense (Настоящее совершенное время)...
3.2. The Past Perfect Tense (Прошедшее совершённое время)…...
3.3. The Future Perfect Tense (Будущее совершенное время)……
Progress Self-Assessment Test I (Тест самопроверки I)………..
II. The Passive Voice (Страдательный залог)………………………
Progress Self-Assessment Test II (Тест самопроверки II)……...
III. The Participle (Причастие)……………………………………...
1. Forms and Functions (Формы и функции причастий в
предложении)…………………………………………………………
2. The Absolute Participial Construction (Независимый
причастный оборот)………………………………………………….
Progress Self-Assessment Test III (Тест самопроверки III)……
IV. The Infinitive (Инфинитив)……………………………………...
1. Forms and Functions (Формы и функции инфинитива в
предложении)…………………………………………………………
2. Complex Subject (Сложное подлежащее)…………………..….
3. Complex Object (Сложное дополнение)…………...…………..
Progress Self-Assessment Test IV (Тест самопроверки IV)…....
V. Final Achievement Test (Итоговый тест контроля усвоения
учебного материала всего курса)……………………………………
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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Цель данных методических указаний – сформировать
языковые лексико-грамматические умения студентов для
успешного чтения и перевода деловой и научной литературы на
английском языке, а также способствовать развитию
самостоятельности студентов.
Издание состоит из четырех разделов, в которые включены
грамматические темы, предусмотренные программой освоения
дисциплины «Иностранный язык»: Времена действительного
залога; Времена страдательного залога; Причастие: его формы и
функции в предложении, независимый причастный оборот;
Инфинитив: его формы и функции и предложении, инфинитивные
конструкции – субъектный инфинитивный оборот, объектный
инфинитивный оборот. Содержание упражнений и тестов
построено на лексическом материале методических рекомендаций
по курсу «Английский язык специальности», что обеспечивает
единообразие учебного процесса и способствует совокупному
формированию как языковой, так и речевой компетенций
студентов.
Необходимо отметить, что каждая тема снабжена подробными
грамматическими комментариями, пояснениями и примерами.
Большое количество упражнений позволяет использовать
материал указаний и для работы на занятиях под руководством
преподавателя, и в качестве домашней проработки темы. В конце
каждого раздела помещен промежуточный тест самопроверки.
Сборник заканчивается итоговым тестом контроля усвоения
учебного материала всего курса.
К каждому тесту прилагается балловая таблица для
самооценки выполнения заданий. Наличие балловых критериев
оценки, а также ключей к выполнению упражнений (отдельная
брошюра) делает возможным использование сборника для
самостоятельной аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы студентов.
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I. The Active Tenses
(Видовременные формы глагола в действительном залоге)
1. The Simple Tenses
(Времена группы Simple)
1.1.
The Present Simple Tense
(Настоящее простое время)
A. Use
(Употребление )
The Present Simple употребляется для выражения:
общеизвестного факта, правила, закона;
In a command economy, a central planning office makes decision on
what, how, and for whom to produce.
постоянного действия или состояния;
He deals with all the financial aspects of the business.
регулярного, повторяющегося, рутинного действия;
We usually meet at least once a day.
будущего
действия,
обусловленного
программой,
расписанием.
The conference opens at 10 o’clock tomorrow morning.
А также с глаголами, выражающими чувства, восприятие,
мыслительные операции: understand, believe, suppose, know,
want, like, love, hate, see, hear, etc.
Samuel understands what the customers want.
B. Form
(Образование)
Affirmative
(утвердительн
ая форма)
I work
You work
He works
She works
It works
We work
You work
They work
Negative
(отрицательная
форма)
I don’t work
You don’t work
He doesn’t work
She doesn’t work
It doesn’t work
We don’t work
You don’t work
They don’t work
Interrogative
(вопросительная
форма)
Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he work?
Does she work?
Does it work?
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
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S hort Answers
(краткие ответы)
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
I do; No, I don’t.
you do; No, you don’t.
he does; No, he doesn’t.
she does; No, she doesn’t.
it does; No, it doesn’t.
we do; No, we don’t.
you do; No, you don’t.
they do; No, they don’t.
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C. Adverbs and Phrases of Frequency
(Наречия частотности и фразы,
употребление The Present Simple)
always
usually
generally
often
frequently
sometimes
rarely
hardly ever
never
характеризующие
every day/week/month/summer/year
in the morning/afternoon/evening
at night
once a week
two or three times a year
from time to time
now and again
Наречия частотности употребляются в предложении перед
смысловым глаголом:
I always wear a suit at work.
После глагола to be:
I’m sometimes late for appointments.
После вспомогательного глагола:
I don’t usually leave the office before 6 p.m.
Фразы частотности употребляются либо в начале, либо в конце
предложения:
I check my e-mail once a day.
1.2.
The Past Simple Tense
(Прошедшее простое время)
A. Use
The Past Simple употребляется для выражения:
действия, совершившегося в прошлом; при этом время
совершения действия часто обозначено конкретным годом,
месяцем, датой или соответствующим выражением времени;
In the late 1940s Ford decided it needed a medium price model to
compete with General Motors.
нескольких действий, непосредственно следовавших одно
за другим.
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In 1971 the Robertsons decided to sail around the world. They sold
their farm and house and bought a yacht called “The Lucette”.
B. Form
Affirmative
Negative
Interrogative
S hort Answers
I worked
You worked
He worked
She worked
It worked
We worked
You worked
They
worked
I didn’t work
You didn’t work
He didn’t work
She didn’t work
It didn’t work
We didn’t work
You didn’t work
They didn’t work
Did I work?
Did you work?
Did he work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
I did; No, I didn’t.
you did; No, you didn’t.
he did; No, he didn’t.
she did; No, she didn’t.
it did; No, it didn’t.
we did; No, we didn’t.
you did; No, you didn’t.
they did; No, they didn’t.
I went
You went
He went
She went
It went
We went
You went
They went
I didn’t go
You didn’t go
He didn’t go
She didn’t go
It didn’t go
We didn’t go
You didn’t go
They didn’t go
Did I go?
Did you go?
Did he go?
Did she go?
Did it go?
Did we go?
Did you go?
Did they go?
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
Yes,
I did; No, I didn’t.
you did; No, you didn’t.
he did; No, he didn’t.
she did; No, she didn’t.
it did; No, it didn’t.
we did; No, we didn’t.
you did; No, you didn’t.
they did; No, they didn’t.
C. Time Expressions
(Наречия и выражения времени, характеризующие
употребление The Past Simple):
yesterday;
last night/week/year/Monday;
a month/two years ago;
in 1992;
in the early/middle/late 1970s.
They started their own business 3 years ago.
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1.3.
The Future Simple Tense
(Будущее простое время)
A. Use
The Future Simple употребляется для выражения:
решения, принятого непосредственно в момент речи;
It’s dark in here. I’ll turn on the light.
предложения
(о
помощи,
услуг),
обещания,
предупреждения, надежды;
I’ll help you carry your suitcase.
I promise I’ll be on time.
предположения.
The new shopping centre will open next May.
B. Form
Affirmative
I’ll(will) work*
You’ll work
He’ll work
She’ll work
It’ll work
We’ll work*
You’ll work
They’ll work
Negative
I won’t work
You won’t work
He won’t work
She won’t work
It won’t work
We won’t work
You won’t work
They won’t work
Interrogative
Will I work?
Will you work?
Will he work?
Will she work?
Will it work?
Will we work?
Will you work?
Will they work?
S hort Answers
Yes, I will; No, I won’t.
Yes, you will; No, you won’t.
Yes, he will; No, he won’t.
Yes, she will; No, she won’t.
Yes, it will; No, it won’t.
Yes, we will; No, we won’t.
Yes, you will; No, you won’t.
Yes, they will; No, they won’t.
*В официальной речи для выражения решений в 1л. ед. и мн. ч.
используется вспомогательный глагол shall.
С. Time Expressions
tonight;
tomorrow;
soon;
next week / month;
in two days / a week;
the day after tomorrow.
He’ll pass his driving test next week.
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Usual Facts, Permanent States
Future
Past
Present
The Simple Tenses
Обобщающая таблица времен группы Simple
Use
I know what her job
is.
He usually gets to
work by bus.
The company gave
each worker a vacation
bonus last year.
They received a
bonus last month.
We’ll give you a
discount for cash.
Form
V, V(e)s
Ved, V2
will V
Time Expressions
Always
Usually
Sometimes
Every year
Yesterday
Last week
A year ago
In 1861
Tomorrow
Soon
Next day
In a week
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences using the present simple, past
simple or future simple tense of the verb in italics. Translate the
sentences.
(Закончите
предложения, употребив глаголы,
выделенные курсивом в соответствующей форме present/past или
future simple. Переведите предложения).
1) To find a flat for rent Mike … an advertisement in a local
newspaper. put
2) The new light bulbs … less electricity. consume
3) A postman always … the post (letters, newspapers) in the
morning. deliver
4) In the future, we … … newspapers because we … all the news
from the TV and Internet. not need, get
5) Spain … to develop its trade with the Philippines. want
6) Our costs … dramatically over the last several months. increase
7) The part of industry that … the production of steel, coal, or
large goods such as aircraft is called heavy industry. involve
8) The Personnel Manager … the applicants next week. interview
9) Nowadays we … the same quantity of goods with far fewer
workers. produce
10) When I worked for this company I … … a good salary. not earn
11) The company … … again next year. not recruit
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12) My uncle … and … antiques for a living. buy, sell
13) I … … dealers … these cars at much of a profit. not think, sell
14) According to the instruction you … to store the cake in an
airtight container. need
15) The dollar … in value on the foreign exchange markets last
week. drop
Exercise 2. Write questions using the following question words.
(Задайте вопросы, используя следующие вопросительные слова).
1) Production includes the provision of goods and services.
What____?
2) Extractive workers obtain raw materials and food from land and
sea.
Where____ from?
3) He didn’t have any experience of farming.
Did____?
4) The General Manager will make a short speech to welcome a
group of delegates to the conference.
What____for?
5) The Intouch Insurance company was quick to provide
compensation.
Which company____?
Exercise 3. Complete the sentences using the verbs in the box.
(Закончите предложения, используя глаголы в рамке).
i n ven ted, draw u p, al l ows, made, i l l u strate
1) Banking … payments to be made by cheque as well as using
loans and overdrafts.
2) Chains of production … the increasing value of the product at
each stage of its production.
3) The company will … a list of candidates who are invited to
attend an interview.
4) What … you choose such a career?
5) “DANON” … some new consumer goods last year.
Exercise 4. Reorder the words to make complete sentences.
(Восстановите правильный порядок слов в предложениях).
1) individuals/ and/ firms /countries/ each other/ rely on.
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2) advertised/ the company/ the position/ of/ in/ a/ Financial/
Manager/ newspaper/ local/ month/ last.
3) the candidate/ have/ doesn’t/ a/ good/ knowledge/ the company/
does/ of/ what.
4) will/ you/ on probation/ be/ for/ months/ six.
5) does/ what/ consume/ extractive industry/ manufacturing
industry/ from?
Exercise 5. Transform the present simple sentences into the past and
future simple. Use the appropriate time expressions if necessary.
(Трансформируйте предложения из настоящего простого в
прошедшее и будущее простое время. Используйте выражения
соответствующего времени).
1) Manufacturing industry has, therefore, added value of $2500.
2) This company provides drugs and medical equipment for our
hospital.
3) These goods are not for resale.
4) Does the demand for direct services rise with the improvement
in a country’s standard of living?
5) Figure 2 shows a simplified chain of production for chocolate.
2. The Continuous Tenses
(Времена группы Continuous)
2.1. The Present Continuous Tense
(Настоящее длительное время)
A. Use
The Present Continuous употребляется для выражения:
действий происходящих в момент речи;
“I’ll be back late, I’m sitting in a traffic jam”
временных ситуаций в настоящем;
She's working on two big launches at the moment.
изменяющихся ситуаций, тенденций;
I’m starting to understand English much better now.
запланированных действий в ближайшем будущем.
Bridget is meeting the marketing director on Friday morning.
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B. Form
Affirmative
I am working
Negative
I’m not working
Interrogative
Am I working?
You are working
You aren’t working
Are you working?
He is working
He isn’t working
Is he working?
She is working
She isn’t working
Is she working?
It is working
It isn’t working
Is it working?
We are working
We aren’t working
Are we working?
You are working
You aren’t working
Are you working?
They are working
They aren’t working
Are they working?
S hort Answers
Yes, I am;
No, I’m not.
Yes, you are; No,
you aren’t.
Yes, he is;
No, he isn’t.
Yes, she is;
No, she isn’t.
Yes, it is;
No, it isn’t.
Yes, we are;
No,we aren’t.
Yes, you are;
No, you aren’t.
Yes, they are;
No, they aren’t.
С. Time Expressions
now;
at the moment;
at present.
The directors are signing an important contract now.
2.2. The Past Continuous tense
(Прошедшее длительное время)
A. Use
The Past Continuous употребляется для выражения:
действия в развитии в определённый момент в прошлом;
He was waiting for a flight to Madrid at the airport at 3 p.m. yesterday.
длительного действия в прошлом, которое было прервано
кратковременным действием в Past Simple;
I was writing a report when my mobile phone rang.
нескольких
длительных
действий,
происходящих
одновременно в прошлом;
While Brenda was making phone calls to retailers, Sally was showing
the visitors around the factory.
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описания обстановки, сцены из жизни, места, пейзажа и
т.п.
The rain was falling heavily and the wind was blowing.
A few people were walking hurriedly down the street.
B.
Form
Affirmative
I was working
Negative
I wasn’t working
Interrogative
Was I working?
You were
working
He was working
You weren’t
working
He wasn’t working
Were you working?
She was working
She wasn’t working
Was she working?
It was working
It wasn’t working
Was it working?
We were working
We weren’t
working
You weren’t
working
They weren’t
working
Were we working?
You were
working
They were
working
Was he working?
Were you working?
Were they working?
S hort Answers
Yes, I was;
No, I wasn’t.
Yes, you were;
No,you weren’t.
Yes, he was;
No, he wasn’t.
Yes, she was;
No, she wasn’t.
Yes, it was;
No, it wasn’t.
Yes, we were;
No, we weren’t.
Yes, you were;
No,you weren’t.
Yes, they were;
No,they weren’t.
C. Time Expressions
while, when, as, the moment that, etc.;
this time last Monday;
at 5 o’clock yesterday.
This time last Monday I was flying to Paris on a business trip.
2.3. The Future Continuous Tense
(Будущее длительное время)
A. Use
The Future Continuous употребляется для выражения:
действия, которое будет происходить в определённый
момент в будущем;
This time next week we will be writing the midyear test.
When I get home my cat will be sitting at the door waiting for me.
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будущего действия, которое является частью заведённого
вами порядка.
I’ll be surfing the Internet on Sunday. (I surf the Internet every
Sunday.)
B. Form
Affirmative
I’ll be working
Negative
I won’t be working
Interrogative
Will I be working?
You’ll be
working
He’ll be working
You won’t be
working
He won’t be
working
She won’t be
working
It won’t be working
Will you be
working?
Will he be
working?
Will she be
working?
Will it be
working?
Will we be
working?
Will you be
working?
Will they be
working?
She’ll be
working
It’ll be working
We’ll be working
You’ll be
working
They’ll be
working
We won’t be
working
You won’t be
working
They won’t be
working
S hort Answers
Yes, I will;
No, I won’t.
Yes, you will ;
No,you won’t.
Yes, he will ;
No, he won’t.
Yes, she will;
No, she won’t.
Yes, it will;
No, it won’t.
Yes, we will;
No, we won’t.
Yes, you will;
No,you won’t.
Yes, they will;
No,they won’t.
C. Time Expressions
at 3 o’clock tomorrow;
this time next week.
This time tomorrow we will be having our English course.
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Actions in Progress
Actions in Progress
Future
Past
Present
The Continuous Tenses
Обобщающая таблица времён группы Continuous
Use
Form
She is sending a
fax at the
moment.
She was filing
reports when
her boss came
in.
They will be
taking the
furniture to the
shops this time
next M onday.
am
is
are
Ving
was
Ving
were
will be
Ving
Time
Expressions
now
at the moment
While / when
this time last
week
at 3 o’clock
yesterday
at 6 o’clock
tomorrow
this time next
week
Exercise 6. Complete the sentences using the present continuous, past
continuous or future continuous tense of the verb in italics. Translate
the sentences. (Закончите предложения, употребив глаголы,
выделенные курсивом в соответствующей форме present/past или
future continuous. Переведите предложения).
1 You … a job at the moment? look for
2 Julia … some materials for the training seminars when the phone
… . prepare, ring
3 At present more people … computer-literate as many programs and
machines are so user-friendly. become
4 This time in 2 days they … goods to the warehouse. take
5 “Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. Gordon, please?” – Yes, Who
… , please? call
6 More retail businesses … their night-time opening hours. expand
7 I … letters on Monday. I always do this on Mondays as it’s a part of
my working routine. answer
8 A lot more people … email and the Internet on a daily basis. use
9 On Tuesday Kate … a job interview. have
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10 I … posters advertising cheap flight to the UK while I … at the
airport. read, wait
11 Luke Harrison … at his desk and … through the door into the next
room. His secretary … the room for the directors’ meeting. On
the table, the crystal glasses and golden cigarette box … in the
light from the lamps… yes, the directors would certainly have a
comfortable meeting. sit, look, prepare, shine
Exercise 7. Complete the sentences. Use the present simple or present
continuous form of the verb in brackets. (Закончите предложения.
Употребите глаголы в скобках в present simple или present
continuous).
1 On an assembly line, workers (fit) the different parts, and people in
control (examine) each stage to make sure the product (meet) the
required standard.
2 The factory’s experts on merchandise (check) if the products are
good enough to go to the market at the moment.
3 She (have to) check the goods when they (come off) the assembly
line.
4 Many people (use) their computers for word processing, for example,
writing letters, reports.
5 Could I use your computer, if you are not busy? – Sorry, I (write) a
report right now.
Exercise 8. Complete the sentences. Use the past simple or past
continuous form of the verb in brackets. (Закончите предложения.
Употребите глаголы в скобках в past simple или past continuous).
1 Yesterday I (manage) to ask the Levi Strauss & Co. personnel
manager a few questions about the way he interviews and selects
candidates.
2 While I (interview) the personnel manager of the company, my
partner (observe) the technological line of producing goods in the
factory.
3 In 1993 the company’s sales slowly (go up).
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4 I (fill in) the application form as they (ask) me to come in.
5 Тhe company (employ) a new person to deal with financial aspects of
the business a few days ago.
Exercise 9. Сhoose the correct form. (Выберите правильную форму
глагола – сказуемого).
1 David isn’t here at the moment. He writes/ write / is writing a test in
the next room.
2 A candidate usually encloses/ enclose/ is inclosing his (or her)
curriculum vitae with the letter or application.
3 Last month he has /was having/ had a 25% rise in salary after
having been a year on probation.
4 You will be reporting/ will report / are reporting to a senior
assistant once every two weeks.
5 I think, I got/ will get/ am getting a bachelor’s degree in
merchandise studies in a few years.
6 They often make /makes/ are making phone calls to retailers and
wholesalers.
7 Our firm provided/ provides/ was providing banking services for
pilot projects.
Exercise 10: Write questions using the flowing question words.
(Задайте вопросы, используя следующие вопросительные слова).
1 Producers satisfy human wants in goods and services.
What ___________in?
2 A secretary is typing an important document at the moment?
What ____________?
3 You will have to pay extra for a prompt delivery.
What ____________ for?
4 He made a payment on his rent last week.
When____________?
5 This time yesterday he was making a monthly payment of $55 at the
bank.
Who_____________?
6 They couldn’t get a loan from the City Bank.
Why_____________?
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3. The Perfect Tenses
(Времена группы Perfect)
3.1. The Present Perfect Tense
(Настоящее совершенное время)
A. Use
The Present Perfect употребляется для выражения
прошлых действий своими результатами связанных с
настоящим;
I can’t finish the work. My computer has crashed.
действий, начавшихся в прошлом и продолжающихся в
настоящем; обычно с предлогами – since (показывает с
какого момента действие началось), for (показывает весь
период выполнения действия до настоящего момента)
She has already finished typing all the letters.
I haven’t seen him today.
B. Form
Affirmative
I have worked
Negative
I haven’t worked
Interrogative
Have I worked?
You have worked
You haven’t worked
Have you worked?
He has worked
He hasn’t worked
Has he worked?
She has worked
She hasn’t worked
Has she worked?
It has worked
It hasn’t worked
Has it worked?
We have worked
We haven’t worked
Have we worked?
You have worked
You haven’t worked
Have you worked?
They have worked
They haven’t worked
Have they worked?
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S hort Answers
Yes,I have;
No,I haven’t
Yes,you have;
No,you haven’t
Yes,he has;
No,he hasn’t
Yes,she has;
No,she hasn’t
Yes,it has;
No,it hasn’t
Yes,we have;
No,we haven’t
Yes,you have;
No,you haven’t
Yes,they have;
No,they haven’t
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C. Time Expressions
since, for;
just, ever, never, already, yet, so far, recently, lately;
today, this week, this month.
They have recently changed the address of their website.
3.2. The Past Perfect Tense
(Прошедшее совершённое время)
A. Use
The Past Perfect употребляется для выражения
действие, которое было закончено до определённого
момента в прошлом;
She had finished the report by 2 o’clock yesterday.
действие, которое произошло ранее другого действия,
выраженного глаголом в Past Simple.
Before he joined this firm he had worked for two competitors abroad.
B. Form
Affirmative
I had worked
Negative
I hadn’t worked
Interrogative
Had I worked?
You had worked
You hadn’t worked
Had you worked?
He had worked
He hadn’t worked
Had he worked?
She had worked
She hadn’t worked
Had she worked?
It had worked
It hadn’t worked
Had it worked?
We had worked
We hadn’t worked
Had we worked?
You had worked
You hadn’t worked
Had you worked?
They had worked
They hadn’t worked
Had they worked?
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S hort Answers
Yes, I had;
No, I hadn’t
Yes, you had;
No, you hadn’t
Yes, he had;
No, he hadn’t
Yes, she had;
No, she hadn’t
Yes, it had;
No, it hadn’t
Yes, we had;
No, we hadn’t
Yes, you had;
No, you hadn’t
Yes, they had;
No, they hadn’t
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C. Time Expressions
by 6 o’clock yesterday, by that time, by the end of the week, by
the 2nd of November etc.;
before smb. did smth..
She had lived in several different countries before she moved to Russia.
3.3. The Future Perfect Tense
(Будущее совершенное время)
A. Use
The Future Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое
будет завершено до определённого момента в будущем.
They will have emigrated to Canada by Christmas.
B. Form
Affirmative
I’ll have worked
You’ll have worked
He‘ll have worked
She’ll have worked
It’ll have worked
We’ll have worked
You’ll have worked
They’ll have
worked
Negative
I won’t have
worked
You won’t have
worked
He won’t have
worked
She won’t have
worked
It won’t have
worked
We won’t have
worked
You won’t have
worked
They won’t have
worked
Interrogative
Will I have worked?
Will you have
worked?
Will he have
worked?
Will she have
worked?
Will it have
worked?
Will we have
worked?
Will you have
worked?
Will they have
worked?
C. Time Expressions
by the end of December;
until/till (в отрицательных предложениях).
He won’t have arrived until tonight.
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S hort Answers
Yes,I will;
No,I won’t
Yes,you will;
No,you won’t
Yes,he will;
No,he won’t
Yes,she will;
No,she won’t
Yes,it will;
No,it won’t
Yes,we will;
No,we won’t
Yes,you will;
No,you won’t
Yes,they will;
No,they won’t
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The Perfect Tenses
Обобщающая таблица времён группы Perfect
Present
Results
Results
Futu
re
Results
Past
Use
Form
They’ve built factories all
over the word
He has opened 4 factories
since 2003
They could set up the
company after they had
obtained a loan from a
bank.
I’ll have finished the work by
2 o’clock
have
V3
has
had
Time Expressions
since, for
just,
already, ever,
never
this week
by the time
before smb. did smth
V3
will have
V3
by 2 o`clock
by the end of the month
until/till
Exercise 11. Complete the sentences using the present perfect, past
perfect or future perfect tense of the verb in italics. Translate the
sentences.
(Закончите
предложения, употребив глаголы,
выделенные курсивом в соответствующей форме present/past или
future perfect. Переведите предложения).
1 She_____ her hand at trading business. Now she’s doing very well.
try
2 By the end of May last year they_____ enough for the deposit on a
new house. save
3 The business ___ very quickly. develop
4 They _______ special contracts with 12 airlines. recently/ sign
5 Where’s my mobile phone? Oh, no, I___ it in the taxi. leave
6 I just___ all the instructions but I don’t understand them. read
7 We___ together for 20 years by the end of the winter. work
8 I___ this watch since my 18th birthday. have
9 When he reached the check-in, he realized that he ___the passport.
forget
10 This year our plant ___its production to meet the growing
demand. increase
11 What___ such a great demand for organic food? cause
12 The delay___ the effect of their campaign. not diminish
13 Advertising___ a big part in the restaurant’s success. play
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14 We___ the terms until tomorrow afternoon. not study
15 This candidate____ good communication skills. just/ demonstrate
Exercise 12. Underline the correct prepositions. Translate the
sentences. (Подчеркните правильные предлоги. Переведите
предложения).
1 Goods and services are used by members on/of the public.
2 I’ve been at/on probation for/during 6 months.
3 Individuals, firms and countries rely on/to each other.
4 Manufacturing industry is concerned with/about converting raw
materials into semi-finished products for constructive industry.
5 The commodity has been delivered from/by sea.
6 Trade and aids to trade make up/into commerce.
7 They put their advertisement in/at the appointing page in/of a local
newspaper some weeks ago.
8 He’s going to apply on/for the position of top manager.
9 She’ll be invited to/at an interview.
10 She’s writing a letter of/by application at the moment.
Exercise 13. Fill in the correct tense forms of the verb. Translate the
sentences. (Вставьте правильные временные формы глагола.
Переведите предложения).
A. Present Tenses
1. has controlled
2. is taking control of
3. controls
a) This company_____ all insurance business in the country.
b) This company___ all insurance business in the country for
10 years.
c) This company___ all insurance business in the country at present.
B. Past Tenses
1. were attracting
2. attracted
3. had attracted
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a) This time 2 years ago these Japanese goods ____retail purchasers
most of all.
b) These Japanese goods___ retail purchasers mostly 2 years ago.
c) I couldn’t explain why these Japanese goods ___retail purchasers
so much before.
C. Future Tenses
1.will have bought
2.will buy
3.will be buying
a) Yes, I need it and I ___ it.
b) I think, I ___it by 1 p.m. tomorrow.
c) When I see her in the shop next time, she___ it again.
Exercise 14. Choose the correct form. Translate the sentences.
(Выберите правильную форму. Переведите предложения).
Present Simple - Present Perfect - Past Simple
1)____ you ____ the car?
a. did __insure
b. do__ insure c. have__ insured
2) He ____his job 3 months ago.
a. has lost b. lost c. have lost
3) The Directors___ discussing Davis’ report on market research.
a. just finish
b. have just finished
c. just finished
4) The hotel ___ a high standard of service at reasonable prices.
a. offered
b. offers
c. has offered
5) There___ fierce competition between the three leading baby food
manufacturers in recent years.
a. is
b. was c. has been
6) Doctors___ the importance of good fresh food.
a. stress
b. stressed
c. have stressed
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Exercise 15. Choose the correct form. Translate the sentences.
(Выберите правильную форму. Переведите предложения).
Present Perfect - Past Simple - Past Perfect
1) It happened that before the painting was stolen they _____ if for
over half a million pounds.
a. insured
b. have insured
c. had insured
2) Food and clothing ___ in price dramatically this year.
a. have risen
b. rose
c. had risen
3)_____you ever ____ any experience in the electronics industry?
a. did __have
b. had ___had
c. have___ had
4) Samsung consultants ___ the survey on the use of mobile phones
in cities by the end of last month.
a. completed
b. had completed
c. have completed
5) I ___ the customer accounts and ___ the books for my last job.
a. had supervised, kept
b. supervised, had kept
c. supervised,
kept
6) After he ___ on probation for 3 months, his salary was risen to
800 euros.
a. was
b. had been c. have been
Exercise 16. Choose the correct form. Translate the sentences.
(Выберите правильную форму. Переведите предложения).
Future Simple – Future Continuous – Future Perfect
1) We are ready to give you a guarantee that we ___ the work in time.
a. will be finishing
b. will finish
c. will have finished
2) Our firm ___ a fax machine from this company from Monday to
Thursday next week.
a. will be renting
b. will rent c. will have rented
3) Don’t worry, I ____ all the vegetables in the nearest market.
a. will be buying b. will buy c. will have bought
4) We ___ ceramic and other decorative merchandise to Ukraine .
a. will be exporting b. will export c. will have exported
5) They ___ the orders until next week.
a. won` t be receiving b. won` t receive c. won` t have received
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Значение будущего времени может быть передано не только будущими
временами (The Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect), но и
настоящими простым (The Present Simple), настоящими длительным
(The Present Continuous) временами. А также структурой be going to +
Infinitive. Каждая из вышеперечисленных видо-временных структур
имеет свои особенности употребления в целях передачи значения
будущего времени.
a) The Present Simple в значении будущего употребляется для
выражения действий обусловленных расписанием, программой,
предписанием.
b) The Present Continuous в значении будущего употребляется для
выражения
запланированных,
оговоренных,
требующих
предварительной подготовки действий в ближайшем будущем.
c) Структура be going to + Infinitive передаёт намерение.
Exercise 17. Match the sentences to the explanations above.
(Соотнесите употребление видо-временных форм глагола в
данных предложениях с объяснениями, представленными выше).
1. I’m not going to sit here waiting for the phone to ring.
2. The meeting begins at 7 o’clock this evening.
3. From 14-20 June, Liverpool is holding its International Garden
Festival.
Exercise 18. What is Brett going to do next week? Write sentences, as
in the example. (Что собирается сделать Бретт на следующей
неделе? Составьте предложения по образцу).
get/ haircut – He‘s going to get a haircut
1) buy/ new suit ________
2) have/ job interview _________
3) fill in/ application form ____________
4) write to/ bank manager____________
5) go out/ some friends___________
6) play football/ Saturday________
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Exercise 19. Choose the most natural form and translate the story.
(Выберите наиболее подходящую форму глагола и переведите
рассказ).
1. When Sergey finished university he applied for// had applied
for// was applying for a job in the merchandise consultancy
department of a local milk factory. He doesn’t earn//didn’t earn//
hasn’t earned very much but they gave him a lot training . While
he was working as a trainee, he did// had done// was doing
several training courses simultaneously.
2. After Sergey’s first year he got// has got// gets a good pay rise,
and recently he is// was// has been promoted. At present he is// is
being//has been responsible for the department with 5 other
employees under his authority.
3. At the moment the milk factory deals with// is dealing with// deal
with an international company, and the situation involves// is
involving// has involved a lot of foreign travel. Next week Sergey
is going// goes// will go on a business trip abroad. He will sign//
will have signed// is going to sign some important contracts.
Exercise 20. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate future forms.
(Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующую форму
будущего времени.)
Kenwhite’s one-day sale 1)_____(start) this Monday. The store
2)____(open) at 8am and early morning shoppers 3)______ (be able
to) enjoy shopping in peace and quiet before the crowds 4)_____
(arrive). We 5)___ (offer) substantial discounts on ladies wear and you
6)_____ (come across) some real bargains in our menswear range. By
the end of the day we are sure that all of our customers 7)____ (find)
what they are looking for.
Exercise 21. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate present
forms. (Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующую форму
настоящего времени).
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1. Louisa usually a)____(go) to work by tube, but today she
b)_____(go) there in a chauffeur-driven limousine. The reason
for this c)___(be) that she d)____(just/ win) the young
business person award, and as part of the prize people
e)____(treat) her like royalty.
2. A.: Excuse me, I’ve been trying1 to pay for this shirt for ten
minutes. Nobody
f)____(seem) to want to serve me. I
g)____(try) complaining but nobody h)____(listen). It’s the
worst service I
i)_______(ever/ experience). Something
ought to be done!
B. I agree, sir, but I j)____(not/work) here.
Exercise 22. Fill in with the Past Simple or Past Perfect. (Заполните
пропуски глаголами в past simple или past perfect).
Alan 1)____(work) in this office for ten years before he 2)___(apply)
for another post with “Mask Ltd.” He had been waiting for an answer
for weeks when they 3)___(ask) him to attend an interview with the
Personnel Manager. He 4)____(go) there dressed in an expensive suit
which he 5)___(buy) the day before, only to find that they
6)____(want) someone to work as a cleaner.
Exercise 23. Put the verbs in braсkets into the appropriate past forms.
(Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующую форму
прошедшего времени).
When she 1)____(be) only fifteen Helen 2)____(leave) school without
any qualifications. Nevertheless, she 3)____(be) very ambitious and
4)____(want) to work in the fashion industry. Luckily she 5)____(find)
a job immediately as an assistant in a small fashion company. While
she 6)____(work) there she 7)_____(decide) to go to evening classes to
1
Времена группы Perfect Continuous (совершенно- длительные) не
рассматриваются в данном пособии, особенность их употребления заключается в
акцентировании длительности выражаемых действий по сравнению с группой
совершенных времён (The Perfect Tenses). Характерным является употребление
предлогов since, for для выражения совершенно-длительных действий.
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get a qualification in business studies. Once she 8)______(successfully/
complete) the course she 9)______(be promoted) to the position of
assistant manager. After she 10)____(do) that job for some years she
11)_____(want) a change. She had been thinking of moving to London
for some time, so she 12)____(apply) for a job which she 13)____(see)
advertised in a fashion magazine. Helen 14)___(get) a job as the
manager of a small but prestigious fashion company in central London.
That time she 15)____(do) the work she really 16)____(enjoy). So
Helen 17)_____(become) a successful business woman as she
18)____(always/ want).
Exercise 24. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate present or
future forms. (Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующую
форму настоящего или будущего времени).
Jeanne and Paul 1)___(move) to London next month. Paul is being
transferred there and Jeanne 2)___(hope) she 3)____(find) a job by the
time they 4)____(move) there. They 5)____(drive) down next weekend
to look for a flat. They hope they 6)____(find) something in a nice area.
Jeanne is afraid she 7)____(miss) living in Nottingham, but Paul thinks
that they 8)____(be) happier in London because there is so much more
to do there.
Exercise 25. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct tense. (Поставьте
глаголы в скобках в соответствующее время).
A. Sarah 1)____(leave) school two years ago and for the last year
she has been looking for a decent job. She 2)____(hope) to find
work as a secretary but as she 3)____(never/ do) a secretarial
course before, I think she 4)____(have) some difficulty in
finding such a job.
B. As Susan has been working in the same company for over ten
years she 1)____(feel) that she 2)_____(need) a change, so she
3)____(plan) to open her own design business. She 4)___(start)
looking for an office next week, and she 5)____(hope) she
6)____(find) something in a good location and at a reasonable
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price by the end of the month. Her friends 7)____(tell) her that
she 8)____(be) very talented and they9)_____(assure) her that
she 10)_____(make) a success of the business.
Progress Self-Assessment Test I
(Тест самопроверки I)
Choose the correct form.
Выберите правильную форму глагола - сказуемого.
Producers of goods and services ….to satisfy human wants.
a. have tried
b. try
c. are trying
2.
They ….2 factories since 2006.
a. opened
b. had opened
c. have opened
3.
He …..before he joined this firm.
a. had never worked b. has never worked c. never worked
4. More retail business …. their night-time opening hours at present.
a. expand b. have expanded
c. are expanding
5. Each worker ….a bonus next month.
a. is receiving
b. will receive
c. is going to receive
6. She ….the company by the end of this month.
a. will join b. is joining c. will have joined
7. The firm ….its e-mail address in recent time.
a. is going to change b. has changed c. changed
8. In 1993 the company’s sales slowly …..
.
a. went up
b. were going up
c. had gone up
9. The conference ….at 10 o’clock tomorrow morning.
a. opens b. will open c. will be opening
10. I…. a report when my mobile phone rang.
a. wrote b. had written c. was writing
11. This time in 2 days they….. goods to the warehouse.
a. will be taking b. will take c. will have taken
1.
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12. This company….drugs and medical equipment for our hospital in
the early 1960s.
a. provided
b. was providing
c. had provided
13. Italy …to develop its trade with the Philippines.
a. want b. is wanting c. wants
14. He ….for the position of top manager.
a. applies b. is going to apply
c. will be applying
15. He …in the application form.
a. have just filled b. is just filling
c. has just filled
16. I …in the application form when they asked me to come in.
a. was filling b. am filling c. have filled
17. Peter … a job interview on Friday.
a. will have b. is having c. will be having
18. These colleagues … together for 25 years by the end of the year.
a. will work
b. will be working
c. will have worked
19. They …their own business 3 years ago.
a. started b. have started c. were starting
20. They could open their own business after they …a loan from a
bank.
a. obtained b. obtain
c. had obtained
Check your answers against the keys and count your score.
Проверьте ваши ответы по ключам и подсчитайте набранное
вами количество баллов.
Total score – 20 points. Общее количество баллов – 20.
Points
Below 11
11-14
15-17
18-20
Mark
2
3
4
5
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II. The Passive Voice
(Страдательный залог)
Категория залога показывает отношение между главными
членами предложения – подлежащим и сказуемым.
Действительный залог (Active Voice) показывает, что
предмет или лицо, являющееся подлежащим, производит
действие.
The directors signed the contact last winter.
Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) показывает, что
предмет или лицо, являющееся подлежащим, подвергается
воздействию со стороны кого-либо или чего-либо, то есть,
действие производится над подлежащим.
The contract was signed last winter.
Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) употребляется:
когда лицо, совершающее действие (agent) неизвестно или это
понятно из контекста;
когда описываемое действие представляет больший интерес,
чем лицо или предмет его совершающий;
в официальном, научном стилях изложения.
Действующее лицо или предмет (agent) в предложениях в
Passive Voice часто не указывается, но если необходимо его
назвать, то используется предложное дополнение с предлогами by
или with.
The contract was signed by the directors last winter.
Damaged goods were marked with red colour.
Употребление времен страдательного залога аналогично
употреблению времен действительного залога.
Passive Voice образуется с помощью вспомогательного
глагола to be, который указывает на время, лицо и число
сказуемого, а также неизменяемой части, выраженной причастием
прошедшего времени смыслового глагола (Participle II), то есть его
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III основной формой, которая указывает на лексическое значение
сказуемого.
be + Participle II
Time Infinitive
S imple
(to be V3)
Continuous
Perfect
(to have been V3)
Present
am
is
V3
are
am
is being V3
are
have
has been V3
Past
was
were V3
was
were being V3
had been V3
Future
will be V3
____
will have been V3
Сравните формы глагола-сказуемого в Active Voice и Passive
Voice:
Present S imple
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Past S imple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Future S imple
Future Perfect
Active Voice
They mark the damaged
goods.
They are marking the
damaged goods.
They have marked the
damaged goods.
They marked the damaged
goods.
They were marking the
damaged goods.
They had marked the
damaged goods.
They will mark the
damaged goods.
They will have marked the
damaged goods.
Passive Voice
The damaged goods are
marked.
The damaged goods are
being marked.
The damaged goods have
been marked.
The damaged goods were
marked.
The damaged goods were
being marked.
The damaged goods had
been marked.
The damaged goods will
be marked.
. The damaged goods will
have been marked.
Перевод видовременных форм страдательного залога на русский
язык может быть произведен:
глаголом-сказуемым с возвратным суффиксом -ся (сь);
сказуемым с глаголом-связкой быть;
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неопределенно-личной конструкцией (т.е. односоставным
предложением без подлежащего, где сказуемое стоит в
настоящем времени 3-го лица множественного числа).
Exercise 26. A. Define the forms of the verbs and choose the correct
translation. (Определите видовременную форму глаголасказуемого. Выберите правильный перевод).
1. She is rate d very highly by her colleagues.
a) Коллеги очень высоко ее ценят.
b) Она очень высоко ценит своих коллег.
c) Коллеги дали ей очень высокую оценку.
2. She is being sent a fax at the moment.
a) Она сейчас отсылает факс.
b) Ей сейчас отсылают факс.
c) Ей сейчас отошлют факс.
3. He will be asked a lot of questions.
a) Ему задали много вопросов.
b) Он задаст много вопросов.
c) Ему зададут много вопросов.
4. She has found out much information.
a) О ней много узнали.
b) Она многое узнала.
c) Она многое узнает.
5. The firm was charged a reasonable price.
a) Фирма назначила умеренную цену.
b) Фирма назначает умеренную цену.
c) Фирме назначили умеренную цену.
6. They supply meat to the local market.
a) Они поставляют мясо на местный рынок.
b) Им поставляют мясо с местного рынка.
c) Им доставили мясо с местного рынка.
B. Put the verb to be in the appropriate form. (Поставьте глагол to
be в нужную форму).
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1. Quite a lot of paperwork (to be) … done in a company every day.
2. The fax (to be) … already sent.
3. A candidate (to be) … interviewed when a secretary came into the
room.
4. The contract (to be) … printed before he arrived.
5. Products (to be) … examined at each stage of production.
6. Finished products (to be) … packaged at the moment.
7. They (to be) … delivered to the city shops in a few days.
Exercise 27. Change the sentences into the Passive Voice and translate
them. (Измените предложения, употребляя страдательный залог.
Переведите предложения).
Example: The government finances these enterprises.These enterprises are financed by the government.
1. Commodities of different kinds satisfy our wants.
2. We should not confuse utility with usefulness.
3. Utility determines the relationship between a consumer and a
commodity.
4. They don’t fix prices in advance.
5. The engineers considered all the options available.
6. Economists call this tendency the law of Diminishing Marginal
Utility.
7. A foreign company has put some ads in the local newspaper.
8. Applicants are filling in the forms at the moment.
9. Our clients will never accept this proposal.
10. They use loss-leader pricing to attract the customers.
Особенности употребления Passive Voice в английском языке.
Рассмотрим предложение:
The secretary passed him the fax.
Это предложение в действительном залоге, в нем два дополнения –
him, the fax.
him – косвенное дополнение, так как отвечает на вопрос кому?
(дательный падеж);
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the fax – прямое дополнение, так как отвечает на вопрос что?
(винительный падеж).
Одной активной конструкции в английском языке могут
соответствовать две пассивные конструкции, то есть прямое и
косвенное дополнения действительного залога могут стать
подлежащими страдательного залога с такими глаголами как:
to give – давать;
to send – посылать;
to tell – рассказывать;
to pay – платить;
to promise – обещать;
to offer – предлагать;
to leave – уезжать, покидать;
to show – показать и т.п.
Exercise 28. Make two sentences in the Passive Voice from a sentence
in the Active Voice. (Образуйте два предложения в страдательном
залоге из одного в действительном залоге).
Example: The secretary passed him the fax.. –
The fax was passed to him by the secretary.
He was passed the fax by the secretary.
1. During World War II they issued ration stamps for essential foods to
people.
2. Retailers pay much money to the warehouse.
3. The shop offers a new line of products to the customers.
4. The director promised Natalie a higher position.
Exercise 29. Ask questions starting with the words in brackets.
Translate the sentences. (Задайте вопросы, начиная с
вопросительных слов в скобках. Переведите предложения).
1. Different methods are used for distributing goods. (What … for?)
2. The contract had been signed by the end of the last month. (By what
time … ?)
3. Price controls are often used in times of severe shortages. (When .. ?)
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4. The price will be risen when the customers get accustomed to a new
brand. (What … ?)
5. Students were asked at the economics to make a shopping list of 10
basic food items to start a market research. (Why … ?)
6. They have been given your name and address by the British
Consulate in St. Petersburg. (By whom … ?)
В английском языке существует ряд глаголов, требующих
после себя предлог, то есть употребляющихся с предложным
дополнением. В страдательной конструкции с предложным
дополнением предлог сохраняет свое место после глагола.
They often refer to this text-book – Они часто ссылаются на этот
учебник.
This text-book is often referred to – На этот учебник часто
ссылаются.
Некоторые глаголы с предлогами:
to depend on – зависеть от;
to interfere in – вмешиваться в ;
to refer to – ссылаться на;
to rely on – полагаться на;
to spend on –потратить на;
to deal with – иметь дело с;
to involve in – вовлекать в;
to supply with – обеспечивать, снабжать чем-либо;
to provide with – обеспечивать чем-либо;
to apply for – обращаться за;
to relate to – относиться к;
to result in – приводить к;
to object to – возражать чему-либо, кому-либо;
to trade in – торговать чем-либо;
to look at – смотреть на;
to talk about – говорить о.
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Exercise 30. Put the necessary prepositions and translate the sentences.
(Поставьте необходимые предлоги и переведите предложения).
1. This brand can be relied … .
2. Adam Smith is often referred … as being called the Father of
Modern Economics.
3. Our last deal was spent much effort … .
4. Natural resources such as oil, gas, timber, etc. are traded … .
5. I don’t want my business to be interfered … .
6. All the quality experts were involved … the activity.
7. The problem of food safety is being dealt … at the conference.
Exercise 31. Translate into Russian. Underline Active and Passive
Constructions. (Переведите на русский язык. Подчеркните видовременные
конструкции действительного (активного)
и
страдательного (пассивного) залогов).
1. The company provides drugs and medical equipment for the
local hospital.
2. Compensation for the stolen goods was provided by the
insurance company.
3. More retail businesses are expanding their night-time opening
hours.
4. Raw materials will be used to make producer or consumer
goods.
5. Those working in banks and shops have already been classified
as commercial workers and do not therefore belong to direct
services.
6. Production can be divided into industry, commerce and direct
services.
7. In foreign trade goods are sold to and bought from other
countries.
8. The chain of production in figure 2 has shown different stages
of chocolate production.
9. Cocoa is sold to manufacturing industry, where it is converted
into chocolate.
10. Advertising makes goods known to the public.
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Progress Self-Assessment Test II
(Тест самопроверки II)
Choose the correct form.
Выберите правильную форму глагола-сказуемого.
1. Production … three branches or lines.
a) include b) includes c) is included
2. Goods and services … by members of the public.
a) use b) is used c) are used
3. As incomes … consumers are able and willing to buy more and more
goods.
a) are rising b) rise c) are risen
4. Human wants … the need for work and production.
a) create b) were created c) are created
5. Raw materials … into semi-finished or finished products by
manufacturing industry.
a) change b) is changed c) are changed
6. In some time sand … to make glass windscreens for cars.
a) is used b) will be used c) is being used
7. Workers who … cars are also part of the constructive industry.
a) are assembled b) are assembling c) assemble
8. The cars … on an assembly line at the moment.
a) are assembling b) are being assembled c) are assembled
9. In foreign trade, goods … from other countries.
a) sold and bought b) are sold and bought c) have sold and
bought
10. Goods … by next Wednesday.
a) will deliver b) will be delivered c) will have been delivered
11. We … a loan to start our business.
a) used b) were used c) are used
12. Four candidates … already by the personnel manager.
a) were interviewed b) have been interviewed c) had been
interviewed
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13. Such activities as warehousing, insurance, banking and some others
… trade easier to take place.
a) are making b) are made c) make
14. Utility … between different people and different nations.
a) varies b) vary c) is varied
15. In some economic systems prices … in advance.
a) were not fixed b) are not fixed c) will not be fixed
16. The consumer’s desire for a commodity … to diminish as he buys
more units of it.
a) is tended b) tend c) tends
17. Market prices may … by a society through means of price controls.
a) interfere b) be interfered c) not be interfered
18. A candidate’s ability to react as well as his appearance are very
important when he … .
a) is interviewing b) is being interviewed c) has been interviewed
19. The candidate … one or two interviews with junior members of the
staff before he got to Personnel Manager level.
a) has b) has had c) had had
20. I … any job opportunities at the moment.
a) look for b) am looking for c) am being looked for
Check your answers against the keys and count your score.
Проверьте ваши ответы по ключам и подсчитайте набранное
вами количество баллов.
Total score – 20 points.
Общее количество баллов – 20.
Points
Below 11
Mark
2
11-14
15-17
3
4
18-20
5
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III. The Participle
(Причастие)
1. Forms and Functions
(Формы и функции причастий в предложении)
Indefinite Participle
(Participle I)
Past Participle
(Participle II)
Perfect Participle
Active
advertising
Passive
being advertised
advertised
having advertised
having been advertised
Формы Indefinite Participle (Active, Passive) показывают, что
действие, выраженное причастием, происходит одновременно с
действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым предложения.
Формы Perfect Participle (Active, Passive) выражают действие
предшествующее действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым
предложения.
Participle I имеет следующие синтаксические функции.
1. Определение .
People working in banks and shops also provide a service to public.
2. Обстоятельство.
Advertising goods and brands companies make them known to
public.
Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to read.
3. Часть сказуемого группы Continuous.
The directors are having a meeting at the moment.
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Соответствия Participle I при переводе на русский язык
Функции
Английский
Русский
1. Определение
advertising
Действительное причастие
настоящего времени с суффиксами –
ащ, -ящ, -ущ, -ющ,
рекламирующий
Действительное причастие
прошедшего времени с суффиксами –
вш, -ш,
рекламировавший (тогда)
Страдательное причастие настоящего
времени с суффиксами –ом, -ем, -им,
рекламируемый
Определительное придаточное
предложение:
который рекламируется (в момент
речи)
Деепричастие от глагола
несовершенного вида, отвечающее на
вопрос что делая?
рекламируя
Придаточное причины, следствия:
Так как (поскольку) был
прорекламирован, будучи
прорекламированным, так как был
прорекламирован.
being advertised
2. Обстоятельство
(when/while)
advertising
being advertised
Соответствия Perfect Participle при переводе на русский язык
Функции
Обстоятельство
Английский
Русский
having advertised
Деепричастие
от
глагола
совершенного вида, отвечающее на
вопрос что сделав?
разрекламировав
прорекламировав
Придаточное причины, следствия:
Так как (поскольку) был
прорекламирован, будучи
прорекламированным, так как был
прорекламирован.
having been
advertised
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Participle II имеет следующие синтаксические функции.
1. Определение .
Goods bought by firms to make consumer goods are producer goods.
2. Обстоятельство.
If needed to employ new people a company may advertise the job or
position.
3. Часть сказуемого:
а) группы Perfect;
They have already delivered the goods.
б) Passive Voice .
The raw materials are converted into semi-finished or finished
products.
Соответствия Participle II при переводе на русский язык
Функции
1. Определение
Английский
advertised
2. Обстоятельство
(when, while, if)
advertised
Русский
Страдательное причастие настоящего
времени с суффиксами –ом, -ем, -им,
рекламируемый
Страдательное причастие прошедшего
времени с суффиксами –анн, -енн,
разрекламированный
Придаточное времени, условия
(когда, если) рекламировали
Exercise 32. A. Form the participles from the verbs below.
(Образуйте причастия от данных ниже глаголов).
to apply, to buy, to construct, to deliver, to employ, to manufacture, to
accept, to discuss, to supply, to import
B. Translate the following word combinations containing participles.
Do not mix Participle I and Participle II. (Переведите следующие
словосочетания, содержащие причастия. Обратите внимание на
отличие в переводе причастия I и причастия II).
1. an applying person – an applied technology
2. a buying customer – a bought food
3. a constructing group – a constructed bridge
4. an employing company – employed staff
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5. delivering transport – delivered goods
6. manufacturing workers – manufactured products
7. an accepting university – an accepted student
8. discussing scientists – discussed problems
9. a supplying generator – supplied power
10. an importing country – imported equipment
Exercise 33. Open the brackets choosing the correct participle.
(Раскройте скобки, выбрав правильное причастие).
1. A person (involving/involved) at any stage in provision of goods
or services is a producer.
2. Consumers (willing/willed) to buy more and more goods create the
need for work and production.
3. Raw materials (obtaining/obtained) from extractive industry are
then changed into semi-finished or finished products.
4. The activities (making up/made up) commerce are trade and aids to
trade.
5. To apply for the job you should send a letter of application and
curriculum vitae (containing/contained) details of your education and
experience.
6. The concept (indicating/indicated) a special relationship between
goods and services on the one hand and a consumer and his money on
the other hand is known as utility.
Exercise 34. Translate the sentences with different participle forms as
an adverbial modifier. (Переведите предложения с разными
формами причастия в функции обстоятельства).
1. Buying goods from manufacturers wholesalers then sell them to
retailers who, in turn, sell goods to the general public.
2. Having made contacts by telephone the directors took a decision
concerning the Christmas sales.
3. When converted into chocolate cocoa is sold for $5000.
4. Being well prepared for the interview he could answer all the
questions.
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5. Having been written long ago, the instruction was no longer
suitable for modern processes.
Exercise 35. Find the participles, determine their functions and
translate the sentences. (Найдите причастия, определите их функции
и переведите предложения).
1. A part of consumer spending is spent on such things as cars,
televisions, video-cameras, dishwashers and so on called luxuries.
2. Allowing loans and overdrafts banking enables the public to buy
more goods and services.
3. The activities just described are only a few examples of aids to
trade.
4. In foreign trade goods are sold to and bought from other countries.
5. Figure 2 shows a simplified chain of production for chocolate.
6. Chains of production illustrate increasing value at each stage of
production.
7. The value added at each stage of production form the basis of
value-added tax.
8. Relying on manufacturing industry in drugs and medical equipment
doctors, in their turn, are needed to provide a healthy work force for the
industry.
9. If bought for one’s own personal use, an item is called a consumer
good.
10. Having signed the letter the manager asked a secretary to send it
off at once.
Exercise 36. Find the participles, determine their functions and
translate the sentences. (Найдите причастия, определите их функции
и переведите предложения).
1. A candidate being interviewed should look his (her) best.
2. Showing the understanding of what the company does and what
one is expected to do, a candidate scores.
3. Becoming a yes-man or a yes-woman and agreeing with everything
one is told during the interview a candidate goes wrong.
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4. Laying dummy questions an interviewer sometimes wants a “no”
answer.
5. Having been on probation for 6 mounts he got an increased salary.
6. When planning expenditure one must accept fixed prices.
7. Having been announced well in advance the key questions of the
meeting were discussed by everybody.
8. Being used in times of severe shortages, price controls make sure
that the prices for necessities do not go too high.
9. The prices being charged in Brendon’s shop are satisfactory to both
buyers and sellers.
Exercise 37. Join the groups of sentences, using participles, according
to the models. (Объедините предложения, используя причастия, по
предложенным моделям).
Models: 1. The company recruits new people.
The company may advertise the job in a newspaper.
Recruiting new people, the company may advertise the job in a
newspaper.
2. He sent a letter of application.
He waited for an invitation to an interview.
Having sent a letter of application, he waited for an invitation to
an interview.
3. Konstantin was invited to attend an interview.
Konstantin tried to get prepared for an interview.
Being invited to attend an interview, Konstantin tried to get
prepared for it.
1. The personnel manager interviews and selects candidates. The
personnel manager thinks that many things are important including
candidate’s character, ability to react, intelligence, suitability for the
position as well as appearance.
2. The candidate had two interviews with junior members of the staff.
The candidate got to personnel manager level.
3. She had a temporary job during her summer vocations. She did a
lot of paperwork, sent invoices to customers, worked at a computer,
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answered phone calls, arranged meetings for her boss and other
managers in the company.
4. He was given a written test. He hoped to pass the test successfully.
5. Olga read an interview with the personnel manager of “Nestle” in a
daily newspaper. Olga discussed the interview with her group-mates.
Exercise 38. A. Replace the attributive clauses by the participle.
(Замените
придаточное
определительное
предложение
причастием).
Model: All the people who live in this house are students.
All the people living in this house are students.
1. The man who is speaking is our new dean.
2. The apparatus that stands on the table in the corner of the
laboratory is quite new.
3. The young man who helps the professor in his experiments studies
at our academy.
4. Students who take books from the library must return them in time.
5. There are many students in our group who take part in the
conference.
B. Replace the adverbial clauses by the participle. (Замените
обстоятельственные придаточные предложения причастием).
Models: 1. When you are involved in job-hunting, you should use all
possible sources of information.
(When) Being involved in job-hunting, you should use all
possible sources of information.
2. When he had passed the last examination, he began to look
round for a job.
Having passed the last examination, he began to look round
for a job.
1. When you are looking for a job, ask your relatives and friends if
they know of any job openings at the moment.
2. Vladimir spoke to the manager of the supermarket and then left his
name, address and telephone number so that he could contact him in
case of any job availability.
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3. In case her friend uses private job agencies, he must be very
cautious.
4. Svetlana looked through the list of job openings on the bulletin
board and found that some of the vacancies were quite suitable for her.
5. When you have found your potential employer, try to persuade him
that you are the right person for the job.
6. When you are given an application form, first read it carefully, then
fill in.
Exercise 39. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms from the right
column. (Заполните пропуски соответствующими формами из
правого столбца).
1. The new line of merchandise has … the
demand for goods in Brendon’s shop.
2. When … prices one should consider two
types of pricing policy: price emphasis and
price de-emphasis.
3. The price … at $69.95 instead of $70.00
produced a favorable psychological effect.
4. … a “loss leader”, a customer got a
chance to take some other things he
needed.
5. … an item for a really low price a
customer will have no credit, home
delivery, repair or installation.
6. … only in a low price people don’t often
need extra services.
7. Goods … are bought more willingly.
8. … to a new brand, customers continued
buying it for the … price.
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increased
increased
charging
charged
buying
having bought
being interested
being advertised
having been accustomed
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2. The Absolute Participial Construction
(Независимый причастный оборот)
Независимый причастный оборот – это синтаксическая
конструкция, состоящая из существительного в общем падеже или
местоимения в именительном падеже и причастия. Причем
отношения между ними воспринимаются как отношения между
подлежащим и сказуемым.
Независимый причастный оборот отделяется запятой от
главной части предложения и переводится на русский язык:
a) придаточным обстоятельственным предложением, которое
вводится одним из подчинительных союзов (если, когда, так как,
поскольку), если оборот находится до запятой, т.е. перед главной
частью предложения;
b) придаточным предложением, которое вводится в состав
сложносочиненного предложения одним из сочинительных союзов
(и, а, но, при чем, при этом) или бессоюзно, если оборот стоит
после запятой, т.е. в конце предложения.
Причастный оборот может начинаться словом with, что не
меняет его значения и способа перевода.
Причастие в независимом причастном обороте переводится
как сказуемое. Перфектные формы причастия переводятся
глаголом совершенного вида.
The country having a budget deficit, inflation may follow. –
Если в стране имеется дефицит бюджета, может последовать
инфляция.
Nowadays marketing strategy includes different activities, it’s
essential elements being popularly known as the four PS: product,
price, placement and promotion. – В настоящее время стратегия
маркетинга включает различные виды деятельности, а ее основные
компоненты общеизвестны, как продукт, цена, размещение,
продвижение.
With the experiments having been carried out, we started
new investigations. – После того, как были проведены
эксперименты, мы начали новые исследования.
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Exercise 40. Find the clauses with the Absolute Participial
Construction, translate the sentences. (Определите положение
независимого причастного оборота в предложениях; переведите
предложения).
1. The first element of marketing refers to the good or service that a
company wants to sell, this often involving research and
development of a new product.
2. The average price of a pair of women’s leather shoes being $27, a
company that charges $ 23 has priced below the market.
3. Companies establishing the average prices, they are known as
price leaders.
4. The placement element of the marketing process is connected with
getting the product to the customer, this taking place trough the
channels of distribution.
5. Each stage of distribution providing transportation and stocking of
a wide range of similar products and a good service to customers,
it adds value to the product.
6. There is always communication about the product taking place
between a buyer and a seller, this communication being known as
promotion.
7. As a result of specialization firms producing goods and services on
a larger scale, they can be sold more cheaply which benefits the
public.
8. There are many ways in which an organization can recruit
personnel, posting a list of vacancies on the notice-board or
publishing it in employee magazines being the most common.
9. Employment agencies may also be a source of recruitment, some
of them specializing in a particular area of recruitment.
10. Effective marketing planning depending on a thorough situation
analysis, it is necessary to consider controllable as well as
uncontrollable factors.
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Progress Self-Assessment Test III
(Тест самопроверки III)
Choose the correct translation of the underlined participle.
Выберите правильный перевод подчеркнутого причастия.
1. Goods bought by firms to make consumer goods are producer goods.
a) купившие
b) покупаемые
c) покупающие
2. Advertising goods and brands companies make them known to
public.
a) рекламирующий
b) рекламируются (сейчас)
c) рекламируя
3. They have already delivered the goods.
a) доставленные
b) доставляемые
c) доставили
4. Consumers willing to buy more and more goods create the need for
work and production.
a) желаемые
b) желающие
c) желавшие
5. Being well prepared for the interview he could answer all the
questions.
a) будучи подготовленным
b) подготовил
c) готовясь
6. Having signed the letter the manager asked a secretary to send in off
immediately.
a) подписанное
b) подписал
c) подписав
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7. When planning expenditure one must accept fixed prices.
a) запланировав
b) планируемые
c) планируя
8. Having been announced well in advance the questions of the meeting
were discussed by everybody.
a) объявлявшиеся
b) объявляемые
c) так как были объявлены
9. Being used in times of severe shortages, price controls make sure
that the prices for necessities do not go too high.
a) используемые
b) используя
c) использовав
10. The man speaking is our new dean.
a) говоря
b) говорящий
c) говоривший
11. Having passed the last examination, he began to look round for a
job.
a) сдавая
b) сданный
c) сдав
12. Goods being advertised are bought more willingly.
a) рекламирующий
b) которые рекламируются
c) разрекламированные
Check your answers against the keys and count your score.
Проверьте ваши ответы по ключам и подсчитайте набранное
вами количество баллов.
Total score – 12 points
Общее количество баллов – 12
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Points
Below 7
7-8
9-10
11-12
Mark
2
3
4
5
IV. The Infinitive
(Инфинитив)
1. Forms and Functions
(Формы и функции инфинитива в предложении)
Инфинитив – это неличная форма глагола. Инфинитив
выражает действие без указания лица, числа и наклонения и
соответствует в русском языке неопределенной форме глагола.
Инфинитив отвечает на вопросы: что делать? Что сделать?
Формальный признак инфинитива в английском языке –
частица to, но в некоторых случаях инфинитив может
употребляться без частицы to. Частица not перед инфинитивом
указывает на отрицательную форму.
To send – посылать; not to send – не посылать.
Инфинитив является основной глагольной формой, от которой
образуются все личные формы глагола во всех группах времен
действительного и страдательного залогов.
Категория времени инфинитива, как и других неличных форм
глагола, носит относительный характер и не имеет
самостоятельного временного значения.
В английском языке имеются следующие формы инфинитива:
Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
Active
to do
to be doing
to have done
to have been doing
Passive
to be done
to have been done
Indefinite Infinitive употребляется для выражения
действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным
глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме.
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Continuous Infinitive выражает действие в процессе
его развития одновременно с действием, выраженным
глаголом-сказуемым в личной форме .
Perfect Infinitive выражает действие которое
предшествует действию, выраженному глаголомсказуемым.
Perfect Continuous Infinitive выражает действие,
продолжавшееся в течение определенного периода
времени и предшествовавшее действию, выраженному
глаголом-сказуемым.
Форма инфинитива страдательного залога указывает на то,
что действие, выраженное инфинитивом, направлено на лицо или
предмет, связанное с инфинитивом.
She wanted to be invited to the conference. – Она хотела, чтобы ее
пригласили на конференцию.
Перевод инфинитива на русский язык зависит от его
функций в предложении.
Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence
(Функции инфинитива в предложении)
В английском предложении инфинитив может выполнять
следующие функции.
1. Подлежащее
(переводится
на
русский
язык
неопределенной формой глагола, существительным).
To keep unemployment low means to effectively use labor resource of
society. –
1)
Сохранение безработицы на низком уровне означает
эффективное использование трудовых ресурсов общества.
2)
Удерживать безработицу на низком уровне означает
эффективное использование трудовых ресурсов общества.
Часто предложения, содержащие инфинитив в функции
подлежащего, начинаются с формального подлежащего it, которое
не переводится на русский язык.
It is useless to discuss this question. – Бесполезно обсуждать этот
вопрос.
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2.
Часть составного сказуемого ( переводится
неопределенной формой).
He was to observe the operation of this system. – Он должен был
наблюдать за действием этой системы.
One should know the difference between these systems of marketing. –
Следует знать разницу между этими системами сбыта.
3. Дополнение (переводится неопределенной формой).
The product element of marketing refers to the good or service that a
company wants to sell. – Элемент маркетинга, именуемый как
«продукт», имеет отношение к тому товару или услуге, который
компания хочет продавать.
4.
Обстоятельство
(переводится
придаточным
предложением обстоятельства цели, следствия, вводимым
союзами чтобы, для того чтобы).
These measures were taken in order to avoid overproduction. – Данные
меры были предприняты, чтобы избежать перепроизводства.
The wage in this enterprise is too low to attract qualified workers. –
Заработная плата на этом предприятии слишком низкая, чтобы
привлечь квалифицированных рабочих.
5.
Определение
(переводится
придаточным
определительным предложением с союзом который; часто
выражает будущее, модальность).
The Gross National Product per head is an important characteristic to
be considered in determining living standards. – Валовой
национальный продукт на душу населения – это важная
характеристика, которая должна приниматься во внимание при
определении уровня жизни.
Exercise 41. Find the infinitives, determine their functions and translate
the sentences. (Найдите инфинитивы, определите их функции и
переведите предложения).
1. In contrast to a meat-eater a vegetarian doesn’t want to buy meat,
may rate the utility of fruits very highly though.
2. In some systems it is possible for an individual to bargain over
prices, because they are not fixed in advance.
3. Price controls are often used in times of severe shortages to make
sure that the price for important items does not go too high.
4. Thus a person was able to get the minimum amount of the goods
needed to survive.
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The consumer’s desire for a commodity tends to diminish as he
buys more units of it.
6. Since no surplus or shortage exit, there is no pressure on the price
to change.
7. Experts on merchandise inspect each stage of production to make
sure the product meets the required standard.
8. It is advisable to give the names of people to supply references in
your resume.
9. Job Objective is a category not to include in your resume if you are
willing to try a variety of jobs.
10. When I worked as a temp during my summer vacations I had to
supervise customers accounts and file the documents.
5.
Exercise 42. Combine the following pairs of sentences into one
using “in order” with the infinitive. Study the model. Translate the
sentences. (Объедините пары предложений в одно, используя
союз «чтобы» с инфинитивом. Изучите образец. Переведите
получившиеся предложения).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Model: Firms use the division of labour. Firms gain the largest
profit. – Firms use the division of labour in order to gain
the largest profit. – Фирмы используют разделение
труда, чтобы получить наибольшую прибыль.
Manufacturing industry needs extractive industry. Manufacturing
industry is supplied with raw materials.
Firms can buy specialized equipment. Firms divide production
into a number of small tasks.
A company uses a specialty publication such as a trade magazine.
A company needs to recruit a highly specialized person.
Current employees are sometimes encouraged to refer to friends,
family and ex-colleagues. It is necessary to fill a particular
vacancy.
Producers compete each other.
Producers obtain the largest profits.
A firm may use a different marketing mix. A firm reaches another
target market.
A firm uses market measurement and sales forecasting. A firm
predicts product sales in a specific market segment.
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2. Complex Subject
(Сложное подлежащее )
Инфинитивный оборот Complex Subject состоит из двух частей.
Первая – существительное в общем падеже или местоимение в
именительном падеже; вторая – инфинитив, выражающий
действие, которое выполняет лицо или предмет (существительное
или местоимение).
Особенностью этого инфинитивного оборота является то, что
первая и вторая части разделены сказуемым, которое выражено
личной формой глагола.
Модель
Подлежащее
(существительное или
местоимение в И.п.)
Сказуемое
(глагол в личной форме)
Инфинитив
В качестве сказуемого в этой конструкции используются
следующие глаголы в страдательном залоге:
to know – знать;
to say – говорить;
to think – думать;
to believe - верить, полагать;
to consider – считать;
to expect – ожидать;
to report – сообщать;
to suppose – предполагать;
to find – находить, обнаруживать;
to assume – допускать и т.п.
А также следующие глаголы в действительном залоге:
to appear – оказываться
to happen – случаться
to turn out – оказываться, обнаруживать
to prove – доказывать, оказываться
to seem – казаться, оказываться и т.п.
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Кроме того, сказуемое может быть составным
именным:
to be likely – вероятно;
to be certain – несомненно;
to be unlikely – маловероятно;
to be sure – верно.
This scientist is supposed to have developed a new methodПредполагают, что этот учёный разработал новый метод.
This method does not seem to offer any advantages.Оказывается, что этот метод не даёт никаких преимуществ.
The goods are unlikely to be unloaded today.Маловероятно, что товары будут разгружены сегодня.
Оборот Complex Subject имеет следующие способы перевода.
1. Сложноподчинённым предложением. В этом случае
перевод следует начинать со сказуемого, которое
переводится на русский язык в 3-м лице множественного
числа (страдательное сказуемое, например: говорят,
полагают, допускают и др). Инфинитив становится
сказуемым
придаточного
предложения,
которое
присоединяется к главному союзу «что».
2. Простым предложением с вводными словами (как
известно, как полагают, как считают и др.). При этом
порядок слов предложения при переводе не меняется, а
инфинитив следует переводить как сказуемое.
This new business was believed to improve the situation in the
market. –
1. Полагали, что это новое предприятие улучшит положение
дел на рынке.
2. Это новое предприятие, как полагали, улучшит положение
дел на рынке.
Exercise 43. Find the sentences with the Complex Subject and translate
them. (Найдите предложения с конструкцией «сложное
подлежащее» и переведите их).
1. Utility is a characteristic of satisfying a want.
2. Utility is known to be a characteristic of satisfying a want.
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3. This tendency is know to be called the Law of Diminishing
Marginal Utility.
4. Economists call this tendency the Law of Diminishing
Marginal Utility.
5. It was supposed that the transportation problems of the firm
would be solved in the near future.
6. The transportation problems of the firm are supposed to be
solved in the near future.
Exercise 44. Translate the sentences with the Complex Subject.
(Переведите предложения, содержащие оборот «сложное
подлежащее»).
1. Every producer is supposed to study the market carefully
before starting the production of new goods.
2. The general idea of insurance appears to provide indemnity in
the case of any happening that may cause loss of money.
3. Insurance policy is certain to be the principal document used in
insurance which acts as a contract.
4. The prices for consumer goods proved to have been risen.
5. This equipment was supposed to have been replaced long ago.
6. The firm seems to be trying to accumulate funds for a major
deal.
7. Different kinds of mass media are likely to be used for
advertising purposes.
8. This method is believed to have been introduced some years
ago.
9. Marketing is considered to be a system of all business activities
of a company in respect of coordinating supply and demand.
10. Marketing is said to be made up of such activities as
transportation, storing and selling goods as well as their
distribution.
3. Complex Object
(Сложное дополнение)
Инфинитивный оборот Complex Object состоит из двух частей.
Первая часть – существительное в «общем» падеже или
местоимение в «объектном» падеже; вторая часть – инфинитив,
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который выражает действие, выполняемое лицом или предметом
(существительным или местоимением).
Модель
Подлежащее
(существительное
или
личное местоимение)
Сказуемое (глагол
личной форме)
в
Сложное
дополнение
(существительное
или
местоимение
в
объектном
падеже +
инфинитив)
Конструкция «сложное дополнение» употребляется
после сказуемого, выраженного следующими глаголами:
would like, to want – хотеть;
to know – знать;
to think – думать;
to believe – считать, полагать;
to expect – ожидать, предполагать;
to suppose – полагать.
После глаголов, выражающих восприятие в составе
конструкции «сложное дополнение»
инфинитив
употребляется без частицы to. Это такие глаголы как:
to see – видеть;
to hear – слышать;
to feel – чувствовать;
to notice – замечать;
to watch – смотреть, наблюдать.
The manager expects the new equipment to increase
productivity. – Руководитель полагает, что новое оборудование
повысит производительность.
We saw the director enter his study. – Мы видели, что
директор вошел в свой кабинет.
Конструкция Complex Object переводится на русский
язык придаточным дополнительным предложением с
союзами что, чтобы, как.
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They consider the quality of the milk to be satisfactory for
further processing. – Они считают, что качество молока
удовлетворительно для дальнейшей переработки.
Exercise 45. Find the sentences with the Complex Object and
translate them. (Найдите предложения с конструкцией
«сложное дополнение» и переведите их).
1. Experts on merchandise are supposed to be in control of
technological decisions in a factory.
2. We would like this expert to be in control of technological
decisions in the factory
3. As incomes rise consumers are able and wiling to buy more
goods and services.
4. I saw my mother buy a handbag for somebody
5. I want you to study figure 2 which shows a simplified chain of
production for chocolate.
6. Firms in manufacturing industry expect extractive industry to
provide them with raw materials.
7. The manager wants to employ three more workers.
Exercise 46. Translate the sentences with the Complex Object.
(Переведите предложения, содержащие оборот «сложное
дополнение»).
1. The manager expected raw materials to be delivered in time.
2. The sellers know these factors to influence consumers` decision
to buy.
3. Economists believe utility to determine the relationship
between a consumer and a commodity.
4. Having found a suitable job you want your potential employer
to «purchase» your abilities rather than those of someone else.
5. We know a satisfactory price to both buyers and sellers to be
called an equilibrium price.
6. I suppose each stage of production to add value to the product
by providing stocking and service to the customers.
7. Nowadays we know special departments and agencies to deal
with advertising.
8. What do they expect him to do in extra hours?
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9. The lecturer wanted the students to discover why insuring
goods is an advantage for both sellers and buyers.
10. We watched him test meat products for quality and their being
up to the accepted standard.
Progress Self-Assessment Test IV
(Тест самопроверки IV)
1. Укажите, при переводе какого предложения перед
инфинитивом следует употребить союз «чтобы».
Переведите предложение.
a) To manufacture this commodity is profitable for producers.
b) The commodity is too expensive to be in large demand.
c) It is necessary to update the technology on this factory.
2. Укажите, при переводе какого предложения следует
употребить придаточное определительное предложение
с союзом «который». Переведите предложение.
a) The firm should change its production cycle to lower costs.
b) Too high prices of resources to be used in production is the
problem of many enterprises.
c) Consumers appear to have different needs and opportunities.
3. Укажите в каком предложении инфинитив является
частью
модального
сказуемого.
Переведите
предложение.
a) If you have taken any additional courses, it is important to list
those relevant to the job you are applying for in your resume.
b) If you are to include references in your resume, give a full
name, title, company and address.
c) It is not always necessary to include references in your resume.
4. Укажите в каком предложении инфинитив является
подлежащим. Переведите предложение.
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a) It is possible to economize by buying large amounts of goods.
b) The aim is to modernize production methods and rise safety
standards.
c) It is a well-known fact that your employer may contact the
people written in your resume to find out about your work
habits and skills.
5. Укажите предложение, где инфинитив выполняет
функцию дополнения. Переведите предложение.
a) It is desirable to cut down our consumption for some time.
b) We should cut down our consumption to lower the spending.
c) When people lose jobs, they do not immediately make a
decision to cut down consumption.
6. Укажите предложение с инфинитивом в функции
обстоятельства цели. Переведите предложение.
a) One of the most important tasks now is to transport these
goods.
b) To earn more profit the firm must vary its technology.
c) It is possible to increase demand for a good by advertising.
7. Укажите, в каком предложении имеется конструкция
«сложное подлежащее». Переведите предложение .
b) Economists have found that these data are unreliable.
c) It is advisable not to rely on these data.
d) These data have been found to be unreliable.
8. Укажите, в каком предложении имеется конструкция
«сложное дополнение». Переведите предложение.
a) Price controls and ration stamps are known to be used in times
of severe shortages.
b) The owner wants his profit to be invested in new equipment.
c) The owner invested his profit in new equipment to introduce
the advanced technology.
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Check your answers against the keys and count your score.
Проверьте ваши ответы по ключам и подсчитайте набранное
вами количество баллов.
Total score – 8 points.
Общее количество баллов – 8.
Points
Below 5
5-6
7
8
Mark
2
3
4
5
V. Final Achievement Test
(Итоговый тест контроля усвоения учебного материала
всего курса)
Choose the correct item.
Выберите правильный вариант:
1. According to the instruction you … to store the cake in an
airtight container.
a) needs
b) need
c) needing
2. … does production include?
a) When
b) Which
c) What
3. Where do extractive workers obtain raw materials…?
a) from
b) to
c) for
4. «DANON» … some new consumer goods last year.
a) has invented
b) invented
c) invents
5. On Tuesday Kate … a job interview.
a) has
b) is having
c) will have
6. Julia … some materials for the training seminar when the phone
rang.
a) was preparing
b) prepared
c) is preparing
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7. At the moment the factory’s experts on merchandise … if the
products are good enough to go to the market.
a) check
b) will check
c) are checking
8. … satisfy human wants in goods and services.
a) Consumers
b) Producers
c) Retailers
9. They often … phone calls to retailers and wholesalers.
a) make
b) makes
c) are making
10. You will have to pay extra … a prompt delivery.
a) at
b) with
c) for
11. Their business … very quickly.
a) develops
b) has developed
c) developed
12. 2 years ago these Japanese goods … retail purchasers most of
all.
a) attracted
b) had attracted
c) were attracting
13. The commodity has been delivered … sea.
a) by
b) from
c) on
14. Don’t worry, I … all the vegetables in the nearest market.
a) will be buying
b) will buy
c) will have bought
15. He… before he joined this firm.
a) has never worked b) had never worked c) never worked
16. Each worker . . . a bonus next month.
a) is receiving
b) will receive
c) is going to receive
17. They . . . 2 factories since 2006.
a) opened
b) has opened
c) have opened
18. Loss-leader pricing . . .to attract the customers.
a) use
b) is used
c) used
19. During the Soviet period the prices …
a) were fixed
b) fixed
c) were fixing
20. This brand can be relied…
a) at
b) to
c) o n
21. I don’t want my business … in
a) to be interfered
b) to interfere
c) interfere
22. All the quality experts … in the activity now.
a) are involved
b) are being involved
c) are involving.
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23. The company … drugs and medical equipment for the local
hospital.
a) is provided
b) are provided
c) provides
24. Such activities as warehousing, insurance, banking and some
others … trade easier to take place.
a) are making
b) are made
c) make
25. Compensation for the stolen goods … by the insurance
company.
a) was provided
b) provides
c)provided
26. The activities … commerce are trade and aids to trade.
a) made up
b) make up
c) making up
27. If … for one’s own personal use, an item is called a consumer
good.
a) buy
b) bought
c) buying
28. … the letter the manager asked a secretary to send it off at once.
a) Signing
b) To sign
c) Having signed
29. Students … books from the library must return them in time.
a) taking
b) taken
c) take
30. The price … at $69.95 instead of $
70.00 produced a favourable psychological effect.
a) charging
b) charge
c) charged
31. Firms use the division of labour in order … the largest profit.
a) gaining
b) gain
c) to gain
32. In some systems it is possible for an individual … over prices.
a) to bargain
b) bargain
c) bargained
33. Experts on merchandise inspect each stage of production …
sure the product meets the required standard.
a) make
b) makes
c) to make
34. … a good for a really low prince a customer will have no credit,
home delivery, repair or installation.
a) To buy
b) Buying
c) Being bought
35. The … man is our new merchandiser.
a) spoken
b) speaking
c) speak
36. This method … to offer some advantages.
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a) seem
b) is seemed
c) seems
37. Insurance policy is certain … the principal document used in
insurance.
a) was
b) to be
c) will be
38. This equipment was supposed … long ago.
a) to replace
b) to be replaced
c) to have been replaced
39. We would like this expert … the goods.
a) to examine
b) to be examined
c) examine.
40. We saw the director … his study.
a) to enter
b) enters
c) enter
Check your answers against the keys and count your score.
Проверьте ваши ответы по ключам и подсчитайте набранное
вами количество баллов.
Total score – 40 points.
Общее количество баллов – 40.
Points
Below
22
22-29
30-35
36-40
Mark
2
3
4
5
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Учебное издание
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по грамматике английского языка
Отпечатано с готового оригинал-макета
Подписано в печать 29. 12.2011 г. Формат 60×84 1/16.
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