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82.Английский язык. Ч.2 Учебно-познавательная сфера общения

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Министерство сельского хозяйства РФ
ФГБОУ ВПО «Самарская государственная
сельскохозяйственная академия»
Кафедра «Иностранные языки»
С. П. Болдырева, О. А. Брумина
Английский язык
Методические указания по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык»
Часть II
Учебно-познавательная сфера общения
Кинель
РИЦ СГСХА
2013
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УДК 811.07
ББК 81.2 Англ. Р
Б-79
Болдырева, С. П.
Б-79 Английский язык : методические указания по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык» / С.П. Болдырева, О.А. Брумина.
Часть II: Учебно-познавательная сфера общения. – Кинель :
РИЦ СГСХА, 2013. – 74 с.
Данное издание представляет собой методические указания
для второго раздела программы по дисциплине «Иностранный
язык» – «Учебно-познавательная сфера общения».
Издание состоит из 2 уроков и предназначено для бакалавров,
изучающих английский язык.
© ФГБОУ ВПО Самарская ГСХА, 2013
© Болдырева С.П., 2013
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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Предисловие………….………………………………….…...
4
Lesson 1 (Урок 1)………….………………………………… 5
Lesson 2 (Урок 2)………………………..…………………...
32
Приложения……………………………………………….…..
71
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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Цель данных методических указаний – формирование
иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции в совокупности ее
составляющих, а именно:
- речевая компетенция – развитие коммуникативных умений
в говорении, чтении, письме;
- языковая компетенция – овладение новыми языковыми
средствами (лексическими, грамматическими, орфографическими)
в соответствии с темами второго раздела программы по
дисциплине «Иностранный язык» – «Учебно-познавательная сфера
общения».
Указания состоят из двух уроков и представляют следующие
темы: «Высшее образование в России», «Высшее образование в
странах изучаемого языка», «Мой вуз», «Студенческая жизнь».
Каждый
урок
включает
следующие
подразделы:
словообразование, грамматические пояснения и упражнения к
ним; текст(ы) для изучающего чтения и лексический минимум
данной темы; диалоги; текст повышенного уровня для развития
навыков ознакомительного чтения. Урок первый заканчивается
устной темой. Урок второй – письменной работой по написанию
краткой биографии (CV).
Активной грамматикой второго раздела является:
прошедшее простое время (The Past Simple Tense);
модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты (Modal Verbs);
местоимения: much, many, little, few, a little, a few;
будущее простое время (The Future Simple Tense);
структура be going to;
структуры There will be / It will be;
условные предложения первого типа;
степени сравнения имен прилагательных.
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Урок 1 (Lesson 1)
Грамматика. Прошедшее простое время (The Past Simple Tense).
Модальные глаголы. Местоимения: much, many, little, few, a little,
a few.
Словообразование. Суффиксы прилагательных -ian, -ent
(-ant), -ive, -ic, -ful, -less, -y.
Тексты: «Education in Russia», «Samara State Agricultural
Academy» (изучающее чтение).
Диалоги: «Our Studies».
Тексты: «A Web of Lies?», «Parents Must Challenge High School
Culture» (ознакомительное чтение)
Устная тема: «My Academy»
Словообразование
1. Суффикс -ian образует прилагательные со значением
принадлежности к национальности или стране: Russian русский,
Indian индийский (индейский).
2. Прилагательные с суффиксом -ent (-ant) образуются от
глаголов и соответствуют существительным, образованным от тех
же глаголов с суффиксами -ence (-ance): to differ различаться,
different различный, difference различие, to resist сопротивляться,
resistant устойчивый, resistance сопротивление.
3. Суффикс прилагательных -ive: negative отрицательный.
4.Суффикс прилагательных -ful образует от существительных
прилагательные, выражающие полноту качества предмета: use
польза – useful полезный.
5.Суффикс прилагательных -less образует от существительных
прилагательные, выражающие отсутствие качества предмета:
useless – бесполезный.
6. Суффикс -ic образует от существительных прилагательные:
atom – atomic атомный.
7. Суффикс -y образует от существительных прилагательные,
выражающие свойство (характер) предмета: rain дождь – rainy
дождливый.
1. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных
и переведите их на русский язык с помощью словаря:
independence, distance, importance, transparency.
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2. Обращая внимание на суффиксы, переведите следующие
слова:
productive, positive, negative, intensive, primitive, effective,
progressive, aggressive, active, extensive, specific, childless, snowy,
fruitful, Indian, Canadian, elegant, treeless, frosty, protective, scientific,
rainy, speechless.
3. Образуйте с помощью суффиксов -ful и -less прилагательные
от следующих существительных и переведите их:
peace, help, thank, tact, use, right, colour, care, hope, fruit, beauty,
power.
Грамматика
А. Употребление.
Простое прошедшее время (Past Simple Tense) выражает
однократное действие (или состояние), многократное действие или
ряд последовательных действий в прошлом, не связанных с
моментом речи.
В. Образование.
По способу образования утвердительной формы простого
прошедшего времени все английские глаголы делятся на
стандартные (или правильные) и нестандартные (или
неправильные).
Стандартные глаголы образуют утвердительную форму
простого прошедшего времени для всех лиц единственного и
множественного числа с помощью суффикса -ed, прибавляемого к
инфинитиву глагола без частицы to:
Last summer (he, she, we, you, they) worked in the garden.
Если инфинитив стандартного глагола оканчивается на букву у с
предшествующей согласной, то при прибавлении к нему суффикса
-ed буква у меняется на i: to dry сушить — dried сушил, но to play
играть — played играл. Если инфинитив оканчивается на -е, то
при прибавлении суффикса -ed буква е выпадает: to live жить –
lived жил.
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Если стандартный глагол состоит из одного слога, оканчивающегося на согласную, например, to stop останавливаться, то
при прибавлении суффикса эта последняя согласная удваивается:
stopped остановился.
Нестандартные глаголы образуют утвердительную форму
простого прошедшего времени разными способами:
- изменением корневой гласной; to begin начинать — began
начал, to come приходить — came пришел, to meet встречаться —
met встретил;
- изменением согласной корня глагола: to make делать —
made — сделал, to have иметь — had имел.
Нестандартные глаголы to go и to be образуют формы
простого прошедшего времени от другого корня: to go идти —
went шел, to be быть — was был, were были.
У некоторых нестандартных глаголов форма прошедшего
времени совпадает с формой инфинитива: to let позволять — let
позволил.
Утвердительная форма простого прошедшего времени
нестандартных глаголов дается в словаре после неопределенной
формы и поэтому называется «второй формой глагола».
Все глаголы, как стандартные, так и нестандартные, в
простом прошедшем времени имеют одну форму для всех лиц
единственного и множественного числа:
I (he, she) lived in Moscow.
Исключением является глагол to be, имеющий разные формы
для единственного и множественного числа:
I (he, she, it) was here yesterday.
We (you, they) were here yesterday.
Отрицательная и вопросительная формы глаголов в простом
прошедшем времени образуются с помощью вспомогательного
глагола did.
В отрицательной форме в простом прошедшем времени
отрицание not употребляется после вспомогательного глагола did,
который, в свою очередь, следует за подлежащим; затем
используется смысловой глагол в форме инфинитива без частицы
to.
I, he, she, we, you,
work in the garden.
did not
they
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В разговорной речи вспомогательный глагол did и частица
not сливаются в одно слово: did not = didn't.
В вопросительной форме в простом прошедшем вpeмени
вспомогательный глагол did употребляется перед подлежащим, а
смысловой глагол в форме инфинитива без частицы to следует за
подлежащим.
I, he, she, we, you, work on the farm last
summer?
they
Did
Утвердительная форма
I worked.
I became.
You worked.
You became.
He worked.
He became.
She worked.
She became.
It worked.
It became.
We worked.
We became.
You worked.
You became.
They worked.
They became.
Отрицательная
форма
I didn’t work.
I didn’t become.
You didn’t work.
You didn’t become.
He didn’t work.
He didn’t become.
She didn’t work.
She didn’t become.
It didn’t work.
It didn’t become.
We didn’t work.
We didn’t become.
You didn’t work.
You didn’t become.
They didn’t work.
They didn’t become.
Вопросительная
форма
Did I work?
Did I become?
Did you work?
Did you become?
Did he work?
Did he become?
Did she work?
Did she become?
Did it work?
Did it become?
Did we work?
Did we become?
Did you work?
Did you become?
Did they work?
Did they become?
S hort Answers
(краткие ответы)
Yes, I did; No, I didn’t.
Yes, you did; No, you
didn’t.
Yes, he did; No, he didn’t.
Yes, she did; No, she
didn’t.
Yes, it did; No, it didn’t.
Yes, we did; No, we didn’t.
Yes, you did; No, you
didn’t.
Yes, they did; No, they
didn’t.
C. Обстоятельства времени:
вчера;
позавчера;
в прошлом году;
в прошлом месяце;
на прошлой неделе;
год назад;
вчера утром;
вчера вечером.
yesterday
the day before yesterday
last year
last month
last week
a year ago
yesterday morning
last night
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Упражнения
4. Образуйте формы простого прошедшего времени от
следующих глаголов и вспомните их значение:
to be, to go, to have, to come, to work, to rain, to begin, to attend, to
live, to read, to write, to speak, to study, to meet, to become, to give, to
think, to use, to build, to get, to know, to take, to understand, to see, to
let, to put, to perform, to pass, to enter, to consist.
5. Употребите глагол, стоящий в скобках, в простом
прошедшем времени:
1. It’s a nice day today but yesterday it (rain) all day.
2. The concert (begin) at 7.30 and (finish) at 10 o’clock.
3. When I was a child, I (want) to be a doctor.
4. It was hot in the room, so I (open) the window.
5. The accident (happen) last Sunday afternoon.
6. Ann’s grandfather (die) when he was 95 years old.
7. They (go) to the post office.
8. I (have) a nice holiday last year.
6. Перепишите предложения в
вопросительную форму по образцу:
We went to New York last month.
Did we go to New York last month?
We didn’t go to New York last month.
отрицательную
1. I saw Joe yesterday.
2. It rained on Sunday.
3. Helen came to the party.
4. Your parents had a good holiday last month.
5. Your sister phoned you the day before yesterday.
6. Tom bought some new clothes yesterday.
7. We went to the beach yesterday.
8. I was tired last morning.
9. She began the examination on time.
10. He did a tremendous amount of work.
11. We had absolutely nothing to do last week.
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7. Напишите, что Вы делали и не делали вчера вечером.
1. (watch TV) _____________________ .
2. (get up before 7 o’clock) _______________ .
3. (have a shower) ______________________ .
4. (buy a magazine) _____________________ .
5. (eat meat) ___________________________ .
6. (go to bed before 10.30) _______________ .
7. (finish work early) ____________________ .
8. (come home by taxi) __________________ .
8. Задайте вашему однокурснику вопросы по-английски. Пусть
он ответит вам:
1. Когда он стал студентом?
2. Где он жил?
3. С кем он играл вчера в футбол?
4. Какую программу он смотрел вчера вечером?
5. Что он учил вчера?
6. Когда он начал изучать английский?
7. Почему он опоздал на занятия на прошлой неделе?
8. Кого он пригласил на обед позавчера?
9. Завершите предложения, употребив следующие глаголы
в простом прошедшем времени:
To be (3), to find, to go (2), to have , to tell, to think, to invite, to give,
to get, sleep.
1. I … early and … a shower.
2. Tom was tired last night, so he … to bed early.
3. I … this pen on the floor. Is it yours?
4. “I’ve got a new job.” “Yes I know. David … me.”
5. Kate got married when she …. 21.
6. “Where did you buy that book?” “It was a present. Ann … it to
me.”
7. We …. hungry, so we had something to eat.
8. “Did Mary come to your party?” “ No, we … her, but she didn’t
come”
9. “Did you enjoy the film?” “Yes, I …… it was very good.”
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10. This ….. a slow process.
11. We …. to New York last year.
12. I … well last night.
10. Переведите шуточный рассказ, обращая внимание на
употребление Past Simple Tense. Выпишите из текста глаголы
в Past Simple Tense
An absent- minded professor moved to a new house further along
the same street. His wife knew that he was prone to forgetting things
and so she wrote down the new address on a piece of paper before he
went ff to collage. She handed the paper and the key to the new house
and reminded him not to go back to the old address.
That morning, one of his students asked him a complex question
and the professor wrote the answer down on the back of the slip of
paper. The student asked whether he could keep the paper. Forgetting
what was on the other side, the professor said, “Certainly”. In the
evening, he returned out of habit to the old house, tried the key and
couldn’t get in. Realizing his mistake, he searched in his pockets for the
slip of paper with the new address, but of course there was no sign of it.
So he wandered along the street and stopped the first reasonable –
looking lad he saw.
“Excuse me, I’m Professor Galbraith. You wouldn’t happen to
know where I live, would you” “Sure, Dad,” said the boy.
Модальные глаголы
Модальные глаголы can, may, must, should выражают не
действие, а отношение говорящего к действию, обозначенному
следующим за ними инфинитивом, а именно, возможность,
вероятность или необходимость совершения действия.
Модальные глаголы объединяются в одну группу по своим
общим формальным признакам:
- у них нет инфинитива и других неличных форм и нет временных
форм, кроме can и may, имеющих прошедшее время could и might;
- они не имеют -s в 3 лице настоящего времени;
- следующий за ними глагол употребляется без частицы to;
- вопросительную и отрицательную формы модальные глаголы
образуют без вспомогательных глаголов.
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Ann can speak English.
Can Ann speak English?
Ann cannot (can’t) speak English.
Can (could) употребляется:
1) для выражения физической или умственной возможности и
умения совершать действия:
We can swim. Мы умеем плавать.
2) для выражения разрешения :
Can I speak to the director? Могу я поговорить с директором?
3) для выражения удивления, сомнения (в вопросительных и
отрицательных предложениях) и предположения:
Can she say it? Неужели она это говорит?
To be able to – эквивалент модального глагола can, употребляется
для выражения возможности и умения совершать действия в
будущем, прошлом и настоящем:
Ann will be able to visit us next year. Аня сможет навестить нас
следующим летом.
I wasn’t able to meet you yesterday. Я не смог тебя вчера
встретить.
May употребляется:
1) для выражения разрешения совершить действие в настоящем
или будущем:
May I take it?
Могу я сделать это?
Yes, you may.
Да, можно.
No, you may not или
Нет, нельзя (вежливый ответ)
No, you mustn’t.
Нет, нельзя (категорическое запрещение)
2) для
выражения предположения в совершении действия
настоящем или будущем (might выражает большую степень
сомнения). В этом случае may, might переводиться может быть,
возможно:
Ann might come.
Аня, может быть, и придет.
Must употребляется:
1) для выражения необходимости совершения действия, а также
приказа или совета:
She must do it.
Она должна сделать это.
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Отрицательный ответ на вопрос с глаголом must образуется от
глагола need нуждаться (needn’t) в отрицательной форме:
Must we come.
Мы должны придти?
No, you needn’t.
Нет, не нужно.
2) для выражения предположения:
It must rain today.
Сегодня, очевидно, будет дождь.
To have to – эквивалент модального глагола must употребляется
для выражения необходимости совершения действия в настоящем,
прошедшем или будущем: to have to – приходиться, быть
вынужденным; вопросительная и отрицательная формы
образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to do:
I had to be there till 5.
Мне пришлось там быть до 5.
I didn’t have to be there.
Мне там не нужно было быть.
To be to - эквивалент модального глагола must употребляется для
выражения необходимости совершения действия в силу
имеющейся договоренности, по плану:
We are to do this work.
Мы должны сделать эту работу.
Should употребляется для выражения совета и переводиться
следует, должен:
You should help him.
Вам следует помочь ему.
Ought to употребляется:
1) для выражения морального долга, совета, относящегося к
настоящему или будущему:
You ought to help her.
Вам следует (должны) помочь ей.
2) с перфектным инфинитивом выражает действие, которое
должно было произойти в прошлом, но не произошло:
You ought to have helped them.
Вам следовало помочь им.
Упражнения
11. a) Скажите собеседнику, что Вы можете (не можете) придти
и Ваш друг может (не можете) придти, используя следующие
словосочетания:
Образец: I can’t come on Friday, but my friend can.
Утром, вечером, до лекции, после лекции, в среду, в субботу,
второго декабря, ровно в восемь, после занятий, после экзамена.
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b) Скажите, что Вы можете выполнить что-либо.
Спросите, может ли Ваш друг сделать это. Пусть он Вам
ответит. Используйте следующие словосочетания:
Образец: I can meet him on Monday. Can you meet him on Monday?
Yes, I can.
To take part, to speak English, tonight, to enter Academy, to approve.
c) Спросите разрешения сделать что-либо. Пусть Ваш друг
ответит Вам. Используйте приведенные ниже глаголы.
Образец: May I leave at 4 o’clock? Please do.
Take, visit, go, help, read, walk, meet.
12. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая
внимание на перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов:
1. I don’t always do everything I should.
2. You can’t sit there. Those seats are reserved.
3. You don’t need to take the test.
4. I want to be able to choose my own career.
5. We don’t exercise much, but we really ought to.
6. The machine can translate simple messages into 24 different
languages.
7. You must stop at the red light.
8. You should eat more fresh fruit.
9. Graham will have to sleep on the sofa.
10. Now I have to go. I am to meet Ann in the library.
11. If he doesn’t know how to translate the phrase he should ask the
teacher.
12. Ask Ann, she may know his address.
13. Употребите must/had to/ mustn’t/needn’t/should.
1. You _____ go. You can stay here if you want.
2. We didn’t have any food yesterday, so we ________ go shopping.
3. I want to know what happened. You _______ tell me.
4. I ___ hurry or I’ll be late.
5. The windows aren’t dirty. You _____ clean them.
6. I _____ go to the bank yesterday to get some money.
7. When you play tennis, you _____ watch the ball.
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8. It’s a fantastic film. You ____ see it.
9. You ___ tell Sue what happened. I don’t want her to know.
10. I went to London by train last week. The train was full and I ___
stand all the way.
11. If you have time, you _____ visit the Science Museum.
12. It’s late. I ___ go now.
14.
Сделайте
предложения
вопросительными
отрицательными. Переведите предложения.
1. Michael has to read a lot for tomorrow’s exam.
2. Everybody has to be very careful with this device.
3. She had to study hard last semester.
4. They had to enter our Academy.
5. I have to pass my final exams.
и
15. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
1. Ты не должна приходить домой так поздно. 2. Сегодня
Александру необходимо поехать в центр города. 3. Тебе нужно
много заниматься. 4. Тебе не нужно заканчивать работу, если ты
должен уйти, это подождет. 5. Он должен был участвовать в
конференции. 6. Тебе нужен этот словарь? 7. Могу я посещать
лекции? 8. Вы можете мне помочь перевести этот текст? 9. Она
должна встать рано, чтобы подготовиться к тесту. 10. Вы говорите
по-английски? 11. Он смог открыть окно. 12. Вчера я не смог
позвонить твоим родителям.
16. Выберите правильное слово.
1. I suppose we really …. to book our tickets in advance.
a) should
b) must
c) ought
d) can
2. We couldn’t find a hotel room, so we … sleep in the car. It was
awful!
a) had to
b) must
c) could
d) should
3. Yes, of course you ….. open the window if you’re too hot.
a) can
b) needn’t
c) must
d) are able to
4. The water of the Dead Sea is so salty that ….. live in it.
a) nothing can
b) nothing
c) nothing can’t d) anything can’t
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5. Tom looked at his watch and said that he …. go.
a) must to
b) has to
c) had to
d) had
6. Children …. to go to the dentist at least once a year.
a) should
b) must
c) ought
d) have
7. You …. do it if you tried.
a) couldn’t
b) must
c) shouldn’t
d) haven’t
8. You … walk on the grass.
a) mustn’t
b) had to
c) have to
d) will have to
9. As the ship entered the harbour, we … see the Statue of Liberty.
a) can
b) could
c) must
d) should
10. The news … be true? I don’t believe you.
a) can
b) could
c) can’t
d) be able to
11. We read a long poem in the class yesterday. It was boring. I’m glad
we …. learn it by heart.
a) has to
b) don’t have to c) can’t
d) must
12. You …. work tomorrow if you don’t want to.
a) couldn’t
b) needn’t
c) cannot
d) oughtn’t
13. I was lost and … ask the policeman the way.
a) may
b) should
c) must
d) had to
14. I ….. find a job, my parents can’t support me any longer.
a) are able to
b) are allowed to
c) has to
d) must
15. I .. swim as well as my father.
a) can
b) must
c) have to
d) may
16. She is not able to carry all these suitcase by herself. Somebody ….
help her.
a) may
b) should
c) can
d) need
Неопределенные местоимения many, much,
few, little, a few, a little.
1. Для обозначения понятия «много» с исчисляемыми
существительными в английском языке употребляется слово
many:
Has your sister many friends?
A lot of употребляется в утвердительных предложениях:
There are a lot of foreign magazines in the library.
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2. Для обозначения понятия «мало» с исчисляемыми
существительными в английском языке употребляется слово few:
There were few fine days in October.
3. Для обозначения понятия «много» с неисчисляемыми
существительными употребляется местоимение much:
This winter there is much snow in the field.
4. Для обозначения понятия «мало» с неисчисляемыми
существительными слово little:
We have little time today.
A
few
несколько
употребляется
с
исчисляемыми
существительными.
A
little
немного
употребляется
с
неисчисляемыми
существительными.
My friend has a few interesting English books.
My elder brother speaks English a little.
Упражнения
17. Употребите подходящие по смыслу слова из предлагаемых
в скобках вариантов.
1. My friends spoke English (a little, a few) when they came to
Moscow. 2. I don’t read very much. I haven’t (much, many) books. 3.
We must hurry. We haven’t got (much, many) time. 4. “Have you got
any money?” “Yes, (a little, a few)”. 5. “Are there factories in this
town?” “Yes, (a little, a few)”. 6. I’d like to practise my English more
but I have (little, few) opportunity. 7. Did (much, many) students fail
the examination? 8. How (much, many) bread did you buy? 9. The
town is very quiet at night. Very (little, few) people go out. 10. Your
English is very good. You make very (little, few) mistakes. 11. “Did
you take any photos when you were on holiday?” “Yes, (a little, a
few)”. 12. There was (little, few) food in the fridge. It was nearly
empty.
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Лексический минимум 1
Прочитайте и выучите
лексического минимума:
Education
right
to incorporate
pre-school
general school
secondary school
higher education
compulsory
to enter academy
to approve
bill
transition
наизусть слова и выражения
образование
право
объединять, соединять
дошкольный
средняя школа
средняя школа
высшее
образование
обязательный
поступать в академию
одобрять, утверждать
закон
переход, переходный
период
двух-уровневая система
образования
степень бакалавра
степень магистра
исполнять, выполнять
основательный
научная деятельность
обучение
стипендия
сдать экзамены
каждый семестр
курс
консультация
социальные науки
посещать лекции
сдавать экзамены
образованный специалист
two-level higher education system
bachelor’s degree
master’s degree
to perform
profound
research activity
tuition
grant
pass the examinations
each term
course
tutorial
social sciences
attend lectures
take examinations
educated specialist
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Тексты для изучающего чтения
Прочитайте и переведите текст 1а.
Text 1a
Education in Russia
Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is
guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in our
country incorporates pre -school, general school, specialized
secondary and higher education.
The school education in the Russian Federation is compulsory for
children from 7 to 18 years of age.
The term of study in a general secondary school is 11 years and
consists of primary, middle and upper stages.
After finishing school or college young people may enter institute,
academy or university to get the higher education.
In 2007 the government of the Russian Federation has approved
the bill of transition to two-level higher education system. The bill
provides introduction in Russia such levels of higher education, as a
bachelor’s degree (the first level) and a master’s degree (the second
level).
The first level prepares the students for work with performing
functions in industrial, social, economic sphere (administrators,
managers, experts in sales, etc.). Preparation at the first level passes in
base directions, and profound specialization occurs at the second level.
The person with master’s degree focuses on analytical, design,
research activity. Training at the first level lasts 4 years, and at the
second level – 2 years. If you get a place at university, the tuition is
free, and some students also get a grant (money to pay for living
expenses, e.g. food and accommodation) as well.
When you finish the course and pass the examinations, you
receive a degree (the qualification when you complete a university
course successfully). Now Russian students can continue their studies
without problems in any high school of Europe and get a job abroad.
The academic year lasts ten months from the 1st September to the
end of June of the following year. It is divided into two semesters.
Almost all courses include theoretical studies of special subjects and
social sciences and practical training. During the semesters students
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attend lectures, tutorials, carry out laboratory tests, and do practical
work. Twice a year, at the end of each term, students take final exams.
To study is not an easy thing, of course, but nowadays it is quite
necessary to be highly skilled and educated specialist.
18. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. What does the public educational system in our country incorporate?
2. Is the school education in the Russian Federation compulsory or
optional?
3. What stages does the term of study in a general secondary school
consist of?
4. Where can young people enter after finishing school or college?
5. When did the government approve the bill of transition to two-level
higher education system?
6. When can young people get the bachelor's degree?
7. What is the master’s degree?
19. Заполните пропуски словами из текста.
1.
The … year lasts ten months from the 1st September to the end of
June of the following year. 2. Nowadays it is quite necessary to be
highly …. and educated… . 3. The government approved the …..of …
to two-level higher education system. 4. Now Russian students can
continue their study without problems in ….. of Europe and get a job
abroad. 5. The academic year is divided into two…. . 6. Training at the
first level … 4 years, and at the second level - 2 years. 7. Citizens of
Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by….. .
Прочитайте и выучите слова и выражения к тексту 1b
goal – цель
success – успех
study – учиться
department – факультет, отделение
specialist – специалист
bachelor – бакалавр
agriculture – сельское хозяйство
be situated in – располагаться в
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picturesque – живописный
mouth – устье
settlement – поселок
set up – начинаться, основываться
Samara Agrarian School – самарская аграрная школа
building – здание
be made of – делается из
look like – выглядит как
ancient castle – древний замок
post-war period – послевоенный период
nowadays – в настоящее время
comprise – включать, вмещать
hostel – общежитие
distant learners - заочники
train – обучать, тренировать
in addition to this – в дополнении к этому
specialize in – специализироваться в
advanced studies – углубленное изучение
enable – давать возможность
theoretical knowledge – теоретическое знание
practical skills – практические умения
combine – сочетать
classroom activities – аудиторная работа
vocational practice – профессиональная практика
moreover – более того
scientific – научный
on the basis of – на базе чего-либо
try themselves – попробовать себя
research - исследование
daily routine – повседневные занятия, рутина
period – пара
attend - посещать
practical training classes – практические занятия
laboratory – лаборатория
examination period – сессия
to get ready for – готовиться к
provide with – обеспечивать чем-либо
periodicals – газеты, журналы
available – доступный
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teaching staff – преподавательский состав
experienced – опытный
to my mind – по моему мнению
promotion courses – курсы повышения квалификации
due to – из-за, благодаря
international activity – международная деятельность
encourage – поощрять, поддерживать
participate – участвовать
enhance – углублять, улучшать, повышать
education – образование
socialize – общаться
take part – принимать участие
performance – представление
contest – конкурс, состязание
celebrate – праздновать
anniversary – годовщина, юбилей
no doubt – без сомнения
be on the way to – быть на пути к
Text 1b
Samara State Agricultural Academy
My name is Igor Sviridov. I started the Academy some months
ago. I study at the Engineering department and will make a specialist
(a bachelor) in agriculture in a few years.
Our Academy is situated in one of the most beautiful and
picturesque places of Samara region near the mouth of the Kinel river
in a settlement called Ust-Kinelskii. It was set up as Samara
Agrarian School at the beginning of the 20th century. The oldest
building of the Academy is made of red brick and looks like an
ancient castle. Now everybody calls it “the Red Building”. In the postwar period the other buildings were constructed.
Nowadays
our
Academy
comprises
Agronomical,
Biotechnological, Engineering, Economical and Technological faculties
and some hostels. There is also one more faculty for distant learners.
To name the figures, students are trained in 22 specializations at our
Academy: Agronomy, Plant protection, Animal selection and genetics,
Mechanization of agriculture, Agricultural economics and many others.
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In addition to this, three faculties (Engineering, Technological and
Economical) specialize in advanced English studies.
I think our Academy enables students to get both theoretical
knowledge and practical skills as we combine our classroom
activities with vocational practice on the farms of Samara region.
Moreover, there is a students scientific laboratory organized on the
basis of Agronomical Faculty. So students can try themselves in
scientific research.
As for our daily routine, we usually have 4 periods a day. We
attend lectures, go to practical training classes and seminars, do a lot
of laboratory works in physics, chemistry and other subjects in special
laboratories and computer centres. Twice a year we have an
examination period.
To get ready for classes, tests and exams, we are provided with a
great collection of text-books, scientific literature and periodicals in
two reading rooms and a library. Its electronic catalogue is always
available to the students and teaching staff.
Speaking about our teachers, they are very experienced, to my
mind. Some of them have taken their promotion courses in the leading
universities of the world, due to the international activity of the
Academy. Students are also encouraged to participate in different
international programmes and enhance their education abroad. Our
foreign educational partners are Germany, France, Poland, Czech
Republic, Canada.
As we study, so we have fun. We like to socialize and take part in
different performances and contests, such as traditional Students`
Autumns and Springs, Beauty Contests and so on.
When it comes to sport life, there are two sport centres in our
Academy where students do their favourite sports. We play football,
hockey, basketball, rugby, do athletics, wrestling, go skiing, skating and
what not!
In September 2010 we celebrated the 90th anniversary of the
Academy. No doubt, it is quite a long time, but our Academy is on the
way to new goals and new success! I am proud to study at Samara
State Agricultural Academy!
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20. Закончите фразы, используя данные ниже слова. Составьте
с фразами свои собственные предложения.
Scientific, routine, education, activity, knowledge, classroom, lectures,
staff, training, promotion, vocational, specialist, place, football,
Agrarian School, red brick, athletics, post-war, skiing, studies, training
1. … in agriculture
2. picturesque …
3. was set up as …
4. is made of …
5. … period
6. advanced English …
7. theoretical …
8. practical …
9. … activities
10. … practice
11. … laboratories
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
daily …
to attend …
practical … classes
teaching …
… courses
international …
to enhance …
to play …
to do …
to go …
21. Заполните пропуски соответствующими предлогами:
1. to study … the Academy
2. to be situated … a beautiful place
3. … the mouth of the Kinel river
4. to specialize …
5. to combine classroom activities … vocational practice
6. to be organized … the basis … the Academy
7. to provide … a great collection of books
8. to get ready … the classes
9. to be available … the students
10. speaking … our teachers
11. to take part … different performances
12. to be … the way … new goals
22. Завершите предложения, используя текст 1b:
1. In a few years I`ll make a … .
2. Our Academy is situated near … .
3. The building of the Agronomical faculty looks like … .
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4. I think it`s a good idea to combine … .
5. Students can choose any scientific society … .
6. We attend … .
7. To get ready for the classes and tests we go to … .
8. Students are also encouraged to … .
9. As we study, so … .
10. In September 2010 we celebrated … .
11. I am proud to … .
Прочитайте диалоги 1 и разыграйте их в парах.
- Hello Irene. Why, are you a student at the Academy?
- Well, because the problems of biology are very important now, and I
like biology. And what about you?
- You see, my mother is a agronomist and my father is a forester. We
live on a farm. When I was a child they often took me to the fields and
to the forest. I’d like to work on a farm too.
- What was your mother’s Institute?
- Ours.
- When was it?
- Twenty years ago.
- Does she like her work?
- Certainly. She is a good agronomist.
- And what about your father?
- Oh, his work is interesting too. In our forests there are many tree
species, many animal species, and he knows all of them very well.
- Is your daughter a student?
- Not yet.
- Does she know what she wants to major in?
- She hasn’t made her mind yet, But I believe she’ll be a student of
economics.
- Economics is very broad concept.
- She’s keen on marketing.
- Oh, that’s a good career. Can the students go to the university free of
charge?
- No, everyone must pay a tuition fee.
- Is high education is expensive in USA?
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- Rather expensive. The tuition fee ranges from $ 3,000 to 22,000 a
year.
- Is it the same for all students?
- No, it isn’t. Out-of-state student pay about twice more than the local
one.
- Why, Paul! What a pleasant surprise!
- Hello, Mike. This is a small world! Now I am a first – year student of
- Let me guess. Are you a student of the faculty of engineering?
- No, I’m not.
- Technological faculty?
- You’re mistaken again.
- Oh, yes. You study at the faculty of economics.
- Right you are.
- My best congratulations!
-Thanks.
- How many lessons do you have a day?
- Let me see … On Monday and Friday we have three lessons, on
Wednesday – five, the rest of the week – four ones.
- Do you study on Saturday?
- No.
- Hi, Nick! I haven’t seen you at the University for a while. What’s the
matter?
- You see, Mike, now I am an extramural student (студент – заочник).
- Really?
- I work and study. I’ve got married.
- Glad to hear it. Is your wife a student?
- Yes, she is.
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Тексты для ознакомительного чтения
Прочитайте текст 1a и ответьте по-русски на вопросы.
Что такое плагиат?
Как преподаватели могут распознать плагиат в работах
своих учеников?
В связи с чем автор статьи упоминает своего сына?
Text 1a
A Web of Lies?
Jane Wilshere explores the effect that the world wide web is
having on school life.
The incredible growth of the Internet over recent years has caused
problems for parents and teachers. Parents worry about which sites their
children spend time on, who they chat to online and the possible effects
that computer games might have on them. For teachers, meanwhile, the
main worry is the way the Internet makes cheating easier!
Schools and universities say there has been a huge increase in
plagiarism – taking other people’s words and ideas and pretending that
they are your own. In the past, anyone who wanted to copy had to go to
a library, find the right books, read through them, find the sections they
needed and then physically write down the words they wanted to use.
Nowadays, though, students can simply copy extracts from websites –
while really desperate students sometimes copy whole essays! As if this
wasn’t bad enough, sites offering to actually do homework – at a
price – have also started appearing.
Despite all this, we shouldn’t assume that the Internet only brings
problems. Indeed, you could say that for every problem the Internet
creates, it also brings a solution. Parents can now use sophisticated
controls to stop kids accessing sites that might do them harm, whilst
new software helps teachers to detect copied work immediately. Many,
of course, are already able to recognize when someone is cheating!
“Some students suddenly start using words they can’t possibly
understand like ‘dialectical antagonism’”, explains one teacher, “or
parts of their essays feel different. In fact, one of my students recently
gave me an essay he’d copied from the Web and it even contained Web
advertisements – AND the name of the original author!”
One of the hardest things for teachers today is deciding how to
mix modern technology with traditional study skills – and how best to
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use the Web in class. As more and more schools install computers in
every classroom, the role of the teacher is changing. Making sure
students don’t just copy things and do learn how to quote copied work
properly is part of their job, but so is designing suitable projects.
My 13-year-old son is currently working on a project that involves
listing all the trees in our town. Along with three other students, he has
to photograph them, write about their characteristics, describe the fruit
and flowers they produce and so on. This is all uploaded onto a website,
and his group discusses their work on Messenger. Finally, they’ll give a
PowerPoint presentation about their ideas to the class. Instead of
helping him cheat, the Web is actually helping him learn about school
subjects, while also helping to develop his life skills and social skills!
Пояснения к тексту
lie
incredible
to worry
chat
meanwhile=meantime
increase
to pretend
extracts
desperate
to offer
despite all this
to assume
solution
sophisticated
access
harm
whilst= while
to mix
to install
to quote
cheat
skills
ложь, обман
невероятный
беспокоить
беседа, болтовня
тем временем, между тем
рост, возрастание
притворяться, делать вид
выдержки
отчаянный
предлагать
несмотря на все это
принимать
решение
сложный
доступ
вред
(какое-то) время
смешивать
вводить
цитировать
обман
навыки
23. Обсудите со своими однокурсниками следующие вопросы.
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1. How many hours a day do you spend on the computer?
2. Which websites do you visit the most? Why?
3. Did you use computers at school? In which classes?
4. What did you use them for?
5. What are some good/bad things about using computers for you?
24. Прочитайте текст 1b. К каждому параграфу подберите
соответствующее резюме (summary).
1. Belonging to a fashionable group helps teenagers feel secure.
2. There are particular qualities that help teenagers to be admired at
high school.
3. Students go to high school at a difficult time in their personal
development.
4. High school cliques and their leaders are easy to identify.
Text 1b
Parents Must Challenge High School Culture
Recent tragedies remind us of how dark and terrible a place high
school can be to some of our children if they are made to believe that
they do not fit in. The high school years coincide with the tremendous
physical and social changes of adolescence. Changes to one’s voice and
body and shape that cause powerful feelings of self-consciousness and
self-doubt.
In order to cope with these anxieties, teens are quick to form subcultures that assure them they are not alone. These little groups then
adopt behavior, speech patterns and tastes in clothes and music that
they use as criteria by which to judge who is “in” and who is “out”.
These cliques are both the cause and the cure of teenage insecurity.
Any high school will contain numerous sub-cultures, such as
jocks, goths, metal-heads, preppie or skaters. The name might vary but
everyone in the school will know who belongs where. Each group will
have an “Alpha male” (a boy who is the undisputed leader), and
perhaps an “Alpha female” too.
In the world of the high school there will be those who are
respected and those who are widely hated, and most kids will learn it is
best not to stick out. Athletic skill gives prestige to male students, the
library club does not. Conventional physical beauty and a good fashion
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sense are prize qualities for females. Girls are allowed by their peers to
get good marks, but being an intelligent boy can be a disadvantage. A
strong anti-intellectual current exists in most high schools.
(From ‘Across Culture’)
Пояснения к тексту
To challenge
to coincide
tremendous
adolescence
self-consciousness
self - doubt
to cope
anxiety
to assure
behavior
speech patterns
to judge
clique
cure
insecurity
jocks, goths, metal-heads
preppie or skaters
undisputed leader
to stick out
conventional
peer
подвергать сомнению, оспаривать
совпадать
огромный
подросток
смущения, неловкости
сомнение
совладать
беспокойство, тревога
уверять, заверять
поведение
речевые модели, образцы
решать, оценивать
группировка
средство
небезопасность
«качки, готы, металлисты»
«мажоры и скейтбордисты»
неоспоримые лидеры
высовываться
стандартный
ровня (одинаковый по возрасту зд.)
Прочитайте опорный текст 1a, вставляя соответствующие
формы глаголов to be и to have. Расскажите о своем учебном
заведении.
Topic 1a
Our Academy
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1. I ___ a first-year student of the Samara State Agricultural
Academy.
2. Our Academy ___ rather old, it ___ more than 90 years old.
3. Our Academy ___ four main buildings and some hostels.
4. Students of five departments study at the Academy.
5. They ___ Agronomical, Engineering, Biotechnological,
Technological and Economical departments.
6. There ___ many lecture halls and classrooms in the buildings.
7. There ___ also different laboratories and some computer
centers.
8. In the classrooms we have classes in physics, mathematics,
chemistry, biology, foreign languages.
9. Our Academy ___ a library and two reading-rooms, too.
10. There ___ a big collection of books, text-books and journals
on different specialities there.
11. English, German and French dictionaries ___ in the readingrooms.
12. Those who like sports can go to the sport centers and have
their training.
13. I ___ glad to study at the Academy.
Задайте вопросы своему другу.
1. Where do you study?
2. How old is your Academy?
3. How many buildings has your Academy?
4 How many departments are there in the Academy?
5. Which department do you study at?
6. Are there any lecture halls and classrooms in the buildings?
7. What classes do you have?
8. How many libraries and reading-rooms are there in the Academy?
9. Is there a big collection of text-books on different specialities there?
10. Where are English, German and French dictionaries?
11. Where do students have their sport trainings?
12. Are you glad to study at the Academy?
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Урок 2 (Lesson 2)
Словообразование. Суффиксы существительных, прилагательных
Грамматика. Будущее простое время (The Future Simple Tense).
Структура be going to. Союзы so, because, инфинитив для
выражения цели. Структуры It will be / There will be. Условные
предложения
первого типа.
Степени сравнения
имен
прилагательных.
Тексты: «University Education in Great Britain», «Oxbridge»
(изучающее чтение).
Диалоги: «My Old School» – 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d.
Тексты: «The University Boat-Race», «Eton», «Harvard University»
(ознакомительное чтение).
Письменная работа: написание краткой биографии «Curriculum
Vitae».
Словообразование
1. Добавьте к глаголам следующие словообразовательные
суффиксы: -sion, -ist, -ment, -ance, -tion, -er, -or, чтобы
образовать существительные. При необходимости произведите
орфографические изменения.
to tour
to employ
to allow
to teach
to populate
to explain
to perform
tourist
…
…
…
…
…
…
to support
to develop
to discuss
to read
to compete
to translate
to communicate
…
…
…
…
…
…
…
2.
Добавьте
к
существительным
следующие
словообразовательные суффиксы: -al, -ful, -ing, -ent, -able, -ic, ous, -y, -less, чтобы образовать прилагательные . При
необходимости произведите орфографические изменения.
tradition
music
education
charm
traditional
…
…
…
difference
interest
accident
science
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…
…
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fame
beauty
hope
fashion
power
…
…
…
…
…
shine
intellect
use
danger
…
…
…
…
3. Дополните предложения, используя слова предыдущих
упражнений.
1. I can’t play the guitar or sing. I have no m… talent at all.
2. Educational systems of Great Britain and America are not very
much d… from each other.
3. I prefer modern music to t… music. I am not fond of folk
music.
4. Oxbridge is f… for its high standards of education all over the
world.
5. The p… of Mexico City is 20 million.
6. The weather is so s… today!
7. They carry out a s… experiment at university.
8. Professor J. Smith gives very i… lectures in archeology.
9. As far as mechanical ability goes, George is h… .
10. The university drama society will give a p… of Hamlet.
4. Прочитайте текст. Дополните его соответствующими
однокоренными словами к тем, которые напечатаны в конце
строки заглавными буквами.
Life at College
Good A Level results in at least two subjects are
necessary to get a place at British universities.
Universities choose their students after
interviews, and _____ for places is fierce.
When they first arrive at college, first-year
university students are called _____ . A fresher’s
life can be _____ but _____ for the first weeks.
Many freshers will feel themselves very _____
and homesick. They learn how _____ their life is
at college now from that they had at school. They
also learn a new way of studying.
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COMPETE
FRESH
EXITE TERRIFY
COMFORT
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Once or twice a term (or even more often),
students will have a _____ class. This means that TUTOR
they see a tutor alone to have a _____ about their DISCUSS
work and their progress.
After three or four years these students will take
their finals and be able to put BA (Bachelor of
Arts) or BSc (Bachelor of Science) after their
name.
Грамматика
Будущее простое время (The Future Simple Tense)
The Future Simple употребляется для выражения:
решения, принятого непосредственно в момент речи;
It’s dark in here. I’ll turn on the light.
предложения
(о
помощи,
услуг),
обещания,
предупреждения, надежды;
I’ll help you carry your suitcase.
I promise I’ll be on time.
Предположения (часто с глаголами believe, hope, think).
1
The new shopping centre will open next May.
Утвердительная
Отрицательная
форма
форма
I’ll(will) work*
I won’t work
You’ll work
You won’t work
He’ll work
She’ll work
He won’t work
She won’t work
It’ll work
We’ll work*
It won’t work
We won’t work
You’ll work
You won’t work
They’ll work
They won’t work
Вопросительная
Краткие ответы
форма
Will I work?
Yes, I will; No, I won’t.
Will you work? Yes, you will; No, you
won’t.
Will he work?
Yes, he will; No, he won’t.
Will she work? Yes, she will; No, she
won’t.
Will it work?
Yes, it will; No, it won’t.
Will we work?
Yes, we will; No, we
won’t.
Will you work? Yes, you will; No, you
won’t.
Will they work? Yes, they will; No, they
won’t.
1
*В официальной речи для выражения решений в 1л. ед. и мн. ч.
используется вспомогательный глагол shall.
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Наречия и фразы, характерные для употребления The Future
Simple Tense.
tonight;
tomorrow;
soon;
next week / month;
in two days / a week;
the day after tomorrow.
He’ll pass his driving test next week.
5. Вставьте will (‘ll) или will not (won’t).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Don’t forget to take your gloves. It … be cold tomorrow.
Hurry or you … catch the bus!
“We haven’t got any potatoes.” “Okay, I … buy some.”
Watch out or you … hit your head.
Put on your jacket or you … be cold.
I don’t like Paul so I … invite him to the party.
I’m tired. I think I … stay at home tonight.
I don’t think it … be sunny tomorrow.
“Let’s go to a restaurant.” “Great! I … cook dinner, then.”
It … be rainy tomorrow so don’t forget to take your umbrella.
6. Используйте опорные слова, чтобы составить предложения
по образцу.
1. It/not be/sunny today.
It won’t be sunny today.
Will it be sunny tomorrow, then?
2. She/not do/ the shopping today.
3. He/not cook/dinner tonight.
4. I/not go/to the cinema tonight.
5. Bill/hot play/ football this afternoon.
6. He/not visit/ his sister today.
7. I/not tidy/my room today.
8. Ivan/not go/for a walk tonight.
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7. Дополните текст, употребив глаголы в скобках в будущем
простом времени.
The VLT is the world’s largest telescope (the name says it all –
VLT – Very Large Telescope). It is 2,600 meters up in the Chilean
Andes. The VLT is so powerful it can spot a lighted match
10,000 kilometres away. This astonishing power … (allow)
astronomers to see events in space. They … (be able) to see the birth of
stars or the collision of galaxies, for example. That … (be) a sight
worth seeing! Astronomers believe the telescope … (reveal) more about
these exiting events in the years to come.
Структура be going to
Структура be going to употребляется для выражения:
намерений и планов на будущее;
I am going to enter the university when I finish school.
предположений, основанных на очевидном.
Rodriguez passes the ball to Ronaldo, who is just outside the penalty
area and he’s on his own – yes, he is going to score!
Утвердительная форма: I am/You are/He is etc. going to start a
computer course.
Отрицательная форма: I'm not/You aren't/He isn't etc. going to
start a computer course.
Вопросительная форма: Am I/Are you/Is he.etc. going to start a
computer course?
Краткие ответы: Yes, I am/you are/he is etc. No, I'm not/you
aren't/he isn't etc.
8. В следующие выходные у Натальи день рождения и она
собирается организовать вечеринку. Используя структуру be
going to и следующие выражения, составьте предложения.
Natalya is going to arrange her birthday party at the weekend.
send invitations to friends
decorate the room
download some good music
make sandwiches and snacks
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buy some fizzy drinks and juice
bake a birthday cake
have a great time
9. Расскажите о своих планах на неделю.
I am going to write a report on history on Monday.
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
write a report on history
do shopping
take the car to a mechanic
have an extra class in maths
go to training in skiing
see my parents
go to a dance party
10. Работая в парах, обсудите, что вы собираетесь и что не
собираетесь делать в будущем. Используйте выражения для
справок.
I am going to help my parents on the farm more often this year.
I am not going to go to bed so late any more.
do homework every day
study hard
play computer games
get up early and go running
eat healthy (fast) food
do a lot of exercises to get fit
live in the country
have a large family
have own business
work on the farm
travel around the world
do a bungee jump
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11. Вставьте will или правильную форму структуры be going to.
1. A: I need to go to the dentist.
B: Okay, I … drive you there.
2. A: Your shirt is dirty.
B: I know. I … wash it later.
3. A: I don’t understand this exercise!
B: Don’t worry, I … help you.
4. A: What are your plans for this evening?
B: We … watch a DVD.
5. A: What are you going to do when you grow up, Benny?
B: I … go to Hollywood and be an actor!
6. A: Do you remember those boots I told you about?
B: Yes, I … buy them.
7. A: Do you really think so?
B: Yes, I believe people … live on the Mars in the future.
8. A: There’s someone at the door.
B: No problem, I … open.
9. A: Why is she wearing these clothes?
B: She … have dinner with Paul.
10. A: What are Lindsay’s plans for the summer?
B: He … work at a service workshop to earn some money.
11. A: I am hungry.
B: I … make you a sandwich.
12. A: Shall we go out tonight?
B: Sorry, I can’t. My brother and … visit our aunt.
12. Соедините части предложений союзом – so (поэтому) – как
показано в примере.
Tom has a terrible toothache, so he is going to visit the dentist.
1. Amanda likes music
2. Chris wants to go on
holiday
3. Lisa needs to relax
4. Dave wants to have a
party
5. Jill wants to take
some pictures
a. save some money.
b. borrow a camera.
c. send invitations to his
friends.
d. stay at home.
e. take piano lessons.
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13. Найдите
соответствие
между намерением
причиной/целью. Составьте предложения по образцу.
Oleg is going to stay at home because she wants to relax.
Oleg is going to stay at home to relax.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
намерение
save money
study hard
take English lessons
buy a present
do power lifting
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
и
причина/цель
pass exams
get a job in Europe
buy a car
be well-built
go to a birthday party
Структуры It will be / There will be
It will be + прилагательное : It will be foggy tomorrow.
There will be + существительное : There will be fog tomorrow.
14. Вставьте It или There.
… will be fewer cars in the future.
… will be rainy in St.Petersburg tomorrow.
… will be sunshine in Madrid next week.
… will be strong winds in Prague tomorrow.
… will be hot in Rome next week.
… will be cloudy in London tomorrow.
… will be holographic images instead of real teachers in
the future.
8. … will be more independent work for university students
in the years to come.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Условные предложения первого типа (First Conditional)
Условные предложения первого типа употребляются для
описания реального или вероятного условия в настоящем или
будущем. Условные предложения обычно вводятся союзом if и
выполняют функцию придаточного предложения в составе
сложноподчиненного.
Придаточные
предложения
времени
вводятся союзами when (когда), before (до того как, перед тем
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как), after (после того как), as soon as (как только), till (пока, до
тех пор пока), until (пока не).
If (when, as soon as etc.) + Present Simple, Future Simple
If we go shopping tomorrow, I will buy a new handbag.
I will call you as soon as I pass all my exams.
В условных предложениях вместо will можно использовать
модальный глагол. – If you get some rest, you might feel
better tomorrow.
В
условных
предложениях
можно использовать
повелительное наклонение. – If you don’t feel well, go home.
15. Найдите соответствия между частями предложений.
Переведите предложения.
1. If you go to bed late
2. If you visit London
3. If you go on a tour of
Athens
4. If you win a lot of money
5. If you smoke
a. you will feel happy.
b. you will damage your
health.
c. you will feel tired.
d. you will see Big Ben.
e. you
will
see
the
Parthenon.
16. Исправьте грамматические ошибки в выделенных местах.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
If my mum is tired tonight, I cook dinner.
John will tell us if there will be any news.
If you see Karen, do you ask her to call me?
Does Frank join us if we go on a picnic at the weekend?
If you need help, will tell me!
17. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в соответствующую
форму.
1. If Maria doesn’t come to the party, Greg …(be) very upset.
2. I will be surprised if Mark and Dana …(not/get married)
soon.
3. They …(not/mind) if we’re a bit late this afternoon.
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4. If he …(do) well in the exam, his parents will buy him a
scooter.
5. If the weather is fine, we …(leave) at six o’clock in the
morning.
18. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выберите правильный
вариант ответа.
Millions of people are vegetarians and they are perfectly healthy.
You have to be careful, though. If you (1)… up eating meat completely,
and only (2)… chocolate and crisps, that will be very bad for you! If
people don’t eat properly, they (3)… ill, because their body (4)… all
the things it needs to stay healthy. If you (5)… lots of fruit and salad
and beans and so on, you will get all necessary matters for the body.
But if you (6)… only 15 or 16 and you live with your parents, you
(7)… ask them what they think too. For example, if your mum (8)… for
you, it (9)… difficult for her to make you special meals.
1. A give
B will give
2. A will eat B eat
3. A will get B get
4. A will get B won’t get
5. A have
B will have
6. A are
B will be
7. A have to B will have to
8. A cooks
B will cook
9. A is
B will be
19. Ответьте на вопросы полными предложениями.
1. What will you do this weekend if you have free time?
If I ………. .
2. What will you say if your friend asks you to go to the cinema
this evening?
If my friend ………. .
3. How will you celebrate if you pass all your exams this year?
If I ………. .
4. What will you do if your little brother is not easy to learn
English at school?
If my little brother ………. .
5. What will you sing if your friend has his birthday?
If my friend ……… .
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Степени сравнения имен прилагательных
Вид
Односложные
Положительная
cheap
large
big
Двусложные,
оканчивающиеся noisy
на –y, -er, -ow
narrow
clever
Прилагательные
с двумя или
expensive
более слогами
Сравнительная
cheaper
larger
bigger
Превосходная
the cheapest
the largest
the biggest
noisier
narrower
cleverer
the noisiest
the narrowest
the cleverest
more expensive
the most
expensive
Сравнительная степень прилагательного используется для
сравнения двух предметов, людей, мест и т.д. С прилагательными
в сравнительной степени обычно используется союз than (чем).
The city is noisier than the country.
Сравнительная степень может употребляться с усилительным
словом much (гораздо).
An elephant is much heavier than a mouse.
Превосходная степень прилагательного используется для
сравнения одного предмета или человека с целой группой
предметов или людей, к которой он принадлежит. Превосходная
степень всегда употребляется с определенным артиклем и часто
с предлогами of/in.
The giraffe is the tallest animal of all.
Chile is the driest place in the world.
Существует ряд прилагательных, представляющих собой
исключения из общего правила образования степеней сравнения.
Положительная
good
хороший
bad
плохой
many, much
многие
little
маленький
Сравнительная
better
лучше
worse
хуже
more
более
less
меньший
Превосходная
the best
самый лучший
the worst
самый плохой
the most
наибольший
the least
наименьший
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old
старый
late
поздний
far
далекий
older
старее
elder
старше
later
более поздний
the oldest
самый старый
the eldest
самый старший
the latest
самый
поздний,
(о новостях)
latter
последний (из
двух названных)
the last
последний, прошлый
(по порядку, по времени)
farther
более далекий
(по расстоянию)
further
(дальнейший,
дополнительный)
the farthest
самый дальний
последний
the furthest
самый дальний
Для сравнения можно также использовать прерывистые
союзы as…as, not as…as, not so… as, внутри которых
употребляется положительная степень прилагательного.
My brother is as tall as my father.
My brother is not as tall as my father.
20. Вставьте в таблицу недостающие формы прилагательного
и переведите их.
Положительная
Сравнительная
more beautiful
Превосходная
lovely
the eldest
less
the prettiest
intelligent
safer
more powerful
the worst
latter
good
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21. Вставьте вместо пропусков in, of, than, the, as …as.
1. The Amazon River is longer … Mississippi.
2. The State of the Vatican City is… smallest country… the
world.
3. New York is not … clean … Stratford.
4. There are many hotels in my town. The Chelsea is the most
comfortable … all.
5. The Whiskey is a famous club … Los Angeles.
6. Living in the country is cheaper … living in the city.
7. Death Valley is the hottest place … the world.
8. Oxford is not … noisy … Paris.
22. Поставьте прилагательные в скобках в правильную форму.
1. This city is … (crowded) than it was five years ago.
2. Mount McKinley isn't as … (high) as Mount Everest.
3. Is Athens … .(old) city in Europe?
4. The Sahara is … (large) desert in the world.
5. Edinburgh is … (cheap) than Paris.
6. Which is … (tall) building in the world?
7. A chimpanzee is not as …(big) as an elephant.
23. Поставьте прилагательные в скобках в правильную форму.
Употребите than, of, in, the где необходимо.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
She has got … toys … her sister. (many)
The cheetah is … animal … all. (fast)
That dress is very … . (expensive)
That was … film of all. (good)
Her flat is … … ours. (big)
Tom Cruise is very … . (famous)
Which is … city … the USA? (large)
Motorcycles are … .aeroplanes. (dangerous)
Your money is … in the bank … it is at home. (safe)
My sister is … person I know. (kind)
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24. Следуя образцу, переделайте предложения, употребляя
сравнительную или превосходную степень прилагательного в
скобках.
Bill is 16. Susan is 18. (young) – Bill is younger than Susan.
Everybody in his class is older than Bill. (young) – Bill is the youngest
student in his class.
1. Maggie is 1.70 m. Peter is 1.80 m. (short)
2. Bob had three driving accidents. Jane didn’t have any
accidents. (dangerous)
3. Susan always comes top in class. Bill always comes
bottom. (successful)
4. Nobody in her class can do better at tests than Susan.
(intelligent)
5. Jim tells really good jokes. Nobody laughs at Fred’s jokes.
(funny)
6. Today’s test is easy. Yesterday’s test was hard. (difficult)
7. Nobody in his group could run a mile in twelve minutes
except Peter. (fast)
8. Rome is full of lovely buildings. Coketown is full of
factories. (beautiful)
25. Используя данные прилагательные,
6 предложений о вашей семье или друзьях.
напишите
Charming, fashionable, patient, friendly, old, short
My sister is shorter than my mother but she is as short as my granny.
26. Ответьте на вопросы, начиная свой ответ со слов:
I think …
It seems to me that …
As for me …
To my mind …
In my opinion …
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1. Who is the most intelligent person you know?
2. Which was the most difficult subject at school?
3. What is more interesting for you: to watch or to read?
4. Who is the best swimmer in your family?
5. Which is the highest building in your town (city)?
6. What is more enjoyable for you: to spend summer at the seaside or in the country?
7. When was the happiest moment in your life?
8. What is the oldest thing your family owns?
9. What is more difficult: to enter university or to study there?
10. What is the smallest thing you have in your pockets?
11. Who is the most famous film star in our country/in the world?
27. Повторите весь пройденный грамматический материал
урока 2 и выполните задание с выбором правильного ответа.
1. Don’t worry, we … you to get ready for the test.
A help B helps C will help
2. It’s so cloudy and windy outside. It … rain.
A will B is going to C are going to
3. I’m sure you … find your bag soon.
A are going to B is going to C will
4. As far as I know, Nadine … invite everyone from her class
– just her best friends.
A will B won’t C isn’t going to
5. I think she … win the match tomorrow.
A is going to B am going to C will
6. Oh, mum, you’re so tired, I … the washing-up after dinner.
A am going to do B will do C won’t do
7. We … to a café after I pass all my exams.
A go out B goes out C will go out
8. When I … to the park to ride my bike, I will call you.
A go B goes C will go
9. If I pass all my exams successfully this year, I … a party.
A hold B will hold C holds
10. Sandra is going to save money … she wants to go to Egypt.
A so B because C to
11. John wants to be a professional basketball player … he
spends much time training.
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A so B because C to
12. It’s necessary to learn English … study in Europe.
A so B because C to
13. … will be more documents to sign tomorrow.
A It B There C Their
14. … will be more difficult to study at university than at
school.
A It B There C Their
15. Susan is a … girl.
A pretty B prettier C the prettiest
16. The Eiffel Tower is … tower in France.
A the more famous B more famous C the most famous
17. Is Rome … than Venice?
A old B more old C older
18. To my mind, this carpet is … than that one.
A badder B worse C the worse
19. My father is … driver I know.
A careful B the carefullest C the most careful
20. Your daughter is as … as you are.
A smarter B smart
C more smart
Лексический минимум 2
Изучите и выучите наизусть слова и выражения лексического
минимума:
education
образование
educational system
образовательная система
complex
сложный, комплексный
to include
включать
leading
ведущий
to differ from
отличаться от
government
управление,
руководство,
правительство
to reach
достигать
to date back
относиться,
восходить
к
(определённой эпохе)
to keep traditions
сохранять традиции
ancient
древний
to be founded
быть основанным
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quality
to support
to consist of
term
to last
activity
vocations
Christmas
Easter
intellectual digestion
private
tutorial
tutorial system
to prepare
degree
undergraduate
graduate
to graduate from
to leave
Bachelor
Master
research
postgraduate
to preserve
scholar
society
common employment
scholarship
churchmen
hard
trouble
townsfolk
accidentally
качество
поддерживать
состоять из
семестр
длиться, продолжаться
деятельность
каникулы
рождество
пасха
интеллектуальное усвоение
личный, индивидуальный
консультация, встреча студента
со
своим
руководителемнаставником
университетская
система
прикрепления
студентов
к
отдельным
консультантам,
наставникам
готовить, подготавливать
степень
студент
выпускник
заканчивать вуз
оставлять, заканчивать
бакалавр
магистр
исследование
изучаемый после окончания
университета
хранить, сохранять
уст. ученик
общество
общее занятие
обучение
церковнослужители
трудный
затруднение, проблема
горожане, местные жители
случайно
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mayor
innocent
to move
elite
to provide
prominent
vice chancellor
to be allowed
to enter
competition
to be in session
to adjourn
relic
medieval times
to belong
to be engaged in
rowing
to harvest
yield
Фразовые глаголы:
to carry out
to go back
to join together
to join in
to make up
to bring together
мэр
невиновный
двигаться, перемещаться
элитный, элита
обеспечивать
известный, выдающийся
глава университета
быть позволено
поступать
конкуренция, конкурс
быть в работе, работать
делать перерыв, расходиться
след, остаток
средневековье
принадлежать
быть занятым в
гребля
убирать урожай
урожай
проводить
возвращаться,
уходить
прошлое
объединяться
вступать, присоединяться
составлять
объединять
28. Вставьте фразовые глаголы по смыслу:
carry out, join in, make up, bring together, join together, go back
1. University clubs … students of different faculties.
2. A university professor will … some research into his subject.
3. Oxford and Cambridge keep the traditions which … so far!
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4. The students of Oxford and Cambridge … one of the most elite
elites in the world.
5. Pamela will … the celebration in a few minutes.
6. People with common interests usually … into a society.
29. Вставьте вместо пропусков слова для справок.
professor, university, lectures, tutor, school, lecturer, teaches, degree,
graduate, help
People in Education
A … is not a teacher in a secondary … , but has the highest
academic position in … . A … is a university teacher. Lecturers and
professors give … . Students in Britain usually have a … who gives
them advice and … students in small groups. You … from university
with a … If you do the postgraduate work, you will have a supervisor
to … and advise you.
30. Найдите соответствие между словами и их толкованиями.
Education
With a lot of small parts, difficult.
Complex
Very old.
Ancient
A group of people with common
employment or interests.
Term
To get ready for classes, tests,
exams etc.
To prepare
One of the periods of time the
year is divided into for students.
Society
The activity of teaching people in
schools, colleges and universities.
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31. Поставьте предложения в правильном порядке. Обратите
внимание на использование и перевод новых слов.
Используйте
сведения о системе
образования в
Великобритании для выполнения задания.
3-4 years old: Nursery school, playgroup or kin dergarten.
5-6 years old: Infant school of primary school.
7-11 years old: Junior school of primary school.
12-16 years old: Secondary school.
17-18 years old: Sixth Form College.
19-21 years old: University or Polytechnic.
22-23 years old: University (postgraduate course).
1. When Maria was at Nursery school, her major activities were
playing and having fun.
After finishing her BSc, she took a year off.
When she was at Junior school, she loved nature studies and
was engaged in animal lovers society.
She got a place at University to do biology.
She got into Secondary school and reached good results in all
subjects.
In her Infant school she began learning how to read and write.
In her Sixth Form she studied A-levels to enter university.
She decided to continue her studies for her Master’s degree
and do postgraduate work.
She graduated with first-class degree.
Her research is in microbiology.
32. Прочитайте однокоренные слова. Распределите их по трем
колонкам как показано в примере. Переведите слова, не
используя словарь.
Education, educational, to educate; leading, to lead, leader;
government, to govern; to found, foundation; activity, active to act;
digestion, to digest, digestive; tutorial, tutor, tuition; to prepare,
preparation, preparatory; to graduate, graduation; to preserve,
preservation; to employ, employment; scholar, scholarship; church,
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churchmen; to move movement; to provide, provider; to allow,
allowance; to enter, entry; to compete, competition; to row, rowing.
Существительное
education
(образование)
Прилагательное
educational
(образовательный)
Глагол
to educate
(давать образование,
обучать)
Тексты для изучающего чтения
Прочитайте и переведите тексты.
Text 2a
University Education in Great Britain
Part I
The educational system of Great Britain is extremely complex.
Speaking about post-school education, it includes universities,
colleges of higher education and some business schools.
There are more than 44 universities in Britain. Oxford, Cambridge
and London are the leading ones. They all differ from each other in
history and traditions, general organization or internal government.
British universities are comparatively small. The approximate number
of students reaches about seven or eight thousand. Most universities
have under three thousand students, some of them have even less than
one thousand and a half ones. London and Oxford universities are
famous for being international as people from many parts of the world
can come to study at one of their colleges.
The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge date back to the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries respectively. They still keep ancient
traditions and the way how students lived and studied long ago. The
Scottish Universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and
Edinburgh were founded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. All
the other universities started in the last two centuries.
There are some more institutions where the quality of education is
considered of university standard. For example, they are: the University
of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology; the two
postgraduate business schools which are supported jointly by industry
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and the government – the Manchester Business School and the London
Graduate School of Business Studies; the Imperial College of Science
and Technology; and the Royal College of Art.
Part II
A British university usually consists of colleges. The departments
of the colleges are organized into faculties: art, law, music, economy,
education, medicine, engineering, agriculture and so on. The academic
year at a university has three terms whish last roughly eight to ten
weeks. Each term is full of activity and the vocations between the
terms – a month at Christmas, a month at Easter, and three or four
months in summer – are mainly periods of intellectual digestion and
private study. During the terms students have a series of lectures,
seminars, tutorials and laboratory classes. Lectures are given to large
groups of students while seminars are for smaller ones. Lectures and
seminars are all as long as one hour. As for laboratory classes, they last
two or three hours. Teaching is also carried out by tutorial system.
This is the system of individual tuition which implies that each student
goes to his tutor’s room once a week to read and discuss an assay the
student has prepared.
A person studying for a degree at a British university is called an
undergraduate . After three or four years of study he becomes a
graduate and will leave with the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science
(BA, BSc). Students can continue studying for their Master’s degree
(Master of Arts or of Science – MA, MSc) and then for the highest
university degree – the Doctor’s degree (Doctor of Philosophy – PhD).
They carry out a research in a particular field and do their
postgraduate work.
33. Дополните выражения в соответствии с содержанием
текста. Используйте каждое из слов для справок только один
раз.
Bachelor, out, supported, famous, university, to differ, educational,
schools, study, weeks, private, degree, back, traditions, tuition, of
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
the … system
some business …
… from each other
universities are … for
to come to …
to date … to
to keep ancient …
of … standard
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
to be … by industry
to consist … colleges
eight to ten …
… study
to carry …
to study for a …
individual …
… of Arts or Science
34. Соедините части, чтобы получились предложения.
1. Post-school education in
Great Britain
2. The University of Oxford
3. The two postgraduate
business
schools are
supported jointly
4. The departments of the
colleges are
5. The academic year at a
university has
6. Each term
7. The vocations between
the terms
8. Large groups of students
9. Laboratory classes last
10. Each student goes
11. A person studying for a
degree
12. three terms.
13. was founded in the twelfth
century.
14. two or three hours.
15. by industry and the
government.
16. are mainly periods of
intellectual digestion.
17. includes
universities,
colleges
and
some
business schools.
18. is full of activity.
19. listen to lectures.
20. is
called
an
undergraduate.
21. organized into faculties.
22. to his tutor’s room once a
week.
35. Выберите из списка утвержде ний а) относящиеся к
содержанию текста; б) истинные по отношению к содержанию.
а)
1. Oxford, Cambridge and London are the leading universities in
Britain.
2. British universities are rather small.
3. Harvard University is not as old as the Universities of Oxford
and Cambridge.
4. Universities in Great Britain have different history and
traditions.
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5. Less than one per cent of Britain’s population go to Oxford and
Cambridge.
6. Oxford and Cambridge still keep ancient traditions and the way
how students lived and studied long ago.
б)
1. The University of Manchester Institute of Science and
Technology provides education of university standard.
2. The academic year at a university in Britain lasts roughly ten to
twelve weeks.
3. During the terms students have only tutorials due to the tutorial
system of education.
4. Lectures and seminars are all as long as one hour.
5. The system of individual tuition implies that each student goes
to his tutor’s room once in two months to read and discuss an
assay the student has prepared.
6. The highest university degree in Britain is the Doctor’s degree
(Doctor of Philosophy – PhD).
36. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту 2а.
1. What does post-school education in Great Britain include?
2. How many universities are there in Great Britain? Name the
leading ones.
3. How many students usually study at a university at a time?
4. What are London and Oxford universities famous for?
5. What are the most ancient universities in Britain?
6. Are there any other institutions in Britain where the quality of
education is considered of university standard?
7. How are the departments of the university colleges organized?
8. What do students do during the terms?
9. When do students have their vocations and how do they spend
them?
10. What do you know about the tutorial system of education?
11. How do they call a person studying for a degree at a British
university?
12. How long does it take a student to become a graduate with the
degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science?
13. Can students continue to study for a higher degree?
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37. Используйте вопросы предыдущего упражнения в каче стве
плана к пересказу текста 2а. Выпишите опорные слова и
выражения, перескажите текст.
Text 2b
Oxbridge
For eight hundred years two universities dominated British
education, and today they dominate even more than ever. Oxford and
Cambridge preserve an antique way of life at the beginning of the 21st
century! They keep the traditions which go back so far!
The story of the University of Cambridge began in 1209 when
several hundred students and scholars arrived in the little town of
Cambridge after having walked 60 miles from Oxford. They joined
together into a “Universitas” – a society of people with a common
employment. It was only later that the word “university” came to be
associated with scholarship.
These students were all churchmen who studied at well-known
Oxford schools earlier. It was a hard life at Oxford at that time as there
was constant trouble between the townsfolk and the students. Then
one day a student accidentally killed a man of the town. The Mayor
arrested three other students, who were innocent, and by order of King
John they were put to death by hanging. In protest, all the students
moved elsewhere. Some of them came to Cambridge and so the new
University began.
The students of Oxford and Cambridge make up one of the most
elite elites in the world. Less than one per cent of Britain’s population
go to Oxbridge. The Universities provide a large number of prominent
secretaries (Whitehall civil servants), members of Parliament, and vice
chancellors of other universities.
Only in 1870s women were allowed to enter the Universities.
Today the women’s colleges constitute only 12 per cent of the
Oxbridge population so the competition is fierce. Only a small per cent
of the women candidates is chosen – mainly on the results of the
written examination.
It’s interesting that Oxbridge is in session only half a year. The
Universities adjourn for four months including summer ones – a relic
from medieval times when scholars had to harvest the yields.
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Each college at Oxbridge has several clubs to which most of the
students belong. There is a debating club in every college, as well as
athletic and football clubs, and so on. Here students can join in a debate
or read a book, or play at billiards with friends. There are lots of
University clubs which bring together students of different faculties.
There is hardly any form of sport which students are not engaged in.
But perhaps, of all the sports rowing plays the leading part.
38. Дополните краткое содержание текста подходящими по
смыслу словами.
1. According to the first paragraph, Oxford and Cambridge…
A) are not the same at the beginning of the 21st century;
B) still keep ancient traditions;
C) are modern universities.
2. The word “university” originally means…
A) scholarship;
B) people joined together to share a house;
C) a society of people with a common employment.
3. The constant trouble between the townsfolk of Oxford and the
students led them to …
A) kill the Mayor;
B) hang King John;
C) move elsewhere.
4. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge provide…
A) a large number of prominent people;
B) Britain with one per cent of population;
C) other universities with elite students.
5. There are … women at Oxbridge.
A) lots of;
B) few;
C) a few.
6. Oxbridge is in session only half a year. It is …
A) a need to harvest the yields;
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B)
C)
a relic from medieval times;
a students trade union requirement.
7. The most enjoyable sport in Oxbridge is …
A) football;
B) billiards;
C) rowing.
39. Дополните предложения словами из текста.
1. For eight hundred years Oxford and Cambridge … British
education. 2. They preserve an antique …of life to keep the … which
go … so far! 3. The story of the University of Cambridge … in 1209.
4. several hundred students and … joined together into a … . 5. These
students were all … who studied at well-known Oxford … earlier. 6. At
Oxford at that time there was constant … between the … and the
students so it was hard to live there. 7. One day a student … killed a
man of the town. 8. The Mayor … three innocent students, who were
put to death by … . 9. In protest, all the students …elsewhere. 10. Some
of them came to … and so the new … began. 11. The Oxford and
Cambridge universities are called … . 12. Less than one per cent of
Britain’s … study there. 13. Women were allowed to enter the
universities only in … . . 14. The competition is … . 15. The
universities candidates are chosen on the … of the written examination.
16. It’s interesting that Oxbridge is in … only half a year. 17. It is a
relic from medieval … when scholars had to … the yields. 18. Each
college at Oxbridge has several … to which most of the students … .
19. They enjoy debating or reading a …, playing football or at … with
friends. 20. But the most popular kind of sport is, perhaps, … .
40. Составьте 10-15 вопросов по тексту 2b и расспросите своего
друга о том, что он узнал о первых университетах
Великобритании.
41. Используя вопросы в качестве плана, перескажите
текст 2b.
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42. Прочитайте диалоги 2, в которых британцы рассказывают
о своих школьных воспоминаниях. Выполните задания к
диалогам. Выберите два диалога на выбор и разыграйте их в
классе.
43. Расскажите друг другу о своих собственных воспоминаниях
о школе: о друзьях, любимых предметах и учителях, как
проходили ваши занятия, носили ли вы школьную форму,
какие задания вы выполняли на компьютерах, как была
оснащена ваша школа, какие учебные заведения выбрали
ваши одноклассники после окончания школы и т.д.
My Old School
Dialogue 2a
Alice: So these are your old classmates, aren’t they?
Barbara: Yes. This is Alexandra. She was my best friend and she was
very good at sports. She went to university to study PE.
Alice: And who is this boy?
Barbara: That’s Julian. He loved music and could play five
instruments! Now he is a professional violinist. I think he plays in the
London Orchestra.
Alice: Really? He’s also very handsome…
Barbara: Yes, he is. And nice. Everybody liked him… And here is
Harry. He was Julian’s best friend.
Alice: Was he a musician, too?
Barbara: No, he enjoyed geography and history.
Alice: And what does he do now?
Barbara: To tell you the truth, I’m not sure. But I think he works as a
guide for a travel agency.
Alice: I see… And this girl here?
Barbara: That’s Jennifer. She was excellent at mathematics. She is a
math teacher at university now.
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Dialogue 2b
Прочитайте диалог 2b и выберите подходящее из выделенных
слов.
Jack: You’re so good with computers, Mike. Did you learn/ learned
about them at school?
Mike: No, not at all. We had computers at/in school, but we only used
them for writing and finding things on the Internet for other
objects/subjects.
Jack: Which were your favourite subjects?
Mike: Hmm… they were music/mathematics and physics.
Jack: Really? Then it’s clear why you’re so good with computers.
Mike: And how about you, Jack? What did/do you like?
Jack: PE, like so many other children. I didn’t like studying very much.
Mike: I hated PE. We had a very strict teacher and we had to run on/in
the school field for hours.
Jack: Did you also study French?
Mike: Oh yes, we had a wonderful tutor/teacher. She was from
France. I loved talking with her. But when we write/wrote in French, it
was very difficult.
Jack: I see… and now you have a French wife… .
Dialogue 2c
Прочитайте диалог и вставьте в реплики отсутствующие слова
из таблицы.
our
at
subjects
did
at
was
French
uniforms
Sally: Granny, did you have computers … school?
Grandmother: Oh no, there weren’t any computers at school when I
… a child.
Sally: So … you write everything with a pen?
Grandmother: Yes, of course. But I quite liked it.
Sally: And which … did you study?
Grandmother: The same as you – maths, history, English and … . I
also learned German.
Sally: Oh, can you speak German?
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Grandmother: No, not any more, but I understand it. And we also
learned to cook.
Sally: Really? Even the boys?
Grandmother: No, I was … a school for girls only.
Sally: Did you have PE?
Grandmother: Of course we did. I liked it very much.
Sally: Did you wear … ?
Grandmother: Yes, we had very nice uniforms with blue jackets, dark
red skirts and white blouses.
Sally: I don’t like … uniforms, they are so dark and boring.
Dialogue 2d
Поставьте слова так, чтобы получились реплики диалога.
Cathy: Mum, did you have to learn Latin at school?
Mother: No/ we/ not/. But/ we/ have/ French and Spanish/.
Cathy: And/ what/ be/ your school/ like/? Be/ it/ big/?
Mother: No, we went to a small school. I lived in the country at that
time, and it was a small village school. But it was very good.
Cathy: You/ like/ PE/?
Mother: Oh yes, but we didn’t have a gym – we did all our exercises
outside.
Cathy: Even in winter?
Mother: Yes/, even in winter/. It/ be/ fun/.
Cathy: You/ have/ a TV/ at school/?
Mother: No, we didn’t. We didn’t need it. You can study even without
a television or computers.
Cathy: And/ you/ get/ good marks/?
Mother: Oh yes, I left school with only As and Bs.
44. Представьте, как будут учиться ваши дети. Будут ли они
ходить в школу или будут обучаться дома? Используйте
полезные выражения и составьте ваши предположения об
обучении в будущем. Обсудите это со своими друзьями.
Студент 1: Will our children go to school?
Студент 2: No, I think they won’t go to school. They will study at
home. Will children have personal tutors?
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Студент 1: No, they won’t. I think there won’t be human teachers at
all. … … … …
to have special learning capsules at home
to study with the help of a computer
to have special software to check and control their study
to do all the work on their own
(not) to cheat at tests
to have fewer learning hours
to spend more time on leisure activities
Тексты для ознакомительного чтения
Text 2a
Прочитайте текст без использования словаря и ответьте порусски на следующие вопросы.
Какое спортивное состязание, проводимое между
университетами Оксфорда и Кембриджа, является
самым известным?
Появление чего стало результатом регулярных
спортивных соревнований между двумя университетами?
Как появилась гребная гонка со странным названием
“bumping –race”?
Сколько участников в этой гонке, какова её
продолжительность, при каком условии присуждается
победа?
Какая награда ожидает победителей в конце гонки?
The University Boat-Race
by K.J. Swann
Of all the sports at the Universities the most famous is rowing. The
University Boat-Race is the oldest of the sporting competitions between
Oxford and Cambridge. The development of the eight-oared racing boat
is no doubt a result of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat-Race.
The most interesting of the rowing races at the two Universities are
the races for eight-oared boats, known as bumping races. These take
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place two times a year, and all of the colleges enter as many boats as
they can for the race.
These strange races were invented as the rivers are too narrow for
boats to race side by side, and so somebody thought of a bumping race.
In this kind of race sixteen boats race one behind the other. As
soon as the race begins away they go flying each boat trying to catch
the boat in front of it. When a boat gets close enough to another to do
so, it bumps (that is touches) it. This means victory for the boat that
makes the bump. When this happens both boats stop rowing; the others,
of course, continue.
On the next night (for the races go on for several nights) the boats
that have made bumps changes places with those they bumped.
In the following year the boats will start in the order in which they
finished in the previous year.
No prizes are won in such races like these, but the oarsmen in the
boat that finishes first, and those whose boat makes a bump on every
night of the races, are allowed to have their oars. Their names are
written on each oar in gold letters.
eight-oared
bumping race
side by side
catch
victory
following
previous
win (won)
oarsmen
allow
gold
Пояснения к тексту
восьмивесельный
гребная гонка, в которой нужно догнать
переднюю лодку и ударить носом по ее корме
рядом, бок о бок
догнать
победа
следующий
предыдущий
побеждать, выигрывать
гребцы
позволять
цвет золота, золотистый
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Text 2b
Прочитайте текст без использования словаря и ответьте по русски на следующие вопросы.
Чем знаменита школа в небольшом английском городке
Итон на реке Темзе?
Могут ли мальчики сами выбирать наставников по
обучению в школе?
Чем занимаются мальчики в свободное от учебы время?
Среди выпускников Итона было немало знаменитых
ученых, первооткрывателей, писателей и политических
деятелей. Подготовьте небольшие сообщения о некоторых из
них и расскажите своим одногруппникам.
Eton
Eton is one of the oldest and best-known public schools for boys,
at the town of Eton, near Windsor, on the river Thames. Its students are
largely from aristocratic and upper-class families. The school was
founded in1440.
Many distinguished people of Britain studied at Eton. The most
famous of all Old Etonians is perhaps the Duke of Wellington, victor of
Waterloo and later Prime Minister. Twenty of Britain’s Prime Ministers
were educated at Eton. There were future writers among the students of
Eton as well. They are Thomas Gray, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Henry
Fielding, Aldous Huxley and George Orwell. Old Etonian explorers
include Sir Humphrey Gilbert, founder of the colony of Newfoundland,
and Captain Oats, who was on Scott’s expedition to the South Pole.
Among the scientists are Robert Boyle, Sir John Herschel, and Sir
Joseph Banks.
Boys usually stay at Eton for five years (between the ages of 13 –
18). Eton provides exceptionally fine teaching facilities, for example, in
science, languages, computing and design. There are two major
libraries, College Library and School Library, but also numerous wellstocked subject libraries. The tutorial system allows pupils to choose
their own academic tutors to supervise their study.
Sport plays an extremely important part in the life of most
Etonians. The principal games are rugby and football, cricket and
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rowing. Athletics, swimming, golf, squash, tennis, judo and karate are
all very popular.
The boys can enjoy a lot of spare-time activities: art, sculpture,
pottery, woodwork, metalwork as well as silverwork. Some of the
students prefer paying musical instruments. Eton takes advantages of a
friendly atmosphere which is possible when boys live and work in
groups of small size.
Пояснения к тексту
public school
distinguished
explorer
the South Pole
teaching facilities
supervise
take advantages
привилегированная частная школа
выдающийся, известный
исследователь
Южный полюс
оборудование, приспособления для обучения
вести, наблюдать, направлять
использовать преимущества
Text 2c
Прочитайте текст без использования словаря и ответьте порусски на следующие вопросы.
Кем и когда был основан Гарвардский университет?
В честь кого университет получил своё название?
Проследите историю развития университета от небольшого
провинциального
колледжа
до
современного
многонационального образовательного центра.
Какие важные преобразования были введены Чарльзом
Элиотом и Лоренсом Лоувеллом за время их руководства
университетом?
Кого из знаменитых выпускников Гарварда вы знаете?
Расскажите в каких областях социальной, культурной,
научной жизни общества они стали известны?
Попытайтесь
сформулировать
лозунг
Гарвардского
университета, опубликованный в 1643 году. Сравните с
вариантами, выполненными вашими одногруппниками и
выберите наиболее удачную формулировку.
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Harvard University
The oldest and most famous American University is called
Harvard University. Sixteen years after the arrival of the Pilgrims at
Plymouth, in 1636, they founded an educational institution – Harvard
College. It was named after its first benefactor, John Harvard of
Charlestown, a young minister who, upon his death in 1638, left his
library and half his estate to the new institution.
During its early years, the College offered a classical academic
course based on the English university model but consistent with the
prevailing Puritan philosophy of the first colonists. An early brochure,
published in 1643, justified the College’s existence:
“To advance Learning and perpetuate it to Posterity;
dreading to leave an illiterate Ministry to the Churches”.
As the College grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the curriculum
was broadened, particularly in the sciences, and the College produced a
long list of famous scholars, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
and James Russell Lowell.
Charles W. Eliot, who served as president from 1869 to 1909,
transformed a small provincial institution into a modern university.
The Law and Medical schools were revitalized, and the graduate
schools of Business, Dental Medicine, and Arts and Sciences were
established.
Under president A. Lawrence Lowell (1909-1933), the
undergraduate course of study was redesigned to ensure students a
liberal education. A liberal education involves learning about a wide
variety of things concentrated in a single field of study. One more
Lowell’s most significant accomplishment was the House Plan. It
provides undergraduates with a small-college atmosphere within the
larger university. Students go only to one of the twelve Houses of the
University all the years of their study long. (The 13th House is for
nonresident students.) Each House has a resident Master and a staff of
tutors, as well as a dining hall and a library. It also has its own active
schedule of sport, social and cultural events. Moreover, it was Lowell
who introduced the tutorial system which is still a distinctive feature of
Harvard education.
Today, 51 fields of concentration are offered to more than
18,000 degree candidates of Harvard University. In addition to this,
about 13,000 students take one or more courses in Harvard Extension
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School. Over 14,000 people work at Harvard, including more than
2,000 faculties.
It is interesting to know that six presidents of the United States –
John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Theodore and Franklin Delano
Roosevelt, Rutherford B. Hayes, and John Fitzgerald Kennedy – were
graduates of Harvard. Its faculties have produced more than 30 Nobel
laureates.
Пояснения к тексту
Pilgrims английские колонисты, поселившиеся в Америке в 1620 г.
benefactor
благодетель
estate
имущество
consistent with
совместимый, согласующийся с
justify
объяснять, подтверждать
existence
существование
perpetuate
увековечивать, сохранять навсегда
posterity
последующие поколения
dread
страшиться, бояться, опасаться
ministry
духовенство, пастырство
broaden
расширять
scholar
ученый
revitalize
возобновлять
establish
основывать
president
ректор
liberal
щедрый, обильный, свободный от предрассудков
accomplishment
достижение
house
колледж университета
master
глава колледжа
staff
штат
schedule
расписание
event
событие, мероприятие
distinctive
отличительный
fields of concentration специальности
extension school
институт (школа) повышения квалификации
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Письменная работа
(написание краткой биографии)
Curriculum Vitae (CV)
Изучите пример написания краткой биографии и сопоставьте
названия с частями документа.
Curriculum Vitae обычно включает 6 основных пунктов.
1. Work experience. Послужной список: указывается в обратном
хронологическом порядке. Также включает перечисление
обязанностей, временную, волонтерскую работу.
2. References. Поручители: люди, которые могут за вас
поручиться и при необходимости дать о вас дополнительную
информацию. Список может быть приложен на отдельном
листе или предоставляться по запросу.
Personal
details.
Личные
данные: ФИО, адрес,
национальность, дату рождения и семейное положение.
4. Education.
Образование:
указывается
в
обратном
хронологическом порядке. Начальное образование не
указывается.
3.
5. Interests. Интересы и увлечения.
6. Key skills. Основные навыки и умения. Полезные фразы:
experienced in … (имею опыт в …); with a good knowledge of
… (с хорошим знанием …); fluent English (бегло говорю поанглийски); spoken/written German (разговорный/письменный
немецкий);
fully
computer-literate
(хорошо
владею
компьютером); a PC user (владею компьютером на уровне
пользователя); self-starter (могу брать на себя ответственность
и работать самостоятельно).
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Curriculum Vitae
A __________
Name
Address
Susan Robertson
4 Ash Grove Road, Manchester, OT2 7IR
Tel: 0666 364 582
Email: susanrobert@mktg.co.uk
British
12/10/76
married
Nationality
Date of Birth
Marital status
B__________
Familiar with Microsoft Word and Excel
Fluent German
Able to cope under pressure
Driving license
Good problem-solver
Self-motivated
C __________
2000 – Present Marketing Assistant, Success Solutions Unlimited,
Manchester Duties include planning and implementing
all advertising and promotion, responding to
enquiries, monitoring student performance
1998 – 2000
Teacher of English, Churchill School of English,
Munich, Germany
August 1996
One month placement in the sales department of
Newton Publishing, London
D__________
Dec 1997
Certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign
Language
1994 – 1997
London University: BA in English Literature
and Language
1987 – 1994
Minster College Secondary School, Wells
8 GCSEs, 3 A levels: English (A), German (B),
Art (C)
E __________
Football, sailing, reading, landscape painting
F __________
Available on request
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Пояснение к тексту
GCSE – General Certificate of Secondary Education – экзамен,
который сдают 16-летние британские студенты по окончанию
средней школы, был введен в 1988 году.
45. Напишите свою краткую биографию, следуя образцу.
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Приложение 1
Таблица основных нестандартных глаголов
Infinitive
Неопределенная форма
to arise возникать
to be быть
to bear НОСИТЬ,
плодоносить
to become становиться
to begin начинать
to break ломать
to bring приносить
to build строить
саn мог у, умею
to choose выбирать
to come прийти
to cost стоить
to cut резать, pyбить
to deal иметь дело
to do делать
to draw тащить,рисовать
to drive везти; управлять
to eat есть
to fall падать
to feed кормить
to feel чувствовать
to fight сражаться
to find находить
to freeze замерзать,
to get доставать
to give давать
to go ходить
to grow расти
to have иметь
to hear слышать
to hold держать,
удерживать
to keep содержать,
держать
to know знать
to lay класть, положить
to lead вести, руководить
to learn учить, учиться
to leave оставлять
Past S imple
Простое прошедшее
время
arose
was, were
bore
Past Participle Причастие
прошедшего времени
(причастие II)
arisen
been
born
became
began
broke
brought
built
could
chose
came
cost
cut
dealt
did
drew
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
froze
got
gave
went
grew
had
heard
held
become
begun
broken
brought
built
could
chosen
come
cost
cut
dealt
done
drawn
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
frozen
got
given
gone
grown
had
heard
held
kept
kept
knew
laid
led
learnt, learned
left
known
laid
led
learnt, learned
left
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Окончание прил. 1
Infinitive
Неопределенная форма
to let позволять
to lie лежать
to lose терять
to make делать
may можно
to mean означать
to meet встречать
must должен
to overcome побороть,
преодолеть
to pay платить
to put класть, ставить
to read читать
to ring звонить
to rise подняться
to run бежать, течь;
работать (о машине)
to saw пилить,
распиливать
to say сказать
to see видеть
to send посылать
to set устанавливать
to show показывать
to sink тонуть;
впитывать
to sit сидеть
to sow (по)сеять
to speak г оворить
to split расщепить(ся)
to spread распространиться
to stand стоять
to take брать
to teach учить
to tell рассказать
to think думать
to understand понимать
to wear носить,
изнашивать (ся)
to withstand
противостоять
to write писать
Past S imple
Простое прошедшее
время
let
lay
lost
made
might
meant
met
overcame
Past Participle Причастие
прошедшего времени
(причастие II)
let
lain
lost
made
meant
met
overcome
paid
put
read
rang
rose
run
paid
put
read
rung
risen
run
sawed
sawn, sawed
said
saw
sent
set
showed
sank
said
seen
sent
set
shown
sunk
sat
sowed
spoke
split
spread
sat
sowed, sown
spoken
split
spread
stood
took
taught
told
thought
understood
wore
stood
taken
taught
told
thought
understood
worn
withstood
withstood
wrote
written
72
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Приложение 2
Таблица модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов в настоящем,
прошедшем и будущем простом временах
(Present, Past, Future Simple Tenses)
Present S imple Tense
Can – могу, умею
Эквивалент:am able to…
is able to..
are able to …
Must - должен
Эквивалент: to have
(has) to …
I have to do it now.
Я должен это сделать
сейчас.
Эквивалент: to be to …
I am to be at home at 5.
Я должен быть дома в 5.
May
– разрешение,
вероятность
He may go home.
Он может идти домой.
Эквивалент:
to
be
allowed to..
I am allowed to do this
work.
М не позволяют сделать
эту работу.
Past S imple Tense
Could - мог
Was able to ..
Were able to…
Future S imple Tense
S hall be able to …
Will be able to …
Had to …
S hall (will) have to …
I had to do it yesterday.
He will have to do it
tomorrow.
Он должен будет сделать
эту работу завтра.
Я должен был это
сделать вчера.
Was (were) to…
He was to speak at the
meeting.
Я должен был выступить
на собрании.
-
M ight
-
I might do this work.
Я мог бы сделать эту
работу.
Was(were) allowed to …
S hall (will) allowed to …
He was allowed to do this
work.
Ему позволили сделать
эту работу.
He will allowed to do it.
73
Ему позволят сделать эту
работу.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Учебное издание
Болдырева Светлана Павловна, Брумина Олеся Анатольевна
Английский язык
Методические указания по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык»
Часть II
Учебно-познавательная сфера общения
Отпечатано с готового оригинал-макета
Подписано в печать 04.03.2013. Формат 60x84 1/16.
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